Inscribed Wall Panel from Nimrud

Inscribed Wall Panel from Nimrud


Your Stories. Your Wall.

Jan Scruggs stands in front of the first panel of The Wall. It was unveiled on July 22, 1982.

On July 21, 1982, the first panel of what would become The Vietnam Veterans Memorial, most famously known as The Wall in Washington, D.C., is unveiled. The completed memorial was dedicated November 13, 1982. And while you may know that it holds the names of the more than 58,000 fallen service men and women from the war, what else is there to know? A lot.

We’ve broken it down to 22 things you should know about The Wall.

22. The founder of The Wall is Jan Scruggs.

Scruggs was a wounded and decorated veteran of the Vietnam War, having served in the 199th Light Infantry Brigade of the U.S. Army. He felt a memorial would serve as a place of healing. Scruggs launched the effort with $2,800 of his own money and gradually gained the support of other Vietnam veterans in persuading Congress to provide a prominent location in Washington, D.C. He also founded VVMF, an organization that pursues a mission of preserving the legacy of The Wall, promoting healing and educating about the impact of the Vietnam War.

21. President Carter signed legislation to provide two acres of land for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial to be built.

On July 1, 1980, Carter made it official – the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was to be built on the National Mall. In his speech he said, “This is an important step toward the establishment of a permanent memorial for the young men and women who died in the service of our country in Vietnam for those who, despite all our efforts, are still missing in Southeast Asia and for all those who served and returned. We are honored to have a small part in offering this overdue recognition. They honored us and their country with their service, and no delay in recognizing them can lessen the value of their personal sacrifice.

20. 21-year old Maya Lin was the designer of the memorial.

Maya Lin, who is Chinese American, was an undergraduate at Yale University when she mailed in her submission for the design competition on the last day it could be postmarked. Her design was number 1026, and she was selected unanimously as the winner by the jury. Lin wanted to create a park within a park, for people to reflect. More about her design here.

19. The Wall’s black granite was picked because of its reflective nature.

And it came all the way from India. One of the four major criteria for the design of the memorial meant it had to be reflective and contemplative in nature. To achieve this part, the designer Maya Lin chose these polish granite walls to create a mirror-like surface that reflects images of the surrounding trees, lawns, and monuments.

18. The original design was highly controversial.

When it became known that The Wall would be built and hold the names of the more than 58,000 Vietnam fallen, there was a big outcry. Some veterans and political figures felt that The Wall was a “giant tombstone, also referring to it as a “black gash of shame.” For many, it was too abstract a design and people searched for a more heroic, traditional depiction of those who served.

17. No federal funds were used to build The Wall.

The Wall is a people’s memorial. It was built with money from individuals, corporations, unions and businesses. The total was $8.4 million dollars. Fundraising began in 1979. It was dedicated on Veterans Day, 1982.

16. The names are listed by date of death, starting at the apex.

The names on The Wall are listed by date of casualty, beginning in 1959. The names are in chronological order, according to the date of casualty (which is not necessarily the date of death, but rather the date from the point of injury which led to the death). As prescribed by Maya Lin, this arrangement allows those servicemembers who died together to forever be linked.

15. Each name has a symbol designated next to it.

Each name is preceded (on the West Wall) or followed (on the East Wall) by a symbol designating status. The diamond symbol denotes that the service member’s death was confirmed the cross symbol denotes the person was missing at the end of the war and remains missing and unaccounted for. The diamond symbol is superimposed over the cross when a service member’s remains are returned or otherwise accounted for and a circle — as a symbol of life — would be inscribed around the cross should a serviceman ever return alive.

14. Names are added every year.

Every year, VVMF works with the Department of Defense to make sure that The Wall is accurate. When MIAs are recovered in Vietnam or when an appeal has been approved for addition to The Wall, VVMF makes the appropriate changes. Name additions have met the Department of Defense criteria for addition to The Wall, having sustained wounds in Vietnam from which they eventually perished. Information on how to add a person to The Wall can be found here.

13. Items left at The Wall are picked up at the end of every day.

Since its dedication, more than 400,000 items have been left in remembrance at The Wall. Items picked up are stored at a National Park Service facility.

12. The names of eight women are inscribed on The Wall.

The names of eight (8) women, all nurses (seven from the Army and one from the Air Force) are inscribed on The Wall. Their names are 1st Lt. Sharon Ann Lane, 2nd Lt. Pamela Dorothy Donovan, Lt. Col. Annie Ruth Graham, Capt. Mary Therese Klinker , 2nd Lt. Carol Ann Elizabeth Drazba, 2nd Lt. Elizabeth Ann Jones, Capt. Eleanor Grace Alexander, and 1st Lt. Hedwig Diane Orlowski.

11. There are some errors. As many as a couple dozen Vietnam veterans have names on The Wall, but were alive when their names were inscribed. There is no definitive answer to exactly how many, but there could be as many as 38 names of personnel who survived, but through clerical errors, were added to the list of fatalities provided by the Department of Defense.

The Three Servicemen Statue. Photo/ Dan Arant

10. The Three Servicemen Statue, Flag Pole, Vietnam Women’s Memorial, and In Memory Plaque all make up the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.

