Hellenistic Tower at Eleutherna, Crete

Hellenistic Tower at Eleutherna, Crete


The Museum of Ancient Eleutherna displays exhibits from the site of Eleutherna (Greek: Ἐλεύθερνα ), a city-state in Crete, Greece which flourished from the Greek Dark Ages until Byzantine times. The site lies 25 km southeast of Rethymno, on a narrow northern spur of Mount Ida, the highest mountain in Crete.

The Museum of Ancient Eleutherna was inaugurated on 19 June 2016 [2] and is the fourth museum in Greece exclusively focusing on a single archaeological site, after the museums of Olympia, Delphi and Vergina. The exhibits span a period of three and a half millennia (3000 BC to 1300 AD) and include objects of art and everyday life from Prehistoric, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras. The excavations at the site of Eleutherna began in the mid 1980s under the supervision of the University of Crete and continue to the present day directed by Prof. Nikolaos Stampolidis.

Room A Edit

Room A displays artefacts imported from regions outside Crete such as Attica, Peloponnese, Cyclades, east Aegean islands, Asia Minor, Cyprus, Phoenicia and Egypt, which showcase aspects of the public, political, religious, social and private life in Eleutherna. Some digital installations are also present. [3]

Room B Edit

Room B is devoted to the religious and worship life in Eleutherna from the early Iron Age till the Byzantine era. It also includes the archaic sculpture of the Lady of Eleutherna, which relates to the Lady of Auxerre displayed at the Louvre Museum in Paris. [3]

Room C Edit

Room C focuses on the finds from the necropolis of Orthi Petra and illustrates burial customs from Homeric Greece, such as the funeral pyre of Patroclus as described in the Iliad. The excavations have unearthed treasures such as fine jewelry, weapons, grave objects from glass, faience and ivory, bronze and ceramic vessels, and figurines. [4] [5] A prominent exhibit is a bronze shield. [3]


Hellenistic Eleutherna Arch Bridge, island of Crete, Greece, Mediterranean - stock photo

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The well-preserved structure has a single span of 3.95 m, which is quite large for a false arch. The opening is cut from the unmortared limestone blocks in the shape of an isosceles triangle, the height of which is 1.84 m. The overall length of the bridge measures 9.35 m. Its width varies from 5.1 to 5.2 m, with the structure converging slightly towards its center point above the arch (5.05 m width there). The height is between 4 and 4.2 m. [3]

The bridge, which is still in use, was first described by the Englishman T.A.B. Spratt in his Travels and Researches in Crete, after he had paid a visit to the site in 1853. [4] At the time, another ancient bridge with a triangular arch was still standing a few hundred metres away, but, judging from a later report, was destroyed some unknown time before 1893. [5]

While there is general agreement that the two bridges of Eleutherna date to the pre-Roman period, a more precise dating is hampered by the lack of proper finds. [6] According to Nakassis, the extant, northern bridge was built sometime during the Hellenistic period, [7] while the Italian scholar Galliazzo dates the construction more precisely to the end of the 4th or beginning of the 3rd century BC. [8] For the smaller, now collapsed southern bridge Nakassis cautiously supports a late Classical date. [9]


Hidden Beneath the Ruins of Eleutherna

Plaque with the Life of Achilles (one of three), about A.D. 300–350, made in Constantinople or Thessaloniki found in Eleutherna, Crete, Greece. Ivory, 3 3/4 x 15 9/16 in. Image courtesy of the Rethymno Archaeological Museum

Imagine if a powerful and destructive earthquake struck Los Angeles. What would you do if you knew those were your final moments? What would be left after you were gone?

On July 21 in the year 365, a powerful earthquake leveled Eleutherna, an important city southeast of modern Rethymnon on Crete. Over 1500 years later, from 1985 to 2003, a team of Greek archaeologists under the direction of Professor Petros Themelis brought to light a number of buildings in the southwest part of the city, including House I, a lavish urban villa. Hidden within the debris in Rooms 100 and 116 (see the plan below) were more than 145 fragments of ivory, among them three ivory plaques currently displayed in Heaven and Earth: Art of Byzantium from Greek Collections at the Getty Villa.

