Butrint

Butrint

Butrint is an archaeological national park in Albania and a UNESCO World Heritage site, renowned for its ancient ruins dating back as far as the 7th century BC. In fact, classic mythology says that exiles moved to Butrint to escape following the fall of Troy.

Originally part of an area called Epirus, Butrint has been occupied by the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines and the Venetians. As a result, Butrint offers a wealth of incredible archaeological structures, including a well preserved Greek theatre, fortifications which have been changed by each civilisation which occupied it, Roman public baths inside which lies a paleo-Christian baptistery and a 9th century basilica.

One of Butrint’s earliest sites is its sanctuary, which dates back to the fourth century and sits on its hill or “acropolis”. The sanctuary was named after the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius, and was a centre of healing. Butrint was abandoned during the Ottoman era when marshes started to emerge around it, however, many of its historical treasures remain intact and attract tourist from around the globe.

The great thing about Butrint is the ability to trace the development of a succession of eras through its sites and structures, making it a microcosm of history. With so much to see, including an onsite museum exploring the site’s history, a visit to Butrint National Park usually lasts around three hours.


Imeri was born on 3 July 1996 into an Albanian family in the city of Lörrach, Germany. [1] [2] He started dancing at the age of 8 shortly after he enrolled in dance classes in his hometown. [3] Imeri first rose to fame as he debuted with the singles, "Ki me lyp", "Merre zemrën tem" and "Eja Eja", with whom he received significant recognition in the Albanian-speaking Balkans. [4] [5] [6] He later released four additional singles, including "E jona" and "Delicious", the latter in collaboration with Greek singer of Albanian origin Eleni Foureira, which peaked at number five in Albania. [7] [8] Imeri's chart success followed into 2017 with "Bella" and his first number one single in Albania "Xhanem". [9] [10]

In 2019, Imeri collaborated with Majk on "Sa gjynah" and reached number one in Albania. [11] Another pair of top ten singles in his native country, "Hajt Hajt" and "M'ke rrejt", followed in the same year. [12] [13] "Dream Girl", a collaboration with German rapper Nimo released under 385idéal, was successful, including in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. [14] In 2020, Imeri collaborated with Albanian singer Ermal Fejzullahu on his follow-up single, "Për një Dashuri", which peaked at number two. [15] He further released ""Si përpara" and "Dy zemra", the latter in collaboration with Albanian singer Nora Istrefi. [16] [17] The follow-up release, "Phantom", went on to reach number one in Albania. [18]

Imeri's musical work is often defined as R&B and Pop. [1] [2] [3] He has cited Justin Timberlake as his major musical influence and stated that he is a fan of Elvana Gjata [19] [20]


Origins

The site was already occupied by fishermen in the Late Bronze Age, and must have remained a small hamlet during the Dark Age. At end of these poorly understand centuries, the area belonged to the Chaonians, one of the three tribes of Epirus. (The other two were the Molossians in the east and Thesprotians in the south.) In the mid-seventh century, Greek settlers founded Buthrotum, building a small fort (¾ hectares) on a hilltop.

/> The Acropolis, site of the original Greek settlement

The first inhabitants must have arrived from nearby Corcyra (Corfu), which may have been founded a century before. It is likely that the Corcyrans occupied the place for both strategic and commercial reasons: it gave them better control of the strait, could be utilized as a fishery, and could serve as port of trade, where they could exchange products with the Chaonians. Most ceramics are from Corcyra, but sherds from Corinth, Attica, Chios, and Samos have also been excavated.

Of course, these beginnings were too modest to satisfy later generations, and younger legends, to which we will return in a moment, gave the town roots in ancient Troy, an idea for which the ancients invented the usual far-fetched etymologies. A more plausible, modern theory is that "Buthrotum" is derived from an Illyrian word that is rendered as bouthos in Greek and is related to modern Albanian buzë, "shore".

/> Archaic relief, now in the Lion Gate: lion devouring a cow's head

Little is known about this early period. There must have been a monumental temple an archaic frieze, showing a lion devouring the head of a cow or bull, has been reused as lintel in the Lion Gate. Buthrotum must have been a town of some size and importance, because it is mentioned in Hecataeus' description of the European shores. note [FGrH 1 fr.106]

It is said that in this age, the Chaones were the most important tribe of Epirus. note [Strabo, Geography 7.7.5 again] We do not know whether they controlled Buthrotum if they did, it is possible that soldiers from the town fought against the Corcyrans and Athenians in the first years of the Archidamian War, in the battle of Stratus (429). note [Thucydides, Peloponnesian War 2.80-82] During the fights, the Chaonians lost so many men that their political power in Epirus was broken. From now on, the Molossians were the most dominant tribe.

At about the same time, the Dema Wall was built. We do not know against whom. If Buthrotum was in Greek hands, the Corcyrans may have found it useful to protect the peninsula against Molossian attackers if it was a Chaonian town, the wall may have protected the town against Corcyran attacks.


Butrint (Albania) Historical Facts and Pictures

Buthrotum, an ancient city located in the Epirus region in the Sarandë District in Albania, is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Butrint National Park. The ruins of the great Greek, later Roman city, was earlier known as Bouthrōton or Bouthrōtios in ancient Greek and Buthrotum in ancient Roman. The place boasts of amazing landscapes and natural beauty, providing an excellent view of the Vivari Channel. Buthrotum has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times with the Greek Chaonian tribe inhabiting the city before it became a bishopric and a Roman colony.

The city was a major center for the Greek tribe Chaonians, and had close contacts with the ancient city of Korkyra, the Corinth colony (preset day Corfu). As accounted by the Roman writer Virgil, Helenus, the great seer and son of Priam, the king of Troy, was the founder of the legendary city of Bouthrōton. Despite the claims of evidence of the city’s being inhabited as early as the 12th century BC, archeological proof of human settlements dates back to between the 10th century and 8th century.

In 228 BC, the city started going under Roman control along with Corfu, becoming a Roman dominated region after 167 BC. Over the next century, the city was included in the Macedonian province.


The Definitive Guide to Butrint National Park, Albania

Butrint National Park is a seriously special place and is an absolute must-see on any trip to Albania.

Now I know what you&rsquore thinking. You&rsquove probably never heard of Butrint National Park before. I hadn&rsquot either until I was actually in Albania travelling around the country.

I was in the coastal town of Sarandë when I was pictures of Butrint in all the local tourist agencies. As soon as I saw pictures of these crumbling ruins nestled in the forest with bright blue waters surrounding it, I knew I just had to visit and see it for myself.

Butrint National Park, Albania

What is Butrint National Park?

The ancient city of Butrint (otherwise known as Buthrotum in the time on antiquity), was once one of the finest and most beautiful cities in all of the Roman Empire. 2,400 years later, it is a place that still captivates people today.

Butrint was supposed to become a hospice for the veterans of Roman wars, but in the 3rd century AD an earthquake destroyed most of the city. A lot of the ruins you see today are from the same earthquake, and the city dropped off the map after that.

Today, Butrint national park is a UNSECO World Heritage Site, and a Ramsar Wetland Site of International Importance (two very important titles). It is a site that attracts visitors from all over the world, and with reason it is absolutely stunning.

With a picturesque lagoon and mountains surrounding Butrint national park, it is worth coming here for the views alone. Honestly, it is absolutely stunning.

I was drawn for the history and the ruins though. Let me say this, history buffs will just love this place, especially as a lot of tourists still don&rsquot visit here.