Aside from The Wall, there is more to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The Three Servicemen statue is the result of the controversy surrounding Lin’s original design. This was a more heroic, life-like depiction of a soldier. It was dedicated on Veterans Day, 1984 with a flag pole. In 1993, The Vietnam Women’s Memorial was dedicated. Thousands of women volunteered to go to Vietnam, and this is the only memorial that honors women’s patriotic service was dedicated in the nation’s capital. Finally, in April of 2000, the In Memory Plaque was authorized by Congress to be added. The plaque is intended to honor those who died as a result of exposure to Agent Orange or PTSD, but are not eligible for placement on The Wall due to Department of Defense policies. It was dedicated on November 10, 2004. For more information, click here.

9. There is a traveling replica of The Wall.

In all honesty, there are many Wall replicas that cross the country to bring healing to thousands. However, only one is associated with The Wall in D.C., The Wall That Heals. Unveiled in 1996, it travels with a mobile Education Center, showing photos of the fallen and memorabilia left at The Wall.

8. The Wall brings an average of 4.5 million visitors every year.

The Wall is one of the most popular monuments in Washington, D.C. and the most visited, second to the Lincoln Memorial.

7. Ceremonies at The Wall are held every year, hosted by VVMF.

Presentation of Colors at the annual Memorial Day Ceremony at The Wall

VVMF hosts ceremonies on Father’s Day, Mother’s Day, Memorial Day, Veterans Day and during the Christmas holidays, which allow the public throughout the year to remember and pay tribute to friends and loved ones whose names are inscribed on the Memorial. Learn about them here. Also, VVMF hosts school groups throughout the year. For more information on VVMF’s role in education, click here.

6. The Department of Defense makes the decision of who gets added to The Wall.

VVMF receives numerous requests each year from individuals who want to have particular names placed on the Memorial. And while VVMF finances the addition of names on The Wall, VVMF does not determine whose names are to be inscribed. It is the Department of Defense that makes these difficult and often very technical decisions.

5. The Wall is a 493 ft. structure, with 72 panels.

The West Wall at Night. Photo/ Terry Adams NPS

There are 70 separate panels (plus a panel at each end without names) on each wall, totaling 140 panels of names. The list starts and ends at the vertex, or middle, of the Memorial. Beginning with the year 1959 inscribed at the top of the panel on Panel 1 East (1E), the listing goes out to the right, to the end of the East Wall, Panel 70 East (70E). It resumes at the end of the West Wall, Panel 70 West (70W), and continues to the right, to Panel 1 West (1W), with 1975 inscribed at the very bottom.

4. VVMF holds a “Reading of the Names” for the names inscribed on The Wall every five years.

The first reading, in 1982, took three full days and began a healing process that focused the nation’s attention away from the war itself and toward the warrior instead. VVMF held its most recent reading of the names ceremony in 2012.

3. Veterans began guarding The Wall shortly after it was dedicated, to prevent damage and vandalism.

When The Wall was first erected, veterans began standing watch over it to protect it from vandalism. Today, there are dozens of Wall Volunteers who assist visitors with questions, give name rubbings, and offer general knowledge about The Wall’s being and structure. Learn about the volunteers here.

Wall Volunteer Annmarie touches The Wall before she makes a name rubbing during Memorial Day weekend, 2014.

2. Wall washings occur every Saturday between April and November.

The National Park Service (NPS) and VVMF work together to make sure the three-acre site the Memorial sits on is properly taken care of. NPS organizes and schedules washings every week from volunteers and veterans groups, when temperatures permit it – when it is above freezing.

1. The Wall will one day be complemented by the future Education Center.

Currently in the fundraising stages, VVMF is working to build an Education Center. The Center will be an interactive learning facility on the National Mall where our military heroes’ stories and sacrifice will never be forgotten. The Education Center will feature the faces and stories of the more than 58,000 men and women on The Wall and honor America’s Legacy of Service, including those serving in our nation’s Armed Forces today. And just like The Wall, the Center will be built with private funds – by supporters like you. To learn more and donate, click here.

Rendering of Making the Names Visible Exhibit in the future Education Center. Photo/ Ralph Appelbaum Associates


The Names

When the Wall was dedicated in 1982, there were 57,939 names inscribed. At the time, approximately 1,300 names were designated as servicemen who were either missing or prisoners of war.

The essence of the Wall is the names and the reaction of the visitor to seeing his or her reflection in this sea of remembrance. Millions more come to experience this Memorial each year. Some are drawn to the Wall like pilgrims to Mecca. Others think it is just another tourist stop until they feel the haunting power of this unique work of remembrance.

The order of names

Lin’s intention from the beginning was to have the names appear chronologically, beginning and ending at the apex. She wanted the names to tell the journey, or the timeline, of the war.

This approach would allow veterans, friends and family members to find a loved one by his or her date of casualty. It would also enable veterans to find groups of friends who died during the same incident. Fallen comrades could be together on the Wall, as they’d been in death.

And there would be nothing to denote service or rank. No single person’s service or sacrifice would be any greater than anyone else’s. All would be represented equally, with generals listed alongside infantrymen.