These plaques were once affixed to the sides of two cherished wooden coffers. The selection of imagery and quality of carving on these boxes provide precious information about the wealth and erudition of a fourth-century couple whose lives were interrupted by natural disaster.

Floor plan of House I in Eleutherna, Greece, where the carved ivories were excavated. Image from Petros G. Themelis, Ancient Eleutherna: Sector 1, Volume 1. Athens: University of Crete, 2009, p. 64, fig. 24

The large urban villa where these ivories were found once accommodated an extended family. It was richly decorated with marble and limestone columns and had painted walls. Room 100 was a large banquet hall that could have accommodated many people. The house also included a work area (Rooms 6 and 7), a cellar (Room 8), and a room furnished with chests and closets for the family (Room 9).

In the peristyle (courtyard) immediately outside of rooms 100 and 116 were found the skeletons of a couple that died as they protectively embraced their young child, likely the child for whom the coffer was first offered as a gift.

Skeletal remains of a family found during excavations at House I in Eleutherna. An earthquake destroyed the city in A.D. 365. Image from Petros G. Themelis, Ancient Eleutherna: Sector 1, Volume 1. Athens: University of Crete, 2009, p. 70, fig. 36

More about this family’s story can be learned through large number of personal objects also found in the demolished house, which included ceramic vessels, glass beads, coins, gold rings, bronze objects, carved bones, and ivory.

A Newborn’s Coffer

Diagram showing how the Byzantine ivories found in House I were once applied to their wooden coffers. Illustration from Magda Vasiliadou, “The Ivory Plaques of Eleutherna and Their Workshop” (Paper presented at the second Hellenistic Studies Workshop, Alexandria, Egypt, July 4–11, 2010)

Ivory fragments were discovered in rooms 100 and 116 of House I in Eleutherna. The coffers to which they were once affixed have been reconstructed as shown in the illustration above, with truncated pyramidal lids and rectangular and truncated bases. The ivories are carved with subjects derived from Greek mythology: the story of Achilles, the Greek hero and main character of Homer’s Iliad, and a Marine Thiasos (the triumphal wedding procession of Poseidon and Amphitrite).

The fragments exhibited now at the Getty Villa in Heaven and Earth include four scenes from the life of Achilles: his birth, his submersion in the river Styx, his placement in the care of the centaur Chiron, and his dragging the body of Hector, leader of the Trojans, behind his chariot during Patroclus’s funeral games.

Monuments in miniature (here and above): Plaques with the Life of Achilles, about A.D. 300–350, made in Constantinople or Thessaloniki found in Eleutherna, Crete, Greece. Ivory, 4 1/8 x 4 7/8 in. (plaque above) 3 13/16 x 6 1/4 in. Images courtesy of the Rethymno Archaeological Museum

The second coffer, not included in the exhibition, was decorated with a Marine Thiasos, attended by such figures as sea nymphs and hippocamps. Based on their subject matter, the coffers are thought to have been gifts to a couple to commemorate their marriage (the Marine Thiasos coffer) and to celebrate the birth of their son (the Achilles coffer).

The Eleutherna ivories during their excavation in Greece. Image from Petros G. Themelis, Ancient Eleutherna: Sector 1, Volume 1. Athens: University of Crete, 2009, p. 67, fig. 30

Though small in size, the ivories are carved in a monumental style reminiscent of large-scale sculpture of the same period. Just down the hall from the exhibited ivories at the Getty Villa, for example, a much larger sarcophagus panel made around the year 210 and decorated with the story Endymion and Selene contains many of the elements represented on the coffers it also offers clues about the kinds of sculptural sources that would have been available to the carver of the Eleutherna ivories.

Sarcophagus Panel with the Myth of Endymion and Selene, about A.D. 210, Roman. Marble, 21 3/8 x 84 1/4 in. The J. Paul Getty Museum, 76.AA.8

The imagery on the coffer also foreshadows compositions that would later appear in Christian art. The representation of the hero’s birth—in which a midwife prepares to bathe the child in a basin as his mother, the Nereid Thetis, reclines on a couch and is attended by female servants—recalls representations of the Nativity of Christ and the Birth of the Virgin, including a gilded icon found in the exhibition Heaven and Earth.