Hopefully this Butrint guide will tell you all about the national park of Butrint.

Getting to the national park of Butrint

Located in the southwest of Albania, it is approximately 30 minutes drive from the city of Sarandë.

There are a number of ways of getting to Butrint. Firstly, you can hire a car and drive, which is very quick and easy. There are a couple of places where you can hire a car from in Sarandë or from the airport.

There is also a local bus to Butrint but this takes a lot longer. The bus follows the SH81 to Ksamil which is where you&rsquoll find the ruins.

One other option which is what I did was hitchhiking. This is very common in Albania and it&rsquos a really great way of meeting the locals too.

Also, it&rsquos worth noting Butrint is very close to the Greek border. For all you Top Gear fans out there, it&rsquos actually the place where Jeremy Clarkson caught the little man-made wooden ferry transporting their cars over to Greece in the Albanian Top Gear episode.

If you&rsquove got your own car, it is well worth catching this ferry as it&rsquos so unique. It is a border crossing point not many people know about and makes a great story to tell friends!

The border crossing between Albania and Greece

Butrint Albania map

How much does Butrint National Park cost?

Butrint National Park tickets costs 700 lek for foreigners (approximately &euro5).

When it comes to timings, I would factor in a good 2 to 3 hours wandering around this UNESCO World Heritage site. That should give you plenty of time walking around the site.

Butrint is a microcosm of Mediterranean history. It has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires who have dominated the region, each one developing the city in their own way and adding their own imprint.

There are so many layers to Butrint, and the more you walk around the more you peel back a new layer, delving deeper and deeper into the history of the area.

What you see today is an amalgam of monuments representing a span of over two thousand years of history from the 4 th century Hellenistic period to the Ottoman defences created in the early 19 th century.

There is so much history at Butrint

The history of Butrint national park

With the rise of the Roman Empire, Butrint expanded to become a flourishing Mediterranean city.

Monuments like the theatre give it a Roman aspect, and after Julius Caesar and Augustus founded a colony here the city was extended via a bridge and aqueduct across the channel and onto the plain, causing commerce to boom.

Over the centuries that followed the fortunes of Butrint rise and fell much like the empires surrounding it, but during the 13 th century Butrint thrived again. A castle was built on the acropolis and its fortification walls were repaired again.

By the 19 th century, Butrint had become a small fishing village clustered around the castle, though today it probably sees more people walk through its walls than 100 years ago.

The surrounding views of the countryside are stunning too

When you are walking in beauty such as Butrint, I suggest you take a packed lunch with you, sit in the ancient theatre or by the church, and take it all in. Trust me, it&rsquoll be worth it. Also, there aren&rsquot many places you can buy lunch, so taking one with you is a win-win situation.

After seeing a fair few ancient Roman cities around the world, I can honestly say Butrint is one the best I&rsquove ever come across, and it is just another amazing reason to visit Albania.

Butrint opening hours

Butrint National Park is open from 9am till 4pm.

Be warned, during midday and around lunchtime it can be extremely busy at the site. Also, if you&rsquore visiting during summer, it can be very hot too.

If you can, I&rsquod really recommend visiting either early in the morning or later in the afternoon when things have quietened down.

Top tips for visiting Butrint

  • Drink lots of water &ndash As I&rsquove already mentioned, it can be pretty toasty during summer so make sure you drink lots of water.
  • Wear comfortable shoes &ndash It is very rocky at Butrint so I&rsquod recommend wearing comfortable shoes. Trainers or hiking shoes are best I&rsquod say.
  • Don&rsquot forget your camera &ndash I can&rsquot tell you how many photos I took at Butrint but it was easily into the hundreds. Make sure you don&rsquot forget your camera here!
  • Leave a little tip &ndash If you&rsquore on a tour of Butrint in Albania then it&rsquos always a good idea to leave a tip with your tour guide as a sign of appreciation. I&rsquod usually say &euro3-5 is about right.
  • Don&rsquot leave any rubbish &ndash You&rsquod be surprised at how much rubbish I saw while in Albania and at this site. Don&rsquot be a part of the problem and take all rubbish with you.

Feature tours in Albania

Photos of Butrint National Park






Have you ever been to Butrint national park? If so, what did you make of this ancient Roman city? Make sure you let me know in the comments below!


Since when are Chaonians Greeks? They were not allowed to participate in the Greek games in the Olympics. They also had a separate oracle, at Dodona. They did not speak Greek and did not live in city states. All of Epirus was by definition different from Hellas. From Encyclopedia Britannica: "To the 5th-century historian Thucydides, the Epirotes were “barbarians.” (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/190156/Epirus) — Preceding unsigned comment added by 207.245.236.58 (talk) 09:27, 4 September 2012 (UTC)

History Edit

We must get this straight. Butrint was not a Greek colony, like Epidamnus, Apollonia, Oricum or Corfu. It was an indigenous settlement, very clearly an Epirot city, a centre of the Caonian tribe, under the rule of the Akkiad kings in Arta and then the Epirot League. Therefore we cannot call it and ancient Greek City as is constantly done done here (depsite my efforts to keep changing it). Whether Epirus was Greek, Illyrian, or something else entirely (my own personal belief) is neither here nor there and I'll leave others to argue over this point. But what I must insit on is getting its designation correct, Epirot, not Greek please. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 62.105.182.17 (talk) 12:14, 9 February 2011 (UTC)

Well, the Chaonians were an ancient Greek tribe. A Macedonian (talk) 14:00, 9 February 2011 (UTC) No, they were Epirots which is somthing very different. They had their own Kings and political and social traditions, distinct from Greece to the south. Related to the Greeks yes, just as they were related to the Illyrians, but with their own quite distinctive identity. They wrote in Greek and some of them at least may have spoken a dialect of Greek, but this is I'm afraid no indicator of ethnicity in the past. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 62.105.182.17 (talk) 14:01, 16 February 2011 (UTC)

In order to remain on Wikipedia standarts we must take into account international neutral sources. The way that Hocxa books wrote in Albania history has no room in wiki. It was really a shame for some governments to express unhistorical statements like:

  • Butrint or Epirus is and was always Albanian and Illyrian in order to raise nationalistic feelings.

However, if someone wants to write this nationalistic stuff on wiki, he has to create an article with a title like:

  • How totalitarian regimes change historical event and books or
  • Propaganda and totalitarian regimes.

There is an interested article in prapaganda related to Nazi Germany in wiki, it would be very helpfull. I'm sorry but U.S. Congress library never agreed with totalitarian propaganda. Please read carefully wikis rules--Alexikoua (talk) 11:16, 15 October 2008 (UTC)

Regarding Wikipedia's attitude that Butrint is an ancient Greek city, I express my sympathies to Wikipedia's ignorance. First, what the Greeks claim about Epirus is based on only Greek sources. In order to be neutral, Wikipedia must base its articles on Albanian sources, as well. And the Albanian sources clearly point out the Butrint was and remains an Albanian city. It belonged to Epirus, an Illyrian tribe, and it belongs to Albania, the descendants of the Illyrians. If these sources are not enough or suitable, you could always confer with the U.S. Congress Library. --Arber (talk) 14:50, 19 February 2008 (UTC)

Firts of all if you have doubts about my true identity you can contact me by telephone or I am happy to send you my address here in USA. I have no reason to hide my identity as you are doing.