Lin’s vision prevailed. The names are listed in chronological order, according to the date of casualty. This is “the genius of Maya’s design,” said Scruggs.

“The chronological order allows veterans who were in a battle to see their friends forever united on the Wall,” he explained. “As she wisely predicted, this would help bring the veterans back in time—and a cathartic healing would occur for many by facing this loss again.”

Some common names appear on the Memorial more than once. Chronological order by date of casualty allows friends and family members to pick out their loved one from all of the others with the same name.

The casualty date is the date the person was killed or wounded in combat or injured during an accident for the missing, the date is when the person was reported missing. The first two names listed on Panel 1, East Wall, at the apex are from July 8, 1959. On that panel, above the names is this inscription:

In honor of the men and women of the armed forces of the United States who served in the Vietnam War. The names of those who gave their lives and of those who remain missing are inscribed in the order they were taken from us.

The last 18 names listed on the bottom of Panel 1, West, also at the apex, are from May 15, 1975. These names are followed by the inscription:

Our nation honors the courage, sacrifice and devotion to duty and country of its Vietnam veterans. This memorial was built with private contributions from the American people. November 11, 1982.

The symbols beside each name

Beside each name is a symbol that denotes a service member’s status: either missing or confirmed dead. On the west wall, the symbol precedes the name on the east wall, the symbol follows the name.

A diamond symbol signifies that the service member’s death was confirmed. Those designated by a “plus” sign were considered to be missing in action when the war ended. In the event a service member’s remains are returned or accounted for, then a diamond symbol is engraved over the plus sign. Several hundred such designation changes have been made since the Wall was built in 1982. If a service member were to return alive, a circle—the symbol of life—would be inscribed around the plus sign. However, there have been no such cases.

Selecting names for the Wall

Doubek was tasked with identifying all of the names to be included on the Wall. During and after the Vietnam War, the Department of Defense (DoD) compiled a list of combat zone casualties according to criteria in a 1965 Presidential Executive Order. It specified the geographic areas of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and surrounding coastal areas as combat zones. If a person died or went missing in those areas, DoD considered that individual to be a combat zone casualty and eligible for inclusion on the Wall.

Unfortunately, the Department of Defense and the individual service branches maintained separate casualty lists with slightly differing criteria. This was long before the advent of integrated computer databases. The result: no comprehensive master list of Vietnam War casualties existed. The job of cross-referencing the information of individual branches with the DoD fell to Doubek.

Compounding these difficulties was the issue that many casualties, particularly from the Air Force, were not always straightforward in terms of locale. “In order to have your name on the Wall, you had to have died within the ‘war zone,’” explained Doubek. “But you had stories of guys in the Air Force who would die in their aircraft over Thailand after having been shot over Vietnam.” Technically, they were ineligible for inclusion on the Wall.

For those and a handful of other unique circumstances, Doubek made his own list of men who had died due to the injuries in the combat zones—names that may have been listed by an individual service branch, but not by DoD. With this list in hand, he went to the various locations where individual service records were kept to review files.

“I looked at the record to determine whether mortal wounds were sustained,” Doubek said of the men whose names were listed by the Army, but not by DoD. He tried to make the best call he could when adding names to the list. Unfortunately, he mistakenly added a small number of names of men who were still alive. To put a circle around the symbol beside their names would not provide the correct historical context related to their situation. Their names, however, have been removed from the printed Directory of Names.

Ensuring accuracy

Another challenge was ensuring the accuracy of the names. Doubek contacted the National Personnel Records Center, Archives and Records Service, in St. Louis, Mo. On the other end of that phone call was an former Air Force officer who had served in Vietnam. He would become instrumental in helping Doubek identify names and check spellings.

Once a master list was compiled, the names were checked manually for errors. “We worked very hard with volunteers from the Gold Star Mothers,” recalled Doubek. For weeks and weeks, a team worked through the list, verifying spellings and ensuring that the computer printout that was to be used for the stenciling was correct.

During one review, Doubek found a glitch with the computer software: it did not recognize the spaces that appeared within a last name, such as “van der Meide.” Nor could it properly discern a compounded first name, such as Billy Bob, versus a traditional first and middle name. As a result, the software improperly truncated or abbreviated names. With the glitch discovered, Doubek and his team located and hand-corrected each error.

On the stencil printouts, each line contained five names per row. In some instances, names needed to be shuffled in order to fit on a line. If a name was particularly long, it would be swapped with a shorter name. “I went through the whole list of names eight times, because I was concerned about the correct formatting,” remembered Doubek.

Adding names

As of 2017, there are 58,318 names inscribed on The Wall. The first group, added in 1983, included 53 Marines who were killed when their R&R (rest and relaxation) flight crashed in Hong Kong. A few years after the dedication, the issue of geographic criteria was expanded by DoD to include people who had been killed outside of the war zone while on or in support of direct combat missions. This change prompted the addition of 110 names in 1986.

VVMF receives numerous requests each year from individuals who wish to have particular names added to the Memorial. While VVMF finances the name additions to the Wall, it is the Department of Defense that makes these difficult and often technical decisions. VVMF does not have the authority to overrule those who adjudicate these matters.