Why These Images?

At the time in which these ivories were carved, the late 3 rd and early 4 th centuries AD, Christianity had already begun to spread throughout the Roman Empire. At the same time, however, heroic scenes from ancient mythology continued to excite the imagination of many, particularly as sources of secular art.

Veroli Casket, A.D. 950–1000, made in Constantinople. Wood overlaid with carved ivory and bone plaques with traces of polychrome and gilding, 40.3 x 15.5̫16 x 11.5 cm. Victoria and Albert Museum, 216-1865. © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Interestingly, mythological scenes continued to be used in medieval Byzantium for the decoration of ivory boxes, most notably the Veroli Casket from the second half of the tenth century, today in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Another example can be seen on a twelfth-century bone casket box, also displayed in Heaven and Earth, which depicts putti dancing with real and fictitious creatures. The continuous use of mythological scenes for the decoration of luxury objects is often seen as an indication of elite tastes and levels of education.

The couple discovered in House I lived at a time of radical transformation. After the earthquake, the rebuilt, early-fifth-century city of Eleutherna contained an episcopal church and additional basilicas. These architectural remains witness the rapid spread of Christianity. Fragments of the older, earthquake-damaged buildings were used as fill for the new structures, and carvings and inscriptions—including spolia (reused sculptural elements) from pagan buildings were employed as construction material for the new basilicas.

Personal items such as these ivory plaques open a window into the lives of the people who lived in a world of rapidly transforming art, religion, and society. An examination of the two coffers teaches us what one couple from Cretan Eleutherna celebrated and what was important to them. Studying these fragments reminds us that archaeologists are not just unearthing artifacts, but that they are also uncovering the stories of the people who made and used them.

For addition reading, see Magdalini Vasiliadou, “The Ivory Plaques of Eleutherna and their Workshop,” in Second Hellenistic Studies Workshop, ed. Kyriakos Savvopoulos (Alexandria, 2011).


Hellenistic Tower at Eleutherna, Crete - History

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      Ancient Eleftherna

      Ancient Eleftherna, 3500-year-old Dorian ruins

      If you like walking and getting into the feeling of the past without all the other tourists around you, you should visit ancient Eleftherna, here you will find remains from the Dorian and later Roman times scattered all over the area. In 2016 an Eleftherna Museum opened. Truly worth visiting

      In the village of Archea (ancient) Eleftherna and directly opposite a fountain, there is a road, which leads to a parking place by a Taverna perched on the edge of the archaeological site.

      From here a track leads to the spectacularly sited acropolis of Ancient Eleftherna. There are excavations currently going on to both sides of the peak and down in the valleys.
      The city that stood here in ancient times was one of the most important of the eighth and seventh century BC Dorian Crete. In the surrounding valleys, you also find remains from Elefterna and later Roman times.

      Here you also find one of the oldest churches in Crete Sotiras Christos in Ancient Eleftherna.

      Facts about Ancient Eleftherna

      The village of Ancient Eleftherna is found in the north of the island of Crete, about 30 kilometers from the town of Rethymnon and not far from the Arkadi monastery. There is a village “Eleftherna” and then the village of Ancient Eleftherna, they are a few kilometers apart. After Eleftherna village you have to drive a bit further to the junction in the village where there is another sign that indicates the sights and shows you the direction.to.

      When you reach Ancient Eleftherna and find the entrance to the ruins, you will see a paved path leading to the ruins of a Roman tower, Here you should first turn left towards the cisterns (places where water was stored) and the acropolis. When the path ends and you turn left you will see the underground cisterns: large water storage chopped out of the rocks. It is very deep and large and you can climb down to have a look inside. There is no water today. Turn right at the path and after some time you will see a bridge from the Hellenistic period. You go towards the remains of an ancient Hellenistic city and a Byzantine church with a cemetery. Follow the sign that refers to the church.

      Sotiras Christos church dates from the 10th century AD and on the inside on the top of the dome of the church is a beautifully preserved fresco of Jesus. The church has a cross shape, and it stands on the site of a basilica from the 6th century BC. It is believed that the older church was the seat of the bishop of Eleftherna. When building the Byzantine church Sotiras Christos materials were used from the older basilica.