Second those coments about Stalinism facts? Well I am to young to have been influenced by that epidemy, however I see that you write that you have been involve in Albania since 1960. Well we all know who was allowed to visit Albania in those days. Only people who belived in Stalinism or where close to albanian comunist regime and its secret service. You pick wich one. I see that even you write "democracy". Well to me it does explain a lot why you where allowed to visit Albania during the most brutal comunist regime in the Planet

Now back to our argument. Please read the annual Rapport of Butrint Foundation 2003 in regards to a collection of crusaiders coins bought by the english archaeologists under Richard Hodges in Butrint. Is this legal? Albanian Law doesnt allow this.

I am happy to give you more cases if you wish.

Museum of Albanian First Language School in Gjirokastra. Well your argument is very weak. It is the albanian museum of albanian language and it was made an Office for Richard Hodges, yes with aproval of the ex Deputy Mayor of the Town. But have you asked how much money that guy got? Why should a Foundation pay the state officials? You tell me my friend.

I am open to any debate on this issue. As far as Mr. Tare is concern? I do not know him or meet him. I only heard him lecture last year in Harvard University and I have to say I was proud of him representing Albania.


Oh Dear! Despite the odd thoughts on international legal definitions, libel, as expressed by this statement ‘Richard Hodges is accused of buying antiquety [sic] in Butrint’ remains libel and actionable. If there is evidence show it. Claims to have evidence to be shown to me or others in private (as if a meeting were possible) are evidence of nothing. If you’ve got it, show it here or stop writing this sort of drivel.

I’ve been doing some research as well. This historical museum in Argyrokastro, as I now understand it, yes it was converted into an office, with the full agreement of the city council and national monuments inspectorate of the time. Before the conversion it was a decaying wreck with a ‘roof like a sieve’ I am informed. It is at least now watertight, unlike much of the rest of the once wonderful, but rapidly crumbling marvel that is this museum city. But of course, I suspect that this neglect is also someone else’s responsibility.

Why did I edit out Mr. Tare’s name Well it occurred to me that if personalities were to be banned from appearing on this page then the best way forward was to delete them all! What is fairer than that? As for the complaints of Iris Orgicka and Arben Mirtiri about how I insult Albanians, no, I think it is people who canvass absurd publicity, write their own eulogistic Wkipedia pages for example, and twist facts and reality in a fine Stalinist fashion to their own ends, who give Albanians a bad name! It very much reminds me of the days I was involved in radical dialectics. In any case, given that these two complainants seem to share and IP address with my erstwhile opponent as editor of this page, someone who edits the Auron Tare pare page a lot, I have my doubts about the independence of their comments, or indeed their existence.

As for me, I have had connections with Albania since the 1960s, I visit on occasion even these days since ‘democracy’ has come, you may call me Rory. I have contributed on various things, an am interested in the politics of heritage, though the real work has been done by others.

I have left the current page unmodified as together with the history page discussion and history pages it demonstrates clearly the weaknesses of Wikipedia as a truly objective source. Far from removal of names showig the the 'site is not free' it demonstrates quite the opposite! I would concur though what information is 'manipulated by people who are giving false information'. The experiment though is good, and of course I reserve the right to return to editing at some point in the future…

whom ever is removing the information about the work of albanian team in butrint is making a mistake. This shows that this site is not free and is manipulated by people who are giving false information.

you are insolting the albanians by removing the note about the albanian managing team of BUtrint and Mr Auron Tare the person who has saved Butrint form illigal buildings as well as the attemps of certant "foreign archaeologists to control the albanian cultural heritage.

As a person much invole in the issues of my country and specialy in Cultural Heritage I am willing to prove to you according to official accusations by several albanian authorities, Gjirokastra Town Hall, Cultural experts and archaeology that the work done in albania by Prof. Richard Hodges is seen as a colonian attitude towards "the natives"

Do you know that the First Albanian School open in 1908 in Gjirokastra has been converted to an Office by Richard Hodges?

Would you like me to prove this fact?

P.S Please do write with you name. There is not seriouse to have a debate without a name


Don't believe everything you read in the newspapers! Accusations and hearsay are not evidence and unless someone is willing to provide some solid, legally binding, proof of such allegations then it remains libel.

From what I have read in the albanian press Prof. Richard Hodges is very much critisised for his arrogance and atemps to controll albanian archaeology. Albania does deserve better that is why people like Prof. Richard Hodges with a highly colonial attitude should not be alowed to work in the country.

I would like to ad something about Butrint but the page is protected. Can I please be alowed to write.

For the benfit of Wikipedia I should point out that the comments in the last para of 'archaeological excavations' may be construed as libellous to the mentioned Prof. Hodges. The problem appears to be IP 217.24.244.230 (anon) who I see from the history has made several similar changes, a number of the latest of which I have already tried to edit. Can nothing be done against this sort of vandalism? Butrint and Albania deserve better than this!

The beginning should be changed, namely the phrase: "Its ancient name was Vouthroton, the modern name for the Roman city of Buthrotum." An ancient pre-roman name cannot be modern for a Roman name . I would sugest something like this : The modern name of the city is Butrint, ancient Greek ( or old name given in Greek, Hellenistic or pre-Roman texts Vouthroton (or with a more correct pronunciation Boutroton), Roman Buthrotum. Also, the phrase "Greek colony of Corfu" doesn't make sense, since there were no other established nations on the island at that time. It should be "Greek settlements" or just cities or just colonies or, to be more precise, "corinthian colonies", if one is sure that the colonies referred to were corinthian and not others.

Richard Hodges is accused of buying antiquety in Butrint

“ . Greece affected very little the social life and political organization of Epirus. It remained a stranger for this country, to which it granted an extremely high civilization and invested a lot, in order to profit from trade exchanges or obtain a harbor, when advancing toward Adriatic Sea . ”

P. Marconi Newspaper “Drita” March 8 1938

Will bring more proofs as i consider the Butrinti article by wiki, very innacurate and disgusting by histical standards. --Pinjolli 19:22, 7 June 2008 (UTC)

Epirus.It wanst illyrian and is merely on albanian soil today.Megistias (talk) 13:32, 13 December 2007 (UTC)


If it wasn't Illyrian care to enlighten to which one of Greek Polis-es it belonged too?

P.S. The article about Butrint is a disgrace. Please include more sources, there are many historians and archeologist studies for Butrint. --Pinjolli 19:11, 7 June 2008 (UTC)

Sidenote to OP , "== It was an epitote city thus Greek ==" correct this, and wether "Epirus" should be considered Hellenic or not, it's a question to debate yet.--Pinjolli 19:17, 7 June 2008 (UTC) —Preceding unsigned comment added by Pinjolli (talk • contribs)

Butrint was a Roman a city so please don't label that as weird(scholars deal with the Hellenistic and the Roman Butrint, not with an ancient Greek Butrint), since the remains of the city are from the Roman era, when it was rebuild and almost all the material found in the museum are Roman.-- ZjarriRrethues talk 09:14, 8 January 2011 (UTC)

On Google books: Buthrotum: 29700 hits Butrint: 14300 hits

Therefore, since Buthrotum is twice as common, I have moved the page to "Buthrotum" per WP:COMMONNAME, the policy guiding article names. Athenean (talk) 19:53, 1 June 2012 (UTC)

Moved back to proper English name, in case there are desent arguments for this move a proper move request should be initiated.Alexikoua (talk) 19:10, 30 January 2015 (UTC)

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Hey guys, what do you think about to change the name of the article, I mean the name nowadays is Butrint and like Durrës for example it was known as Dyrrachium in Antiquity, so its the historical name. Thank you!

