21 December 1942

21 December 1942

21 December 1942

December 1942

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North Africa

British 8th Army catches German rearguard forces at Sirte

Burma

British and Indian forces cross the border into Burma, heading towards Akyab



Cummington, MA. – December 1, 1942

On December 1, 1942, three P-47 aircraft left Westover Field in Chicopee, Massachusetts, for a formation training flight. While passing over the Westborough area, the flight ran into heavy clouds which extended low to the ground, and the planes became separated. One of the aircraft, (Ser. No. 41-6011), was piloted by 2nd Lt. Jack P. Lastor of the 340th Fighter Squadron. While encountering severe weather over the town of Cummington, he was forced to bail out of his aircraft. The P-47B went down in a pasture on a farm belonging to Leslie W. Joyner across from the Cummington-Worthington Highway. Lt. Lastor landed safely, and although suffering an injury, was able to make his way to a farm house to call for help.

Another P-47 aircraft assigned to this training flight crashed in the town of Westborough, Massachusetts. In that instance, 2nd Lt. Charles C. Hay was killed when his aircraft, (Ser. No. 41-5924), crashed and exploded on Tob Hill.

Springfield Republican, “Planes Crash In Westhampton, Cummington, December 1, 1942.

Springfield Republican, “Second Army Pilot Killed Three Crash In Two Days”, December 2, 1942, page 1.


December 21 Zodiac Horoscope Birthday Personality

DECEMBER 21 birthday horoscope predicts that you are a courageous sport. The Sagittarius born today is curious about most things but particularly those things that are not conventional. You have an active imagination, and you’re extremely resourceful. On the other hand, you can be slow to make a move. You will think twice before taking the initiative.

3 comments

The world will give way to those who have goals and visions

Born 21st December 1988. I am going through worst time of my life as I have invested around 14 Lac for immigration for Australia and which could not work out for me. (Cheated by Own Relative). I am a professional working in Gurgaon carrying 7 years of experience. Please confirm what would be the steps that I need to take to get my life on track.

Hello Vipin Sharma, my self Anil and I am from south India. I am cureently living in London and it is been 9 years for me in london. I am still fighting for my visa and finally decided to leave UK for good. I am kanning to go to Australia now. This is small brief about me.

First of all I am not an Astrologer. Secondly I do have problems in my life. I was cheated 2 times in the immigration process and another 2 times for believing friends. I stopped my immigration process for almost 6 years but I could never stop my thoughts of going out of country. So I tried, my dad sold the only land we had, i got refusal initially and finally student visa.

It is been hard for me to be as student and work at the same time to pay back loans back home. On the other hand doing the ground work my visa extension. Did not go home for more than 5 years.

After earninng some money working soo hard, i had invested 20 lacs in a restaurant with friend in India. It was a complete disaster. I was tellig you all these to let you know how much I went through.

Now everytime I think of something i have done, i analyse if I had done correctly and the mistakes I did. So the only remedy is to avoid the mistakes we have done and we will succeed for sure.

I am not against astrology. I my self check sometimes, but it is not going to change your life unless you change your self and learn from the mistakes. The best lesson I learned from my mistakes was not to believe anyone except my parents.

So, stop thinking negatively and act on the positive things you have. You have been working hard and you have everything you need to be succeeded. So, dont loose your hope. It took me 6 years and lot of efforts and money to get a student visa and many people got it in few months with out efforts because they had help from others.

So you just have to be patient and do what you can to move forward rather than looking for some super natural things to happen with rings and poojas.


Franz Uri Boas

6.5 BOAS Franz Uri Dr. Schriftsteller * 09.07.1858 in Minden, † 21.12.1942 in New York < 5.3 Eltern: Boas Meyer , Meyer Sophie SONSTIGES: Er haßte den Vornamen Uri und benützte ihn nie. Er besuchte die Uni in Heidelberg und promovierte 1881 in Kiel. Nach einer Expedition in die Arktis 1883 und 1884 ließ er sich in New York nieder und begründete die Boas Linie in Amerika. Ab 1899 war er Professor für Antrhopologie an der Columbia Universität.