      The museum celebrates its three-year anniversary and rising visitor numbers with a temporary exhibition of coins from every city in ancient Greece.

      The museum at the archaeological site of Eleutherna (Eleftherna), the first of its kind on Crete and the fourth in the country, has every reason to pop the corks on its third anniversary this summer, as visitor numbers keep rising. It is even popular among foreign visitors outside the summer season, says museum director Nicholas Stampolidis, a professor of archaeology at the University of Crete and also director of excavations at Ancient Eleutherna.

      “We get a steady flow of tourists from November through March, mainly from the Scandinavian countries, Germany and France,” he says, adding that the museum receives some 800 visitors a day during that period.

      The institution stood out from the get-go, not just because it transports visitors to the dawn of the Hellenic civilization and Homer’s epics with thousands of fascinating finds displayed in a beautiful museum located next to the archaeological site, but also because the exhibits are constantly being changed with the addition of new and older finds from the dig, making each visit a new experience.

      Its third birthday this year is being celebrated with the temporary exhibition “Cretan Cities: The Testimony of Coins,” which is organized in partnership with Crete’s antiquities ephorates and the Alpha Bank Numismatic Collection.

      The exhibition comprises 124 gold, silver and bronze coins from an island that had an impressive 40 mints producing coins during Classical and Hellenistic times.

      Located in the heart of Crete, near the island's geographical center, the archaeological site and the museum of Eleutherna is nestled in a slope of Mount Ida overlooking the sea. Located in the heart of Crete, near the island's geographical center, the archaeological site and the museum of Eleutherna is nestled in a slope of Mount Ida overlooking the sea.

      “We are showing coins from every city in order to underscore not just the local wealth but also imports from other parts of Greece. Apart from prolific traders, the Cretans were also excellent archers and mercenaries, and brought in coins from foreign lands,” explains Stampolidis.

      “These small samples of Crete’s sophisticated arts and culture are also samples of the local identity, which transcended the boundaries of the city and made itself known to the rest of the island, but also to the country,” he adds.

      The illustrations on the coins provide valuable information concerning mythology, economic practices, dietary habits, commerce, religion and art.

      “They tell us about the identity of the Cretan cities,” says Stampolidis. “They even advertise the locals wines, which were renowned, and the sweet wines especially so, as they were exported in large quantities to Rome during Hellenistic and Roman times. Getting a coin from a transaction meant that someone would be treated to, say, an image of the plane tree of Gortyn, which symbolized Zeus’ affair with Europa and their first encounter. After all, he had abducted her from the shores of Phoenicia and brought her to Crete. It really was a marvelous way of advertising Crete and its products,” he adds.

      The exhibition also includes a multimedia application designed by the Institute of Computer Science (ICS) at the Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH), which offers visitors blown-up images of the coins on display and additional information about them. It allows them to design their own coin too.

      There is also a fully illustrated catalogue, in Greek and English, containing rich photographic material.


      Ancient Site of Eleutherna

      I hadn't done my homework before arriving in Crete so didn't know anything about the site but found this place absolutely amazing. Once we arrived at the village we followed the signs for the ancient city. My first impression was that the site was neglected as we came to a building that looked like it should be a ticket office but it was closed and one of the roof beams looked like it was about to fall down. There were no notices for opening times and the building looked like it hadn't been used for a while. However there was a small path to the side of the ticket office so we decided to take a walk down to see what was there. At first we were disappointed as the ancient village was closed off with fencing and the gates were padlocked. Anyway we had a look through the gate and then noticed sign posts to the ancient bridge and necropolis so decided to have a walk around the site. This is a large site as it straddles both sides of the hill and the different parts of the site are accessed by steps and pathways (I do not recommend wearing flip flops as the paths are uneven in places). There does not seem to be anything restored (as with Knossos) and the whole place comes across as a "dig in progress". I was amazed that there is still an aqueduct tunnel that you can easily access and you can also enter the cisterns, which are huge. We spent a good few hours walking around the site and ended up walking to what must be the main entrance (still all closed). There is a map and some information on the site's timespan on a board outside the entrance along with a small car park. What I did not realise was that there was a museum in the village as well and I am really disappointed to have missed it. I have also noticed that some reviewers who have visited the museum have commented that the ancient site is closed to the public. I am not sure if this information was provided at the museum but there was nothing stopping you entering the site and walking around, it is just certain areas are fenced off. There is a website for the museum and site which provides a bit of background. It is just frustrating that parts were not accessible and first impressions are that the site is neglected and not worth visiting. Well in my opinion, if you like history, it is worth a visit and is more interesting than Knossos so give it a try.