Once additions are approved by DoD, VVMF receives the list of approved names, coordinates the inscribing and absorbs the costs.

Names that become eligible for inclusion are added once each year, in May, a few weeks before Memorial Day. Family members are invited to witness the inscription and also to attend the annual Memorial Day ceremony when the new names are read at the Wall.

For families who have worked to have their loved one’s name added, the journey can be long and exhausting. Some have tried for years before receiving approval from DoD. Colleen Pontes, whose father Kevin Joyce was added in 2003, remembered the rush of emotions she felt as she and her brother watched their dad’s name being inscribed in the granite. “Proving a direct correlation to the injuries is a challenge,” Pontes explained. “I respect the process, but it can be hard to prove something that’s in your heart.”

“That’s what makes it so special when you see the name going up,” she added. “And they are so respectful when they do the engraving. They seem honored to be putting the names on the Wall.”

Locating a Name

Although the names are not listed alphabetically, it is not difficult for visitors to find a name on the Memorial. The National Park Service offers these steps for locating a name:


Nisutnefer (G 4970)

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, relief between false doors (detail, standing figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka [called Khent]), looking W through locked gate

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel entrance, drum lintel inscribed for Nisutnefer, looking W through locked gate

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, N wall, relief (seated figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka registers of offerings and offering bearers: top register, Nisutnefer's son Kahersetef presenting document and [HqA] Iytwa second register, ka-priest Nisuti and [HqA] Merib bottom register, ka-priest Nisuti), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, N wall, relief (seated figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka registers of offerings and offering bearers: top register, Nisutnefer's son Kahersetef presenting document and [HqA] Iytwa second register, ka-priest Nisuti and [HqA] Merib bottom register, ka-priest Nisuti), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, N false door inscribed for Nisutnefer, and panel of relief to N (top register, Nubian retainer Meri second register, Nubian sealer Seneb third register, dwarf Ankhiswedjefre bottom register, dwarf Iswiankhiwedjes), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, N false door inscribed for Nisutnefer, and panel of relief to N (top register, Nubian retainer Meri second register, Nubian sealer Seneb third register, dwarf Ankhiswedjefre bottom register, dwarf Iswiankhiwedjes), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, S false door inscribed for Nisutnefer (detail, lower part, standing figures of Nisutnefer on S jamb and Khentetka on N jamb), and panel of relief to S (third register, ka-priest Neferhai bottom register, ka-priest Pehtes), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, S false door inscribed for Nisutnefer (detail, crossbar = lower lintel and drum lintel), and panel of relief to S (second register, ka-priest and scribe Tjenti third register, ka-priest Neferhai), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, S false door inscribed for Nisutnefer (detail, upper lintel and tablet with Nisutnefer and Khentetka seated at offering table), and panel of relief to S (top register, overseer of ka-priests Dedhekenu), and portion of relief to N (second register, offering bearer identified as keeper of documents Senrehui), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, relief (upper portion of Nisutnefer seated at offering table) and inscription (above), looking S

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, relief (upper portion of Nisutnefer seated at offering table) and inscription (above), looking S

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, relief (Nisutnefer seated at offering table, register with butchering scene below, including ka-priests Nengi and Hesi, and butchers Wedjanetjer, Iymu, and possibly Seni and Sepererankh), looking S

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, E wall, relief (upper portions of standing figure of Nisutnefer and Khentetka), looing E

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, E wall, relief over chapel entrance (boating scene: top register [second boat]: Setju in bow, Nisutnefer in middle bottom register [second boat]: Khnumhetep in bow, Nisutnefer in middle), looking E

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, N wall, relief (seated figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka registers of offerings and offering bearers: top register: Nisutnefer's son Kahersetef presenting document), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Gize View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, S end, upper part of S false door inscribed for Nisutnefer (upper lintel, tablet, crossbar = lower lintel Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka seated at offering table on tablet), panel of relief to S (top register: overseer of ka-priests Dedhekenu), and section of relief to N (registers of personified estates and offering bearers top register: offering bearer identified as [HqA] Netjernefer second register offering bearer identified as keeper of documents Senrehui), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, relief between false doors (N end, upper section, detail, upper portions of standing figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka [called Khent], and registers of personified estates and offering bearers top register: ka-priest Dedhekenu second register: scribe Nefernen) and inscription (above), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, upper part, relief (Nisutnefer seated at offering table), looking S

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 4970

Description: Limestone seated statue of Nisutnefer from G 4970, serdab behind S false door (front): Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim 2143

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 4970

Description: Limestone seated statue of Nisutnefer from G 4970, serdab behind S false door: Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim 2143 seated statue of Khentetka (called Khent) with her son Rudju (depicted as young boy) from G 4970, serdab behind N false door: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 7507

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 4970

Description: Limestone seated statue of Nisutnefer from G 4970, serdab behind S false door: Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim 2143 limestone seated statue of Khentetka (called Khent) with her son Rudju (depicted as young boy) from G 4970, serdab behind N false door: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 7507