The title should be "Butrint (Roman: Buthrotum)" and I tried without success to change it . Rob Sherratt (talk) 22:51, 28 May 2018 (UTC)

It appears there is an obsession to add various parts that are not backed by the available sources [[1]], for example the site appears to be of Illyrian culture & inhabited by Illyrians, though the inlines offer a quite different view. Wrong categories have also been added (Illyrian Albania etc.) Alexikoua (talk) 15:54, 14 February 2018 (UTC)

I have to thank Ioaf. for removing the parts in question. However, this kind of unexplained changes without appropriate citation can't be considered part of a constructive activity.Alexikoua (talk) 17:14, 14 February 2018 (UTC)

The Aeneid text is of great interest to people reading about Butrint. Suggest we include it. The Aeneid contains the following text, translation now free of copyright

SOURCE: Virgil, The Aeneid. REV. OLIVER CRANE, D. D., Corporate Member of the American Oriental Society. Published 1887, Cornell University Library PA 6807.A5C891. Minor edits made by me to remove unwanted colons that mess up Wiki formatting .

Straightway we bury Phaeacia's airy castles, and onward coast by the shores of Epirus, and soon the Chaonian harbor enter, and straight draw nigh to the lofty city Buthrotum. Here an incredible rumor of issues absorbs our attention: Helenas, Priam's descendant, is reigning o'er Grecian cities [295] Owning the spouse and the sceptre of Pyrrhus, the son of Priam! Thus to a lord of her country again has Andromache fallen! I was astounded, and kindled my bosom with wonderful longing now to converse with the hero, and know of his marvelous fortunes. Forth from the harbor I stride, forsaking the fleets and the seasides [300] When, as it happened, her annual feasts and funereal presents. Out in a grove in front of the town, was Andromache making. Hard by a typical Samois' wave, and invoking her Hector's ghost at a green-turfed mound, which she had as a cenotaph hallowed there to his dust, and for purpose of weeping a couple of altars [305] As she beheld me approaching, and noticed around me the Trojan armor, bewildered and shocked by the grand apparition she stood stark stiff in the midst of her gaze, and the warmth her bones has abandoned Swoons she, and after a long time barely at length she bespeaks me "Dost thou an actual person, an actual messenger greet me [310] goddess-born and alive? or, if fostering light hath departed. Where is my Hector?" she said, and she poured forth tears and the whole place filled with her crying. I barely in brief the delirious weeper answer, and bashed, and embarrassed, in faltering utterance stammer "Yes, I'm alive, and am life through every extremity leading [315] Doubt not, for what thou beholdest is real — Ah ! what disaster anon, cast down from so noble a husband, singles thee out, or what fortune sufficiently worthy revisits Hector's Andromache? Art thou the marriage of Pyrrhus preserving?" Down she her countenance cast, and in humbled expression responded: [320] "Blest thou alone above others, O virgin daughter of Priam, who at the tomb of a foeman, 'neath Troja's imperial ramparts summoned to die, didst never endure the allotting of choices No, nor hast touched as a captive the couch of a conquering master ! After our country was burned, we, wafted o'er various waters, [325] Bore the disdain of the stock of Achilles, the insolent stripling. Childbirth in thraldom enduring of him, who afterwards princess Leda's Hermion courting, and Lacedaemonian nuptials, handed me over to Helenus, slave by a slave to be holden Yet him Orestes, inflamed with a passionate love for his stolen [330] spouse, and goaded by furies, of crimes the vindictive avengers. Takes unawares and assassinates right at the national altars. So, at the death of Neoptolemus, part of the realm fell duly to Helenus, who by the name of Chaonian moorlands called it, the whole Chaonia titled from Chaon the Trojan: [335] Pergamus added he, and on the hills yon Ilian castle. But what breezes, I pray, and what fortunes have rendered thy voyage safe, or what god hath impelled thee unwittingly on to our confines ? What of the boy Ascanius? Does he survive, and the free air breathe, whom to thee while as yet at Troja: — [340] O has the boy, though, any regret for the loss of his parent? Tell me to aught of their pristine valor and vigor of manhood. Do such a sire as Aeneas and uncle as Hector incite him?" Such were the strains she was weepingly pouring,and wakening long sobs vainly, when lo! there emerges the hero himself from the ramparts, [345] Priam's son Helenus, and, with many escorting attendants, welcomes his townsmen and leads them rejoicingly up to his thresholds, many a tear-drop shedding with every word that he utters. Onward I wend, and diminutive Troja and, type of the mighty Pergamus, yea and a dried-up stream by the name of the Xanthus [350] own, and a Scaean gateway's thresholds greet with embraces. Teucrans enjoy at the same time, too, their associates' city. Them was the King in his ample porticoes welcoming freely There in the midst of the court they were quaffing their beakers to Bacchus Viands were served them in gold, and they even were holding the goblets. [355] Now has a day and another day glided away, and the breezes beckon the sails, and the canvas is fanned by the freshening south-wind: In these terms I appeal to the prophet, and thus I entreat him: "Native of Troja, a seer of the gods, who the pleasure of Phosbus knowest, who tripods, the Clarian's laurels, who stars, and the varied [360] language of birds, and the signs of the fluttering feather divinest. Say now, for thus far to me all of my course has auspicious augury spoken, and all of the gods have persuaded me on to seek for Italia, and search for the regions that lie in the distance. Only the harpy Celseno, a strange and unfit to be uttered [365] Prodigy chants, and denounces upon us deplorable vengeance. Namely a loathsome hunger. What perils must I at the outset shun, or pursuing what course can I brave such onerous hardships?" Hereupon Helenus, first having sacrificed duly the bullocks, prays of the deities peace, and unloosing the fillets from off his [370] sanctified head, he himself, O Phoebus, on up to thy thresholds leads me by hand, as I shrank overawed by thy manifold presence. Then from his mouth divine thus discants the oracular pontiff "Goddess-born — for that thou o'er the deep under auspices grandeur goest, assurance is clear, so the sovereign of gods is allotting [375] fates, and unrolling their issues, and this is the order assigned them — Few of the many behests, as to how thou mayest more safely traverse the alien waters, and land in Ausonia's haven, I will disclose for the destinies interdict Helenus knowing more that ensues, and Saturnian Juno forbids him to tell it. [380]

The name of this article should be changed BUTRINT is named in every other article in other languages.--Lorik17 (talk) 20:07, 15 October 2018 (UTC)

Each wiki uses the name used in the correspondent language. Albanian wiki Albanian name etc. etc.. English wiki uses the name used in English bibliography.Alexikoua (talk) 19:28, 16 October 2018 (UTC) Move this article to Butrin. It is its common name both in Albanian and in English. Results in google prove it "About 92,200 results" for the actual one, and "About 2,220,000 results" for Butrint. Articles about Albanian cities cannot remain hostage to some Greeks with some bizarre Greek sources. Bes-ART Talk 09:02, 5 August 2019 (UTC) Pardon me but I fail to see a modern city in this article. It's about an ancient site and sources about antiquity aren't bizarre (for future reference Buthrotum is Latin).Alexikoua (talk) 21:44, 5 August 2019 (UTC) The site in question is registered at UNESCO as Butrint, as is the case with Dubrovnik 1, which has the Latin name Ragusa. There is no single reason for this site to keep a name in a dead language, especially when it is not a common name and no one searches for this archaeological site in that name. I can list millions of newspapers, magazines, or other information sites, and they all name this Butrint. Bes-ART Talk 10:18, 6 August 2019 (UTC) Missed the whole renaming discussion down below. Well done however for the change. Once in a while common sense prevails over triviality on Balkan topics.Resnjari (talk) 15:47, 25 August 2019 (UTC)