      Hellenistic period

      The successors to Alexander’s empire split the new Greek world, which now ran to the borders of India in the east and the Sudan in the south, into separate kingdoms. The generals who ruled them established dynastic control and created a court life that provided a type of stimulus to the arts that had not been experienced in Greece since the Bronze Age. The Attalids, who had become the rulers of Pergamum in northwest Asia Minor, constructed there a new capital city in which influential schools of sculpture and architecture flourished. The Seleucids ruled the Eastern world as far as Persia, and under them the art of architecture in particular evolved in forms that would have an effect on Roman architecture. In Egypt the Ptolemies, at the new capital city that bore Alexander’s name and was founded by him, built the famous lighthouse and library, and another important sculptural school developed there. In the Aegean world, Rhodes proved an important centre and so, of course, did the Macedonian homeland in the north. By comparison, the great cities of central Greece declined in importance, with the exception of Athens, which had a hold on the imagination of Greeks everywhere for its former role against the Persians and the achievements of the Classical period as a result it benefited from the gifts of the new kingdoms, especially in building.

      Alexander’s aspirations and close knowledge of Eastern and Egyptian ways led the new rulers to take more seriously their roles of near divinity. This gave considerable impetus to the art of portraiture, since these rulers thus deserved commemoration as much as any god in fact, even private citizens aspired now to some heroic status after death, so that portrait monuments for tombs and honorific statues became more common. Except for this growth of portraiture, however, the mood in the arts during the Hellenistic period was to intensify and elaborate styles developed by Classical Greece. Palatial architecture aimed at effects never contemplated hitherto even domestic architecture for the first time had palatial pretensions. Trade and the newly acquired resources of the East opened up new possibilities for the artist, in both materials and inspiration the results, however, generally tended to elaboration and grandeur such that the finer qualities of balance and precision characteristic of earlier periods are often difficult to discern in later works.

      The Classical form of the Doric temple was out of favour in the new age, and the few that were built are elaborate in plan and detail, impairing the sober quality of the order. This age appreciated the Ionic and the more flamboyant Corinthian forms, and at any rate most new temple building was done in the new eastern areas of the Greek world, where Ionic had been the usual idiom. The 3rd-century architect Hermogenes of Priene codified the Ionic order in his books, and his buildings popularized new features in plan, notably the broad flanking colonnades (“pseudo-dipteral”), where the earlier Ionic temples of eastern Greece had set ranks of columns. For the first time the Corinthian order was used for temple exteriors, and work was resumed on the great Temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens, financed by an Eastern king, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. The two-storied stoa became an architectural form of importance, serving as hotel, emporium, or office block, and the design of central market and administrative areas depended largely on the disposition of such buildings. An Attalid king paid for a fine stoa for Athens’s marketplace, recently restored and his city of Pergamum seems to have been important in developing stoa design.

      Monumental tombs were naturally still required for ruling families, but nobles and the nouveaux riches could also aspire to them now, designing some as minor sanctuaries for the heroized dead. The finest Macedonian tombs of the period displayed a painted architectural facade below ground, leading to a painted and elaborately furnished vaulted underground chamber. The variety of administrative and court requirements for buildings led to original designs that broke still more decisively with the colonnade orders of Classical temples. A few important examples of particularly original designs are the famous lighthouse (Pharos) of Alexandria with its tiers of masonry 440 feet (135 metres) high the library of Alexandria the clock house Tower of the Winds at Athens monumental fountains and assembly halls and a new elaboration of stage architecture for theatres, in which for the first time the acting took place on a raised stage. (In the 1990s, as the city of Alexandria prepared for major construction projects, layers of the ancient city were uncovered, including what are thought to be remnants of the Pharos of Alexandria.) To the established decorative repertory of moldings and carved ornament was added a variety of floral and animal forms that enriched the surface decoration of buildings. In the East especially, these forms were combined in original ways that, together with compositions that defied the logic of the Classical orders, tended to a style that in many respects anticipates the Baroque. Slowly, too, the advantages of arch and vault, avoided hitherto by Greek architects, were exploited architecture was still basically that of mass on mass, however, and it was left to Rome to make significant progress in construction methods.