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza: View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, W wall, N end, N false door inscribed for Nisutnefer (Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka seated at offering table on tablet), and relief to S (upper portions of standing figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka [called Khent]), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, N wall, relief (seated figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka registers of offerings and offering bearers: top register, Nisutnefer's son Kahersetef presenting document and [HqA] Iytwa second register, ka-priest Nisuti and [HqA] Merib bottom register, first figure on left, ka-priest Nisuti), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, relief (Nisutnefer seated at offering table, register with butchering scene below, including ka-priests Nengi and Hesi, and butchers Wedjanetjer, Iymu, and possibly Seni and Sepererankh), looking S

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, N wall, relief (seated figures of Nisutnefer and his wife Khentetka registers of offerings and offering bearers: top register, Nisutnefer's son Kahersetef presenting document and [HqA] Iytwa second register, ka-priest Nisuti and [HqA] Merib bottom register, ka-priest Nisuti), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 4970

Description: Cemetery G 4000: G 4970, Nisutnefer, chapel, S wall, relief (Nisutnefer seated at offering table, register with butchering scene below, including ka-priests Nengi and Hesi, and butchers Wedjanetjer, Iymu, and possibly Seni and Sepererankh), looking S

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 4970

Description: Limestone seated statue of Nisutnefer from G 4970, serdab behind S false door: Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim 2143 limestone seated statue of Khentetka (called Khent) with her son Rudju (depicted as young boy) from G 4970, serdab behind N false door: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 7507

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 4970

Description: Seated statue of Nisutnefer from G 4970, serdab behind S false door (profile proper left): Pelizaeus-Museum, Hildesheim 2143

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All rights reserved.


History & Culture

On September 22, 1862, five days after the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln announced that he would issue a formal emancipation of all slaves in any of the Confederate States that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. No states rejoined the Union, so Lincoln implemented the Proclamation by establishing a "Bureau of Colored Troops" to facilitate the recruitment of African-American soldiers to fight for the Union Army.

The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were regiments of the Army during the Civil War that were composed of over 200,000 soldiers. First recruited in 1863, the men of the 175 regiments of the USCT constituted approximately one-tenth of the Union Army. These men and their officers are remembered here as Freedom Fighters who won in the struggle for their own liberation.

At the beginning of the American Civil War there were many that felt the conflict should solely be a struggle to preserve the Union and exclusively a white man's fight. As the war progressed though, and runaway slaves continued to flee to Federal armies in greater numbers, more began to feel that something should be done about this "curious institution" known as slavery. Early on, Congress forbade the enlistment of free African Americans and only allowed the use of former slaves as workers in the military. With the passage of the 2nd Confiscation Act and Militia Act in July 1862, African Americans from anywhere in the country were now sanctioned to join the United States military and contribute to the cause that some now saw as a struggle for a "new birth of freedom". Through their valor, service, and sacrifice during the war, black soldiers and sailors disproved the claims of African American inferiority and laid the groundwork for the future struggles in citizenship and voting rights that would continue for over one hundred years.

By supporting the Union, slaves and free blacks, living in the North and South, courageously advanced the cause of freedom for more than four million enslaved people. The African American Civil War Memorial commemorates the military service of hundreds of thousands of Civil War era African American soldiers and sailors. Etched into stainless steel panels of the memorial are names identifying 209,145 United States Colored Troops (USCT) who responded to the Union's call to arms. In 1865, President Lincoln said, "without the military help of the black freedmen, the war against the south could not have been won".

Inscribed on the Wall of Honor are the names of 209,145 soldiers of the USCT 175 regiments, 7,000 white Officers and 2,145 Hispanic surnames. Also honored are the approximate 20,000 Navy sailors whose names are not yet on the wall because the Navy was not segregated.

Spirit of Freedom Sculpture

Ed Hamilton's sculpture 'Spirit of Freedom' depicts three infantrymen and a sailor defending freedom. Above them is the face of the Spirit of Freedom watching over like an angel with her arms crossed. The other side of the statue shows a scene of a soldier with his family. Inscribed on the sculpture base: 'Civil War to Civil rights and Beyond. This Memorial is dedicated to those who served in African American units of the Union Army in the Civil War. The 209,145 names inscribed on these walls commemorate those fighters of freedom.'


Assyrian wall-panel depicting an attack on an enemy town. Dated approximately 728 BC, from the central palace in Nimrud.

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Your Stories. Your Wall.

Status Symbols changed for three service members whose remains were repatriated in 2019

Each spring, VVMF works with the Department of Defense to make updates to The Wall. If the Department of Defense determines that a service member has met the criteria for addition to The Wall, the National Park Service directs VVMF that a name should be added. Service members repatriated in the previous year have their status symbols changed.

This year, there were three additions to The Wall, bringing the total number of names on The Wall to 58,279. There were also three service members who were repatriated in 2019 and those service members had their status symbols changed on The Wall. The number of Americans still listed as missing and unaccounted for from the Vietnam War stands at 1,586.

Name additions and status changes are usually done annually in May followed by a Reading of the Names during the Memorial Day ceremony. However, the engraving was postponed this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These service members will be officially welcomed home at the next in-person ceremony at The Wall.

James Lee of the Colorado-based company, Engrave Write, performs a name addition on The Wall on Sept. 15, 2020.