The result of the move request was: Moved. There is a lot of heated debate here, but ultimately I'm seeing more solid arguments in support than opposition, as well as a numerical superiority in pure vote terms. In particular, solid numerical evidence that "Butrint" is the common name in general sources and in "official" sources such as the UN. It is also pointed out that this site has a wide-ranging history, and the Greek period is only one part of that, with the "Butrinto" name in use many centuries ago by Venetians. Although there is some substance in the opposition argument that we use ancient names for ancient sites, the fact that this site has many guises throughout history weakens this argument. — Amakuru (talk) 19:09, 14 August 2019 (UTC)

Buthrotum → Butrint – The official name of the archaeological site its Butrint, both in English and native Albanian languages. Officially known and registered from UNESCO and Ramsar Convention with the name of Butrint. Common name in google search as well with more than 2 million hits more than the actual name changed without consensus form a greek Wikipedian. Bes-ART Talk 12:30, 6 August 2019 (UTC)

  • Oppose Official nomenclature means nothing as far as article names. Google searches are meaningless because they contain mostly junk (especially lots of tourist junk). We generally use the classical name for ancient cities instead of the modern name used in the country the ancient city is located in (e.g. we use Ephesus instead of "Efes", Miletus instead of "Milet", Troy instead of "Hisralik", and countless other examples). Also the comment that the actual name changed without consensus form a greek Wikipedian smacks of WP:TEND, WP:NATIONALIST, WP:RIGHTGREATWRONGS, etc. Khirurg (talk) 15:40, 6 August 2019 (UTC)
  • Oppose: I fail to see the definition of the 'official name of an ancient city'. wp:NC doesn't shed light on this. By the way the English hits for 'Butrint' are c. 160 [[2]]. Also, English Googlebooks return c. 220 for Buthrotum [[3]] and only c. 150 for Butrint [[4]]Alexikoua (talk) 15:43, 6 August 2019 (UTC)
  • Support. All the sources we are citing in this article are apparently using "Butrint" rather than "Buthrotum" in their titles. I have no reason to suppose that this is somehow not representative of what the relevant literature at large does. I also don't see how the Google counts are meaningless: they are representative of what our readers are likely to be familiar with that's why we use them for purposes just like this. Fut.Perf.☼ 21:28, 6 August 2019 (UTC)
  • Support per WP:COMMONNAME. Google Search: 2,260,000 results for Buthrotum Google Books: 16,400 results for Butrint and 28,300 results for Buthrotum Google Scholar: 2,790 results for Βατο (talk) 10:54, 7 August 2019 (UTC)
  • Oppose. Normally we would have an article about a modern city at its modern name, with one or more subsidiary articles titled "history of. " or "ancient . ", potentially using the original name of the settlement. In this case we don't have a modern city, as the site seems to have been abandoned since Ottoman times. Logically it should be at either the Greek or Roman title, whichever is more likely to be encountered in English. Optionally there could be two articles, one about the ancient city, and another about the archaeological site that would allow most of this page to stay at the present name, but also justify an article at the modern name. That seems to be the case with Troy/Hisarlik "Troy" is about the ancient city built and destroyed in various phases "Hisarlik" is about the archaeological site presumed to mark the ruins of Troy there's some overlap, but the focus is different. This seems like a very similar case, in which case insisting on the local name instead of the name of the ancient city whose ruins are at that site is a bit like insisting that there be no article at "Troy", only at "Hisarlik". Number of hits on Google or Google Books are less probably useful than an Ngram of unique occurrences in English-language books: this shows that until 1992, "Buthrotum" was more common in English "Butrint" doesn't even appear in print until 1949, and I suspect that its prevalence now has more to do with travel guides than classical history. An important source that probably should be cited and used to augment the current article, but which doesn't seem to be, is "Buthrotum" from the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, an older but still valuable reference that has the advantage of citing ancient writers in detail. P Aculeius (talk) 14:04, 7 August 2019 (UTC)
    • One relevant difference between this and the Troy/Hisarlik example is that Butrint was not only a Greek and Roman place but existed into the Venetian era, and at that time it was already called Butrint(o). The other, and much more important, difference is that "Butrint" is what the majority of the reliable literature calls it. We go by what the sources do, no matter why they do it, it's as simple as that. You may well be right that this has only become common after 1990, but it's by no means true that it's only travel literature that uses it if you look at, for instance, this academic publication, not only the book itself but virtually every other work cited in it seems to be using Butrint. Fut.Perf.☼ 14:11, 7 August 2019 (UTC)

    We could also perform a split whereby the ancient period of the same city is covered by Buthrotum which is the main article of a section on the holistic Butrint.--Calthinus (talk) 16:27, 7 August 2019 (UTC)

    • Strongly oppose, names of ancient settlements should be the original ones. I however support a move to Bouthroton, which was the original Greek name (Buthrotum is Latin). I can also support a split as proposed above, between the ancient Greek city state, and the current site (in which case the move to Butrint makes sense). In fact I suggest we do that for all the ancient Greek/Roman cities. T8612(talk) 19:52, 7 August 2019 (UTC)
    • Support. It is now the commonly used name, from UNESCO downwards. Andrew Dalby 20:31, 7 August 2019 (UTC)
    • Oppose the city was most notable for its ancient era, Buthrotum, and the ancient scholars all use this name for the city. When Butrint became a more common name for that place, the city was already declining and later abandoned. As an editor with Archeological studies both in Balkans and abroad, I used to be studying about this city but as Buthrotum. I assume this was due to the vast majority of the historical site's attested history being about its ancient times, not Venetian or later times. Now, if any Wikipedians here are favoring a move on WP:CommonName grounds, then fine by me. However I shall bear to everyone's mind that the current common name isn't the name the historical city was most known with. --- ❖ SilentResident ❖ (talk ✉ | contribs ✎) 21:52, 7 August 2019 (UTC)
    • Oppose. The name should reflect the ancient name, the place is uninhabited so it's nothing like Paris and Lutetia. Changing to Support, based on the sources provided by Furius. I would be willing to support a split of the ancient city and modern site if necessary.--Ermenrich (talk)
    • Support. The official excavation reports consistently use Butrint:
    • Gilkes, Liberati, The theatre at Butrint : Luigi Maria Ugolini's excavations at Butrint 1928-1932 (Albania Antica IV)
    • Hodges, Bowden, Lako, Andrews, Byzantine Butrint : excavations and surveys 1994-99 (2004)
    • Bowden, Hodges,Cerova, Butrint 3 : excavations at the Triconch Palace (2011) 9781842179802
    • Hansen,Hodges, Leppard, Butrint 4 : the archaeology and histories of an Ionian town (2013) 9781842174623 [I & II apparently don't exist yet]
    • Bouthrotos (Butrint) in the Archaic and Classical Periods (2017) [[17]].
    • The Roman Colonial Settlements at Dyrrachium, Byllis and Buthrotum, (2012) J. Wilkes
    • Monuments, myth and small change in Buthrotum (Butrint) during the Early Empire, (2012) Richard Abdy