      History of Crete

      This is the eighth draft of this paper, this time all in one place.

      At the beginning of word 24 is what looks like an erasure or obliteration of a hieroglyph.

      The obliteration or erasure was done after the original hieroglyph (or whatever) was imprinted. It was done before the firing of the disc. There was a period, however brief, where there was an opportunity for the maker or his superior to fix the disc so it looked more pristine and less like a hastily produced item where quality of message was not important, the finished appearance of the final product was not a critical criteria, and there might be a possible reading of the obliteration/erasure as a portion of the message of the disc.

      The erasure/obliteration does not appear to be a remnant of damage done after the firing.

      Someone had to be in charge of okaying and producing a defective product. Or someone had to be responsible for making an intentionally defective appearing final product for a reason.

      It seems that anyone taking all the care to make the rest of the disc so clean and legible, would not normally leave such a smudge if that person was a priest, mapmaker, government official or lackey, responsible pottery decorator or anyone taking pride in their work. The amount of time necessary to produce the Phaistos Disc and the stamps/seals used to imprint the hieroglyphs would seem to require a more perfect finished product.

      If, as I propose, the erasure/obliteration is purposefully made and purposefully left so at the final firing, then possibly the reason I give for its appearance is correct. If so, I do not think the disc would be an archaeological artifact from Minoan times but more likely one of more modern production, possibly from the time of its discovery. To involve the equivalent of a visual pun or an obvious mistake/botched repair into any official or religious object would not be a likely occurrence, in my mind.

      This is true whether or not the reader accepts my ideas of how the disc may be read. No self-respecting priest, government official, lackey or craftsman involved in making a complex object like the Phaistos Disc would countenance any product with such an obvious shortcoming.

      At the very least, the face of the disc would be flattened and the erasure/obliteration made much less blatant before being fired.

      I have read that the disc was kiln fired, not heated as a result of a conflagration at the point of discovery, but do not have a reference to hand.

      I think this leads to the almost inevitable conclusion that the Phaistos Disc is possibly a product of modern manufacture, a fake. There seems to be no reason a fake would have been produced in Minoan times.

      I do not know if anyone has done an analysis of the disc’s clay to determine from whence it came.

      I do not know if any sort of examinations of the surface can shine any light on the disc’s age.

      I do not know the names of all of the people present at the time in the area of where it was discovered. Did they have the motivations, opportunity and capabilities?

      I think those are what I’d want to know before I made any final determination, don’t you?

      Anatolia has witnessed lots of migrations from ex-Ottoman territories throughout history. Especially the ones happened from the end of the 19th Century to the Republican Period played an important role to shape the social structure in modern Turkey.

      It is aimed in this study to explore Cretan immigrants who had to migrate from the Island of Crete in 1890s and came to -relatively- a foreign cultural, linguistic, economic and political environment in Anatolia.

      Research area of the study is Osmaniye Neighborhood, Davutlar where Cretan immigrants were settled in special houses built in 1902 for the refugees. Those Greek speaking immigrants mostly belonged to Bektashi sect that is one of the varied interpretations of Islam and had lots of cultural differences from local inhabitants of Anatolia like way of life, dressing and food.

      This study is an exploration of an immigrant community’s memories and the cultural identity they have experienced through history, language, beliefs and food culture.

      The Cretan Turks (and now their descendants) are a group of people who originally had lived in the Island of Crete till 1923 when the Obligatory Population Exchange Agreement signed between Turkey and Greece. Through almost the entire 19 th century, as a result of Greek revolts one after another in different times in history and the public order on the island was disrupted, the Cretan Turkish population in fear of their lives left their living places, became refugees and the demographic structure of the island changed in favor of the Orthodox Christians. Among those migrations, the biggest and the most decisive on the political future of the island is the Heraklion Events that started in 1897 which resulted in the migration of at least 40,000 Turks.