When names are added, a highly technical process is required. Precise measurements must be made to ensure letters are lined up, have the right width, and are etched into the granite to a depth that matches the etchings already on the memorial. The letters are etched into The Wall as a sand blasting apparatus is passed over it. The physical work of adding the names and changing statuses has been performed by James Lee of the Colorado-based company, Engrave Write, since 1986.

These three service members had their names added to The Wall:

    – CPT Oliveira deployed with the Army’s 21st Infantry in February 1969 and was severely wounded on May 13, 1969. Oliveira’s name is inscribed on Panel W24, Line 108.
    – PFC Quire deployed with the Army’s 16th Infantry in February 1967. He was severely wounded on April 22, 1967. Quire’s name is inscribed on Panel 18E, Line 66.
    – LCPL Ziomek deployed with 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines Division in February 1970. On September 30, 1970, he was medically evacuated to Okinawa and died there days later. Ziomek’s name is inscribed on Panel W11, Line 69.

Neal C. Ward was one of three service members whose remains were repatriated the previous year. His status was changed on The Wall. A diamond was superimposed over the cross symbol next to his name to show his status as known dead.

Every name inscribed on The Wall has a symbol next to their name. The diamond symbol denotes that a service member is known dead or presumed dead. A “cross” or “plus” symbol denotes that a service members’ status is unknown, and they remain unaccounted for today. When the remains of a service member are repatriated, the diamond symbol is superimposed over the cross symbol.

These three service members were repatriated in 2019:

    – On October 8, 1967, Guerra was a passenger on board a Navy E-1B that crashed while flying from Vietnam to the USS Oriskany. Guerra’s remains were finally identified conclusively in February 2019. His name is inscribed on Panel 27E, Line 21.
    – On May 19, 1967, Knight was piloting an Air Force A-1E on a strike mission in Northern Laos when hit by anti-aircraft fire. Knight’s remains were identified in June 2019. His name is inscribed on Panel 20E, Line 45.
    – On June 13, 1969, Ward was piloting an Air Force A-1H on a strike mission in northern Laos when hit by ground fire. Ward’s remains were identified in July 2019. His name is inscribed on W22, Line 39.

The Department of Defense sets the criteria for, and makes decisions about, whose names are eligible for inscription on The Wall and directs the National Park Service that names should be added. VVMF pays for the name additions and status changes and partners with the National Park Service to ensure the long-term care and preservation of The Wall. To learn more about VVMF’s role in care and preservation, click here.


Inscribed Wall Panel from Nimrud - History

On May 4, the 10 Middlebury College students in Sarah Laursen's course on digital methodologies for art historians held their final class of the semester on Zoom. That wasn't unusual, because Middlebury, like other colleges around the state and country, had sent their students home to help slow the spread of the coronavirus.

However, the guests Laursen invited to the Zoom call were notable: Sarah Graff, an associate curator at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Sean Burrus, the Andrew W. Mellon postdoctoral curatorial fellow at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art.

While Seven Days listened in, Laursen's students presented to the two art historians their semester-long project: a website examining one of Middlebury College's first art acquisitions, which is a carved stone panel nearly 3,000 years old. The detailed relief, depicting a muscular, winged man with an impressive beard, is one of hundreds that once adorned the interior walls of the Northwest Palace, built by the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II (who reigned from 883 to 859 BC), in Nimrud (near present-day Mosul, Iraq).

Graff and Burrus' institutions have some of those panels, too. In fact, when the British archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard published the results of his excavations of the palace in the 1840s, collectors and institutions around the world clamored to acquire panels for themselves.

The British Museum snagged enough to fill a couple of enormous rooms. Others were sold to excited Christian missionaries working nearby who believed they verified the Bible, which names Assyrian kings and places such as Nimrud (aka Nimrod). Middlebury got its panel from one of those missionaries: Alum Reverend Wilson Farnsworth, then preaching in Turkey, donated it to the college in about 1854.

Similar stories account for the presence of Northwest Palace artifacts in some two dozen institutions in the northeastern U.S. -- including a panel very similar to Middlebury's at the University of Vermont's Fleming Museum of Art in Burlington. (Curator Andrea Rosen also participated in the Zoom call.)

The Assyrian relief panel at the Middlebury College Museum of Art. ( Middlebury College Museum of Art)

All these facts and many more are detailed on the visually appealing site the students made, which is titled NW x NE: The Assyrian Relief in the Middlebury College Museum of Art. Using ArcGIS StoryMaps, ThingLink, Sketchfab and other digital platforms, the site lays out a nonhierarchical grid of nine clickable panels dedicated to subjects such as Neo-Assyrian history, the palace's architecture, Assyrian iconography and conservation techniques.

The goal was to make the website as accessible as possible, Laursen later noted during a phone call. "We wanted it to reach any museumgoer -- little kids, retired professors, everyone," she said.

In that spirit, students condensed their extensive research into textual passages of 150 words or fewer -- similar to museum wall texts -- and composed them at an eighth-grade reading level. (For instance, apotropaic symbols are rephrased as "motifs to ward off evil.") They also assembled a glossary of terms that visitors might need to google and embedded each passage with a variety of videos, images, maps and visual backgrounds.

Graff and Burrus interjected commentary and critique during the Zoom session.