    The Oxford Classical Dictionary also uses Buthrotum [[18]] Buthrotum (now Butrinto, uninhabited), founded traditionally by the Trojan *Helenus. Alexikoua (talk) 08:29, 9 August 2019 (UTC)

    • Note For those interested in the history of Butrint/Buthrotum, especially after the Roman period, there are a few sources of help such as Ktrimi991 (talk) 17:26, 10 August 2019 (UTC)
    • Support because this article's content concerns the entire history of the site: its early days, the Roman period, the Venetian period, the Ottoman period, today's activities. Today's most common name should be the name of this article that concerns the entire history of the site during which it has had several names. As shown above, the site continued to exist as an important town or military and trade center centuries after the Roman period. So naming the article "Buthrotum" just because that is the name the site had in the Roman period does not make much sense to me. The primary goal of an article's name is to enable readers to find the article as easy as possible. "Butrint" seems to do that better than "Buthrotum". In any case, the four historical names deserve a place in the lede. Ktrimi991 (talk) 00:32, 12 August 2019 (UTC)

    There is obviously an error in this. Angevin Albania was disestablished in 1368. However even in the remaining period the city changed hands several times. Byzantines & the Despotate of Epirus controlled also this site. The above title falls into POV.Alexikoua (talk) 08:23, 12 August 2019 (UTC)

    Yes -- 1386. That is what the source, which itself cites another source, states. After which it fell under Southern Italian rule, Neapolitan as seen in 1395. And the page says Angevin rule, not Angevin Albania. Now, as for "Between Angevins, Byzantines and the Despotate of Epirus" this is WP:SYNTH -- no source uses this formulation. Not to mention WP:UNDUE. The Despotate claimed the area but did it rule it? Only in 1305-1306 (Lala gives another time: just 1306). And as vassals, it seems, though I could be wrong on this point all I know is that Nikephoros submitted as a vassal to Charles. As for the Byzantines? Four years. That other gap ending in 1331 was not Byzantine rule -- that appears to have been the rule of Philip of Taranto, not the Byzantines: He gave in pheudum to his fourth son, Philip of Taranto (1294-1331), not only direct rule over the islands of Corfu and Butrinti, the Principality of Acaia and Regnum Albaniae. So why are we equating the Angevins in the title to the Byzantines and the Despotate, when the two of them ruled during the period, um, 5 years? And at that, doing so in a formulation that no source uses? --Calthinus (talk) 13:54, 12 August 2019 (UTC) I don't understand what you mean. Angevin Albania was disestablished in 1368 and the entire (1267-1386) period can't be simple termed "under Angevin Albania period". It's good you fixed that since Byzantine, Epirote and Angevine -post-Regnum Albaniae- were also in control of the site. There are plenty of references due to my recent intervention.Alexikoua (talk) 15:05, 12 August 2019 (UTC) Ok were all good then. And thanks for the Hodges source-- this will prove very useful for further expansion. Cheers,--Calthinus (talk) 15:58, 12 August 2019 (UTC)

    @Calthinus: We had a discussion on the many names Butrint has had during its history. Among others, you mentioned a few names reported by Lala. Should we create a "Name" section or should we add these names somewhere else in the article? Ktrimi991 (talk) 22:48, 14 August 2019 (UTC)


    Butrint - History

    This tour offers the following benefits to cruise passengers:
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    Angelokastro is a Byzantine castle on the island of Corfu. It is located at the top of the highest peak of the island"s shoreline in the northwest coast near Palaiokastritsa and built on particularly precipitous and rocky terrain. It stands 305 m on a steep cliff above the sea and surveys the City of Corfu and the mountains of mainland Greece to the southeast and a wide area of Corfu toward the northeast and northwest.

    Angelokastro is one of the most important fortified complexes of Corfu. It was an acropolis which surveyed the region all the way to the southern Adriatic and presented a formidable strategic vantage point to the occupant of the castle.

    Angelokastro formed a defensive triangle with the castles of Gardiki and Kassiopi, which covered Corfu"s defences to the south, northwest and northeast.

    The castle never fell, despite frequent sieges and attempts at conquering it through the centuries, and played a decisive role in defending the island against pirate incursions and during three sieges of Corfu by the Ottomans, significantly contributing to their defeat.

    During invasions it helped shelter the local peasant population. The villagers also fought against the invaders playing an active role in the defence of the castle.

    The exact period of the building of the castle is not known, but it has often been attributed to the reigns of Michael I Komnenos and his son Michael II Komnenos. The first documentary evidence for the fortress dates to 1272, when Giordano di San Felice took possession of it for Charles of Anjou, who had seized Corfu from Manfred, King of Sicily in 1267.

    From 1387 to the end of the 16th century, Angelokastro was the official capital of Corfu and the seat of the Provveditore Generale del Levante, governor of the Ionian islands and commander of the Venetian fleet, which was stationed in Corfu.

    The governor of the castle (the castellan) was normally appointed by the City council of Corfu and was chosen amongst the noblemen of the island.

    Angelokastro is considered one of the most imposing architectural remains in the Ionian Islands.


    Site History

    The favourable position in which the city of Buthrotum was born and developed, in the ancient region of Chaonia, can explain the long occupation of the site (almost 200 ha): historical and archaeological evidence has highlighted indeed the frequentation of Butrint from the Bronze Age until the late 16th century.

    The first occupation of the site is dated to the mid/late Bronze Age on the central and western plateau of the Acropolis: it consisted of a small settlement, strictly linked to the Epirote substrate. From the 8th to 6th centuries BC the Acropolis was still inhabited, however the Corinthian pottery found on the site underlines the strict connection with Corfu, founded by Corinth in 733 BC, that now seems to extend its influence over the mainland. It is likely that this first community developed around a modest sanctuary built on the Acropolis itself, however, apart from pottery, one ash altar and few roof tiles, there are not other certain finds taht can be linked to the temple. Generally speaking, few evidences can be dated back to the Archaic phase of Butrint. The most relevant and imposing is the Archaic terrace wall on the south side of the hill, along with the Lion Gate relief, which depicts a lion biting a bull's neck and which has become one the most famous landmarks of the city.

    From the 6th to 4th centuries BC there is the first proper urban phase, with the expansion of the settlement and the construction of the mid-slope circuit wall with four gateways. This is the same period of time that witness the construction of the Sanctuary of Asclepius, which will be the main centre of the city in the Hellenistic and Roman times, and the stoa for his pilgrims. The independence from the Corfiots gave Butrint the opportunity to become the administrative centre of the Chaonian tribe. This led in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC to one of the most prolific moments of the city, thanks to the expansion of the lower settlement, along with the extension of the wall circuit in the form of the temenos wall and the construction of many of the monuments that still attract the scholars' attention and wonder today: the Asclepieion Gate, the Tower Gate, the Theatre, the prytaneion, the Sacred Way, the Agora and its stoa, and the upper temple dedicated to Asclepius.