      This population movement is particularly important as it caused the expansion of Cretan Turks to very different regions. The present existence of a Cretan community in Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Libya, the Rhodes and Kos Islands of Greece, along with (albeit few) Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia, the Island of Cyprus and Palestine happened due to this immigration movement. This article approaches the immigration and settlement process that happened at the very end of the 19 th century as a result of a revolt in Crete, in a sudden and involuntary manner, in a period where the Ottoman Empire suffered from political, economic and social difficulties. Tracking the official records and by fieldwork where and how immigrants settled, how many and where new settlements were founded for them were analyzed with the methodological approaches of history and historical anthropology.

      Türk tarihi açısından Girit aynı zamanda bir göç tarihidir. 19. yüzyıl boyunca meydana gelen birçok ayaklanma nedeniyle adanın Müslüman nüfusu giderek erimiş olsa da bunlar arasında Girit'in demografik yapısını derinden etkileyeni şüphesiz yüzyılın tam sonundaki "Kandiye Olayları"dır. Müslüman muhacirler bu olaylardan dolayı, güvenilir gördükleri eski Osmanlı topraklarına Anadolu haricinde Rodos, İstanköy, Batı Trakya, Lübnan, Suriye, Libya, Tunus'a dek yayılmışlardır. Fakat bu büyük göç neticesinde Osmanlı topraklarına savrulan muhacirlerin ne kadarının planlı biçimde resmî makamlarca iskân edildiği, onlar için nerelere, nasıl, kaç adet köy inşa edildiği tam olarak henüz bilinmemektedir. Bu bilgilere ancak resmî ya da özel arşiv malzemeleri ve alan araştırmaları neticesinde ulaşılabiliyorken, iç göçler nedeniyle bazı köylerin terk edilmiş olması da tespitin önündeki büyük bir engel olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır.

      Bu çalışma, Osmanlı arşiv malzemelerinin ve sözlü aktarımların bahsetmiş olduğu, ancak iskân edilen Giritli muhacirlerin çoğunun terk etmesi sonucu sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel açıdan bambaşka bir kisveye bürünen ve hatta adı dahi unutulan bir köye Ceyhan Nehrinin kenarında, günümüzde Adana ili Ceyhan ilçesine bağlı Misis'te (Yakapınar) inşa edilen Şarkiyye köyüne odaklanmaktadır. Makalede, Misis bölgesinin neden iskân birimi olarak seçildiği, buraya inşa edilen birimin nasıl adlandırıldığı, göçmenlerin burayı niçin terk ettiği ve onların tekrar iç göçle nerelere ne şekilde yerleştikleri, köyün günümüzdeki yapısıyla karşılaştırmalı olarak arşiv malzemeleri ve alan araştırması verileri yardımıyla aktarılmaktadır.

      On behalf of Turkish history, the island of Crete also seems to be a history of migration. In spite of the fact that Muslim population in Crete had been decreasing due to the Greek uprisings during the 19th century, the "Kandiye Events" is the main one that resulted in the dramatic change in Cretan population in the last years in this century. Muslim emigrants had to migrate to the other Ottoman territories that seemed to be safer, to Anatolia, Rhodes, Kos, Western Thrace, Lebanon, Syria, Tunis, and so on. However, how many emigrant people were resettled in a plan where, how and how many settlements were built by the governments is still unknown. Data about this issue can only be introduced thanks to the official and private archives, besides field works. However there is another obstacle before it since some villages were abandoned due to internal migrations.

      This paper focuses on a called-village in Ottoman documents and oral history, Şarkiyye being founded by River Ceyhan in Adana city, Ceyhan district, Misis (Yakapınar) which varied in terms of socio-economic and cultural aspects, and also lost her name because of being abandoned by her Cretan emigrant inhabitants. With the help of archive documents and data of the field work, the paper comparing her in history to her today's structure, also talks about why Misis region was approved as a settlement area how she was named why the emigrants left her, and where and how they went after the internal migration.


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