"I really appreciate how thoughtful you've been about thinking about your audience," said Graff, an Ancient Near East art specialist.

Burrus, a scholar of the Ancient Mediterranean art and archaeology, asked why the students had used WordPress rather than Squarespace to create the site. Senior Tenzin Dorjee, the site's webmaster, explained that it was because the platform was free, adding that they also didn't have to buy the domain.

Graff approved, commenting on "how important it is to use free and accessible technology on collaborative projects."

NW x NE was inspired by an initiative by Graff and Burrus to gather representatives from the palace-relief-owning institutions of the Northeast. Because it's impractical to reunite the panels physically -- each weighs about a ton -- the two art historians led a workshop at Bowdoin last May to brainstorm other modes of collaboration.

Representatives from more than 10 institutions attended, including Laursen, who is also curator of Asian art at the Middlebury College Museum of Art, and Fleming collections and exhibitions manager Margaret Tamulonis.

Laursen, who is about to begin a new job as associate curator of Chinese art at the Harvard Art Museums, said that workshop attendees discussed creating a digital exhibition about the palace. The group has continued to meet occasionally over a Slack channel. Meanwhile, Laursen thought of making the project the experimental subject of her digital methodologies course.

She added that many digital resources and reconstructions of the palace exist on the web already, including some "relics from the 2000s." Rather than reinvent the wheel, her students include one animated recreation of the king's private suite, produced by a private company called Learning Site, on their website. They also discuss reasons for the unreliability of any hypothetical reproduction of the palace.

Among the students' original contributions are two highly useful, interactive maps. One is a floor plan that allows visitors to click on a room in the palace and find where in the Northeast its original panels now reside, as well as an image, title, accession number and link to the object's online record.

The other is a map of the world pinpointing where all of the palace's panels and other artifacts are held. Graff called both "a really good step forward over the existing ways of mapping."

The Met curator also approved of the students' decision to dedicate one of the website's nine subjects to the role religion played in their dispersal.

"It's extremely puzzling and strange, this whole Biblical connection," she mused. "How sincere do you think this interest in the Bible was? Or was it about trophy hunting?"

Samantha Horton, a senior and the project's text editor, replied, "Trophy hunting was definitely part of it. It was about the idea that Christianity triumphed over this [Assyrian] religion."

Senior Allie Izzard, who compiled the glossary, added that the religious ramifications of the 19th-century dig mostly interested Americans. "British accounts were more about the swashbuckling aspects," she pointed out.

Either way, said Tamulonis about the Fleming's panel, the pillaged reliefs are ideal for jumpstarting discussions about the often "tortured provenance" of museum holdings.

The Middlelbury students' website also addresses the difficult issue of repatriation. But the idea of returning the panels to Iraq is complicated not just by their unwieldy weight but by recent events. In 2015, ISIS destroyed the remains of the palace with bulldozers and explosives and either broke the remaining treasures or sold them on the black market. (One important relief panel owned by a seminary in Virginia since 1860 garnered $30.1 million in an auction at Christie's in New York City on October 31, 2018, so the potential gains for the militants are significant if they can find buyers.)

Eventually, visitors will once again be able to view Middlebury's Assyrian relief panel next to the museum's reception desk, or the Fleming's cemented into a wall in the Marble Court, and examine these expertly carved visions of supernatural beings in person. Until then, anyone anywhere can learn all about them at the NW x NE website.


Kaninisut [I] (G 2155)

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, N wall, relief (standing figures of Kaninisut and his son Hawer, registers of scribes, including [top register] steward Wehemka, Tjeset, Im[. ], [middle register] steward Kaemnefret, Tjenti, Khnumhetep, Qedmerer, [bottom register] Sahi, Menekhka, Pehernefer, Rahetep): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall, S false door inscribed for Kaninisut (S jamb: Pernedju and I[. ] N jamb: Hermeru), panel of relief to S ([top register] Wehemka, [bottom register] Iduneferhetep), and portion of registers of relief to N (registers of scribes, ka-priests, and offering bearers, including [top register] Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity, [bottom register] Mer[. ]khufu, Senebdisu): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall, N false door inscribed for Kaninisut (N jamb: Ibkaptah S jamb: Penu), panel of relief to N ([top register] Neferhanisut, [bottom register] Imsekher), and portion of relief to S (standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut register of offering bearers below, including Niankhhathor, Kairi): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall, relief between false doors (N end, standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and their three children, Harwer, Wadjethetep, and Kaninisut "the younger" register of offering bearers below, including Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, E wall, relief over chapel entrance (boats: [lower register of striding figures in front of upper boat] Pernedju, Hermeru, [upper boat] Hetepsepet, Wahib, Kaninisut, Penu, [lower boat] Kaemheset, Wahib, Kaninisut, Seteb): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, N door jamb, relief (Kaninisut seated at offering table): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, S door jamb, relief (Kaninisut seated at offering table [name not preserved], and offering bearers, one identified as Imsekher): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), W wall, S false door inscribed for Kaninisut (S jamb: Pernedju and I[. ] N jamb: Hermeru), panel of relief to S ([top register] Wehemka), and portion of relief to N (registers of scribes and offering bearers: including [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity, [bottom register] Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[. ]khufu, Senebdisu and two of Kaninisut's children: Wadjethetep and Kaninisut "the younger"), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), N wall, relief (standing figures of Kaninisut and his son Harwer, registers of scribes, including [top register] Wehemka, Tjeset, Im[. ], [middle register] steward Kaemnefret, Tjenti, Khnumhetep, Qedmerer, [bottom register] Sahi, Menekhka, Pehernefer, Rahetep), looking N