    The Roman conquest, right after the battle of Actium, represents for Butrint another important moment of growth, at least until the 3rd century AD. Its connection with the Roman heritage had always been significant, since the site was believed to have been founded by Trojan refugees and that Aeneas himself had visited Butrint during his journey to Rome. The city was officially deducted as Roman colony twice: under Caesar in 44 BC (Colonia Iulia Buthrotum) and then under Augustus, named Augusta Buthrotum. The increasing richness of the city allowed the construction of new public buildings: the Forum and its surroundings, the Baths, the monumentalization of the Sanctuary of Asclepius, and the expansion beyond the early wall circuit to the south edge of the Vivari Channel. A new civic centre was placed on the Vrina Plain, connected by a bridge and the water main to the old town. The centuriation of the plain can be easily traced back to this enlargement and the growing number of villas, provided with access to the lake, between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD gives a clear idea of the importance that sea traffic and fishing must have had for the rich landowner of the area. The most evident signs of the economic and demographic growth of the city lies in the big number of monumental tombs located along the Vivari Channel.

    After a major earthquake in the 4th century, Butrint thrived again thank to its connection to both side of the Mediterranean Sea, in fact many houses were built on both side of the Vivari Channel. Late Antiquity and Middle Age brought Christianity to the city: the ecclesiastical administration is proved not only by ceramics and coins but also by many significant buildings. The Acropolis Basilica was built in the 4th century AD, followed by the Great Basilica, the Baptistery and the Triconch Palace in the 6th century. In the Medieval times these were joined by the Lake Gate church and the Baptistery church (9h century AD). However, after a moment of decline in the 7th century, the city was reoccupied since it had become an important military base for the Byzantine fleet. It developed then other kind of necessities, in particular related to its defence: a brand new wall circuit is built between the 10th and 11th centuries AD along the shore of the Vivari Channel, while in the 12th century was built the Acropolis wall-circuit. Land control brought to the construction of the Acropolis castle on the lower plateau of the hill and to the first phase of the Triangular Fortress. These would have been reinforced during the last phase of life of the city in the 13th and 14th centuries under the Venetian Republic who ruled over Corfu and Butrint. It seems that the city was abandoned between 1517 and 1571, after the battle of Lepanto, and all the efforts were put in defending the fishing industry (fortified structures and fish traps) centred on the Vivari Channel. In the 18th century the city was conquered by the Ottomans, who used it as base to attack the isle of Corfu and continued exploiting the territory until the collapse of their Empire.

    Hodges R. Excavating away the ‘poison’: the topographic history of Butrint, ancient Buthrotum in Hansen, Hodges, Leppard, "Butrint 4: The archaeology and histories of an Ionian town" Oxbow Books, 2013, pp. 1-21.

    Martin S., The topography of Butrint in Hodges, Bowden, Lako, "Byzantine Butrint : excavations and surveys 1994-99", Oxbow Books, 2004, pp. 76-103

    City map from Giorgi, Lepore, Comparing Phoinike and Butrint. Some remarks on the walls of two cities in Northern Epirus in Caliò, Gerogiannis, Kopsacheili, "Fortificazioni e società nel Mediterraneo occidentale. Albania e Grecia settentrionale. Atti del Convegno di Archeologia, organizzato dall’Università di Catania, dal Politecnico di Bari e dalla University of Manchester Catania-Siracusa 14-16 febbraio 2019", Edizioni Quasar, 2020, pp.153-181


    Contents

    Saranda is from the name of the Byzantine monastery of the Agioi Saranda (Greek: Άγιοι Σαράντα ), meaning the "Forty Saints", in honor of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste. Under Ottoman rule, the town in the Turkish language became known as Aya Sarandi and then Sarandoz. Owing to Venetian influence in the region, it often appeared under its Italian name Santi Quaranta on Western maps. [6] This usage continued even after the establishment of the Principality of Albania, owing to the first Italian occupation of the region. During the Italian occupation of Albania in World War II, Benito Mussolini changed the name to Porto Edda, in honor of his eldest daughter. [7] [8] Following the restoration of Albanian independence, the city employed its Albanian name Saranda. [9]

    Ancient Edit

    Due to the archaic features found in the ancient Greek name of the city: Onchesmus (Ancient Greek: Ὄγχεσμος ) and the toponyms of the surrounding region it appears that the site was part of the proto-Greek area of late 3rd-early 2nd millennium BC [10] [11] Bronze Age tools typical of Mycenaean Greece have been unearthed in Sarandë which date c. 1400-1100 BC. [12] In antiquity the city was known by the name of Onchesmus or Onchesmos and was a port-town of Chaonia in ancient Epirus, opposite the northwestern point of Corcyra, and the next port upon the coast to the south of Panormus. [13] [14] It was inhabited by the Greek-speaking tribe of the Chaonians. [15] Onchesmos flourished as the port of the Chaonian capital Phoenice [16] [17] (modern-day Finiq). It seems to have been a place of importance in the time of Cicero, and one of the ordinary points of departure from Epirus to Italy, as Cicero calls the wind favourable for making that passage an Onchesmites. [18] According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus the real name of the place was the Port of Anchises (Ἀγχίσου λιμήν), named after Anchises, the father of Aeneas [19] and it was probably owing to this tradition that the name Onchesmus assumed the form of Anchiasmus or Anchiasmos (Greek: Αγχιασμός ) under the Byzantine Empire. [20] [21]

    Saranda, then under the name of Onchesmos, is held to be the site of Albania's first synagogue, which was built in the 4th [22] or 5th century. It is thought that it was built by the descendants of Jews who arrived on the southern shores of Albania around 70 CE. [23] Onchesmos' synagogue was supplanted by a church in the 6th century. [22]

    The city was probably raided by the Ostrogoths in 551 AD, [24] while during this period it became also the target of piratic raids by Gothic ships. [25] In a medieval chronicle of 1191 the settlement appears to be abandoned, while its former name (Anchiasmos) isn't mentioned any more. From that year, the toponym borrows the name of the nearby Orthodox basilica church of Agioi Saranta, erected in the 6th century, ca. 1 km (0.6 mi) southeast of the modern town. [24]

    Modern Edit

    In the early 19th century during the rule of Ali Pasha, British diplomat William Martin Leake reported that there existed a small settlement under the name Skala or Skaloma next to the harbor. [26] Following the Ottoman administrative reform of 1867, a müdürluk (independent unit) of Sarandë consisting of no other villages was created within the kaza (district) of Delvinë. [27] Sarandë in the late Ottoman period until the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) consisted of only a harbour being a simple commercial station without permanent residents or any institutional community organisation. [27] The creation of the Saranda müdürluk was related to the desires of Ottoman authorities to upgrade the port and reduce the economic dependence of the area on Ioannina and Preveza. [27] In 1878, a Greek rebellion broke out, with revolutionaries taking control of Sarandë and Delvinë. This was suppressed by Ottoman troops, who burned twenty villages in the region. [28] One of the earliest photographs of Saranda dates from 3 March 1913 and shows Greek soldiers in the main street during the course of the Second Balkan War. [29] Saranda was a major centre of the short-lived Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus. [29]

    Greek troops occupied it during the Balkan Wars. Later, the town was included in the newly formed Albanian state in 17 December 1913 under the terms of the Protocol of Florence. [30] The decision was rejected by the local Greek population, and as the Greek army withdrew to the new border, the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus was established. In May 1914, negotiations were started in Sarandë between representative of the provisional government of Northern Epirus and that of Albania which continued in nearby Corfu and ended up with the recognition of the Northern Epirote autonomy inside the newly established Albanian state. [31]

    It was then occupied by Italy between 1916 and 1920 as part of the Italian Protectorate on southern Albania. [32] Throughout 1926–1939 of the interwar period, Italy financed extensive improvements to the harbour at Sarandë. [33] A small Romanian Institute was established in 1938. Sarandë was again occupied by Italian forces in 1939 and was a strategic port during the Italian invasion of Greece. During this occupation, it was called "Porto Edda" in honor of the eldest daughter of Benito Mussolini.