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), entrance, N door jamb, relief (Kaninisut seated at offering table), looking NE

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), W wall, N false door inscribed for Kaninisut (N jamb: Ibkaptah S jamb: Penu), panel of relief to N ([top register] Neferhanisut, [bottom register] Imsekher), and portion of relief to S (standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and two of their three children, Harwer and Wadjethetep register of offering bearers below, including Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), W wall, S false door inscribed for Kaninisut (S jamb: Pernedju and I[. ] N jamb: Hermeru), panel of relief to S, and portion of relief to N (registers of scribes, ka-priests, and offering bearers, including [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity, [bottom register] Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[. ]khufu, Senebdisu and two of Kaninisut's children: Wadjethetep and Kaninisut "the younger"), looking W

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), E wall, relief over chapel entrance (boats: [lower register of striding figures in front of upper boat] Pernedju, Hermeru, [upper boat] Hetepsepet, Wahib, Kaninisut, Penu, [lower boat] Kaemheset, Wahib, Kaninisut, Seteb) and portion of relief to S (registers of personified estates livestock procession, including Hesi and unnamed attendant offering bearers, including Medu, Bebi, Mernetjerukhufu, Semerka, Persen), looking E

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), N wall, relief (standing figures of Kaninisut and his son Harwer, registers of scribes), looking N (N false door on W wall, relief over chapel entrance on E wall)

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), E wall, relief over chapel entrance (boats: [lower register of striding figures in front of upper boat] Pernedju, Hermeru, [upper boat] Hetepsepet, Wahib, Kaninisut, [lower boat] Kaemheset, Wahib, Kaninisut, Seteb) and portion of relief to S (registers of personified estates livestock procession, including Hesi and unnamed attendant offering bearers, including Medu, Bebi, Mernetjerukhufu, Semerka, Persen), looking E

Subjects: Western Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 2155

Description: Cemetery G 2100: G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel (KHM Vienna ÄS 8006), E wall, relief over chapel entrance (boats: [lower register of striding figures in front of upper boat] Pernedju, Hermeru, [upper boat] Hetepsepet, Wahib, Kaninisut, Penu, [lower boat] Kaemheset, Wahib, Kaninisut, Seteb), looking E

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Blocks of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall (relief between false doors depicting standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and their three children, Harwer, Wadjethetep, and Kaninisut "the younger" registers of scribes and ka-priest: [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity and register of offering bearers below: [bottom register] Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[. ]khufu, Senebdisu): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Blocks of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall (N false door inscribed for Kaninisut: N jamb: Ibkaptah S jamb: Penu panel of relief to N: [top register] Neferhanisut, [bottom register] Imsekher and portion of relief to S: standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and two of their three children, Harwer and Wadjethetep, and register of offering bearers below, including Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Blocks of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut [I], chapel, W wall (relief between false doors depicting standing figures of Kaninisut and his wife Neferhanisut and their three children, Harwer, Wadjethetep, and Kaninisut "the younger" registers of scribes and ka-priest: [top register] Wehemka, Kaemwehem, Mesy, Tjenti, [middle register] Penu, Wahib, Itjef, Khufuseneb, Ity and register of offering bearers below: [bottom register] Niankhhathor, Kairi, Mernetjerukhufu, Seshmu, Seneb, Iinefret, Shendju, Khufuankh, Mer[. ]khufu, Senebdisu): Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Block of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut I, chapel, entrance S door jamb: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Subjects: Object(s) photograph: Site: Giza view: G 2155

Description: Block of relief from G 2155, Kaninisut I, chapel, entrance S door jamb: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna ÄS 8006

Digital Giza has been made possible in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities: Exploring the human endeavor

© 2017 Giza Project at Harvard University.
All rights reserved.


Khemetnu (G 5210)

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel, room a (= main room), W wall, S end, panel of relief S of false door (upper part of standing figure of Khemetnu), looking W

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel, room a (= main room), W wall, S end, false door, looking W

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SSW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel, room a (= main room), W wall, S end, false door, looking W

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SSW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (detail, figure of Khemetnu), looking S

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standinf figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SSW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel, room a (= main room), W wall, S end, false door, looking W

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SE

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SE

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb (facade face), inscription (date), looking SW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SE

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking SW

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking S

Subjects: Eastern Cemetery: Site: Giza View: G 7530-7540

Description: Cemetery G 7000: G 7530-7540: G 7530, Meresankh III (= Mersyankh), chapel entrance, S door jamb, relief (standing figure of Meresankh, being presented document by her steward Khemetnu), looking S

Digital Giza has been made possible in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities: Exploring the human endeavor

© 2017 Giza Project at Harvard University.
All rights reserved.