    During the Greco-Italian War, the city came under the control of the advancing Greek forces, on 6 December 1940. The capture of this strategic port further accelerated the Greek penetration to the north. [34] As a result of the German invasion in Greece in April 1941, the town returned to Italian control. On 9 October 1944 the town was captured by a group of British commandos under Brigadier Tom Churchill and local partisans of LANÇ under Islam Radovicka. The actions of the British troops was viewed with suspicion by LANÇ as they suspected that the British would occupy the town to use as a base and provide aid to their allies in the Greek resistance in the area as British documents indicated that EDES forces also joined the operation. However, the British troops soon withdrew from the region, leaving the region to the Albanian communist forces. [35]

    As part of the People's Republic of Albania (1945-1991) policies a number of Muslim Albanians were settled from northern Albania in the area and local Christians are no longer the only community in Saranda. [36] During this period as a result of the atheistic campaign launched by the state the church of Saint Spyridon in the harbor of the city was demolished. After the restoration of democracy in Albania (1991) a small shrine was erected at the place of the church. [36]

    During the Albanian Civil War (1997) units comprised by the local Greek minority were able to achieve the first military success through capture of a military tank for the opposition forces. [37]

    The district of Saranda lies in the most southern extremity of Albania. It is bordered with Vlora to the north, Delvina and Gjirokastër to the east and with Greece to the south of Ionian Sea. Saranda is a place in the most southern part of Albania. It lies between the hills that descend and reach the Ionian Sea. The district of Saranda has a plain relief which is composed of southern seashore mountains that lie from Borsh to the bay of Ftelia, Vrina Fields and the hills of Saranda, Lëkurësi, Ksamil, Butrint and Konispol. All these units make up the southern part of the Albanian Riviera where the eye catches the countless bays, beaches, the rocky coastline, hills with olives and citrus, mountains that surround the landscape. Saranda is traversed by Kalasa, Bistrica and Pavlla rivers which flow in the Ionian Sea. In Saranda's hydrograph belongs even Butrinti Lake which is one of the biggest sea lakes in Albania. The Butrint Lake is very rich in sea species and in their waters now are being growing mussels. Its relief, geographical location and subtropical climate create favorable conditions for planting citrus trees and olives. [38]

    The present municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Ksamil and Sarandë, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the town Sarandë. [39]

    Climate Edit

    Sarandë has a typical Mediterranean climate and has over 300 sunny days a year. During the summer, temperatures may rise as high as 30 degrees Celsius. However, a refreshing sea breeze constantly blows. Winters are mild and subzero temperatures are uncommon. The wettest months of the year are November and December. Summers are very dry.

    Climate data for Sarandë (1991–2010)
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °C (°F) 24
    (75)
    27
    (81)
    28.1
    (82.6)
    32
    (90)
    37
    (99)
    40
    (104)
    42
    (108)
    42
    (108)
    38
    (100)
    32
    (90)
    28
    (82)
    25
    (77)
    42
    (108)
    Average high °C (°F) 13.9
    (57.0)
    15
    (59)
    17.5
    (63.5)
    21
    (70)
    24.5
    (76.1)
    29.5
    (85.1)
    32.5
    (90.5)
    32.5
    (90.5)
    28.5
    (83.3)
    24
    (75)
    20
    (68)
    14.5
    (58.1)
    22.8
    (73.0)
    Average low °C (°F) 4.7
    (40.5)
    5.2
    (41.4)
    7.3
    (45.1)
    10.6
    (51.1)
    16.1
    (61.0)
    19.7
    (67.5)
    22.4
    (72.3)
    22.3
    (72.1)
    19.1
    (66.4)
    13
    (55)
    9
    (48)
    6.2
    (43.2)
    13.0
    (55.3)
    Record low °C (°F) −5
    (23)
    −4
    (25)
    0
    (32)
    3
    (37)
    8
    (46)
    12
    (54)
    16
    (61)
    15
    (59)
    6
    (43)
    1
    (34)
    −2
    (28)
    −5
    (23)
    −5
    (23)
    Average precipitation mm (inches) 125
    (4.9)
    122
    (4.8)
    98
    (3.9)
    65
    (2.6)
    39
    (1.5)
    20
    (0.8)
    5
    (0.2)
    9
    (0.4)
    48
    (1.9)
    125
    (4.9)
    161
    (6.3)
    169
    (6.7)
    986
    (38.9)
    Average precipitation days 14 12 9 7 5 2 1 1 5 9 12 15 92
    Source: METEOALB Weather Station

    During the late Ottoman period until the Balkan Wars (1912–1913) Sarandë consisted of only a harbour and was without permanent residents. [27] In 1912, right after the Albanian Declaration of Independence, the settlement had only 110 inhabitants. [40] At the 1927 census, it had 810 inhabitants, but was not yet a town. [40] In the 1930s, it had a good demographic development, and it is in this period that the first public buildings and the main roads were constructed. [40] In 1957, the city had 8,700 inhabitants and was made the center of a district. [40] The population of Sarandë was exclusively Christian. A Muslim community was settled in the city as part of the resettlement policies during the People's Republic of Albania (1945–1991). [36] The total population is 20,227 (2011 census), [41] in a total area of 70.13 km 2 . [42] The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 17,233 [41] however, the population according to the civil offices is 41,173 (2013 estimate). [43]

    According to a survey by the Albanian Helsinki Committee, in 1990 Sarandë numbered 17,000 inhabitants, of whom 7,500 belonged to the Greek minority. [44] The members of the Greek minority of the city, prior to the collapse of the socialist regime (1991), were deprived from their minority rights, since Sarandë did not belong to the "minority areas". [45] In fieldwork undertaken by Greek scholar Leonidas Kallivretakis in the area during 1992 noted that Saranda's mixed ethno-linguistic composition (total population in 1992: 17,555) consisted of 8,055 Muslim Albanians, 6,500 Greeks and an Orthodox Albanian population of 3,000. [5] Statistics from the same study showed that, including the surround villages, Sarande commune had a population consisting of 43% Albanian Muslims, 14% Albanian Christians, 41% Greek Christians, and 2% Aromanian Christians. [46] In the early 1990s, the local Orthodox Albanian population mainly voted for political parties of the Greek minority based in the Saranda area. [5]

    Sarandë is considered one of the two centers of the Greek minority in Albania, Gjirokastër being the other. [4] [47] According to the representatives of the Greek minority 42% of the town's population belong to the local Greek community. [45] Since the 1990s the population of Sarandë has nearly doubled. According to official estimation in 2013, the population of the city is 41,173. [43] According to a survey conducted by the Albanian Committee of Helsinki, in 2001 the Albanian population numbered about 26,500, while Greeks formed the rest with about 3,400 alongside a small number of Vlachs and Roma. [44] [48] The city, according to the Albanian Committee of Helsinki, has lost more than half of its ethnic Greeks from 1991 to 2001, because of heavy emigration to Greece. [44] According to official estimates of 2014 the number of the Greek community in the former municipality is 7,920, not to count those who live in the wider current municipality (including additionally 4,207 in Ksamil). [49] Seven schools/classes in Greek attended by a total of 359 students existed in the Saranda municipality as of 2014. [50] Other minorities include Aromanians, Roma and Ashkali.