Heirat am 10.03.1887 in New York mit: KRACKOWIZER Marie Anna Ernestine * 03.08.1861 in New York, röm.-kath., † 16.12.1929 in Grantwood/USA Eltern: Krackowizer Ernst Nepomuk, Forster Emilie Personenzuordnung in Krackowizer-Chronik: A.L. Nr. 140. War 1880-1883 mit ihrer Mutter in Stuttgart und absolvierte 1882 in Frankfurt/M. das Lehrerinnenexamen zum Unterricht in höheren Tཬhterschulen. Nach ihrer R࿌kkehr nach New York ﲾrnahm sie den Unterricht der Kinder ihrer Schwester Helene Meyer. Wurde von einem Auto ﲾrfahren.

Kinder: 1. Boas Helene > 7.8 2. Boas Ernst Philip > 7.9 3. Boas Gertrud Lehrerin * 1892, † 06.10.1924 in New York Lehrerin in einer New Yorker Mhenschule. Verlobt mit dem Violinvirtuosen Leo Lindner. 4. Boas Hedwig * 1893, † 1894 5. Boas Heinrich Bauer * 1899, † 25.01.1925 Leiter einer Molkerei einer gro෾n Farm in Michigan. Er erhielt vor einigen Jahren von der Regierung ein Stipendium zum Studium der Milchwirtschaft in Holland und Schweden. Wurde von einem Eisenbahnzug ﲾrfahren. 6. Boas Marie Franziska > 7.10

WIKIPEDIA: Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942) was a German American anthropologist a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology" and "the Father of Modern Anthropology." Like many such pioneers, he trained in other disciplines he received his doctorate in physics, and did post-doctoral work in geography. He applied the scientific method to the study of human cultures and societies previously this discipline was based on the formulation of grand theories around anecdotal knowledge.

Boas once summed up his approach to anthropology and folklore by saying: "In the course of time I became convinced that a materialistic point of view, for a physicist a very real one, was untenable. This gave me a new point of view and I recognized the importance of studying the interaction between the organic and inorganic, above all the relation between the life of a people and their physical environment."

Franz Uri Boas was born in Minden, Westphalia. Although his grandparents were observant Jews, his parents, like most people with Jewish ancestry at their place and time, embraced Enlightenment values, including their assimilation into modern German society. Boas’s parents were educated, well-to-do, and liberal they did not like dogma of any kind. Due to this, Boas was granted the independence to think for himself and pursue his own interests. Early in life he displayed a penchant for both nature and natural sciences. Boas was sensitive about his Jewish ancestry, and while he vocally opposed anti-Semitism and refused to convert to Christianity, he did not identify himself as a Jew indeed, according to his biographer, "He was an 'ethnic' German, preserving and promoting German culture and values in America." In an autobiographical sketch, Boas wrote:

The background of my early thinking was a German home in which the ideals of the revolution of 1848 were a living force. My father, liberal, but not active in public affairs my mother, idealistic, with a lively interest in public matters the founder about 1854 of the kindergarten in my home town, devoted to science. My parents had broken through the shackles of dogma. My father had retained an emotional affection for the ceremonial of his parental home, without allowing it to influence his intellectual freedom.

From his early experience at the Frl kindergarten in Minden, to his studies at Gymnasium, Boas was exposed to, and interested in, natural history. Of his work at Gymnasium, he was most excited by and proud of his research on the geographic distribution of plants. Nevertheless, when Boas attended university — first at Heidelberg, then Bonn, where he joined the fraternity Burschenschaft Alemannia zu Bonn, in which he stayed for his whole life, — he focused on mathematics and physics (although he also attended a few courses in geography, including one taught by Theobald Fischer). He had intended to go to Berlin to study physics, but chose to attend the university at Kiel to be closer to his family. Boas had wished to conduct research concerning Gauss's law of the normal distribution of errors, but his thesis supervisor Gustav Karsten instructed him to research the optical properties of water instead. Boas received his doctorate in physics from Kiel university in 1881.

Boas was not happy with his doctoral thesis, and was being intrigued by the problems of perception that had plagued his research. Boas had been interested in Kantian philosophy since taking a course on aesthetics with Kuno Fischer at Heidelberg. Boas also attended Benno Erdmann's seminar at Bonn University, another notable Kantian. This interest led Boas to "psychophysics," which addressed psychological and epistemological problems in physics. He again considered moving to Berlin to study psychophysics with Hermann von Helmholtz, but psychophysics was of dubious status, and Boas had no training in psychology.

Coincidentally, Theobald Fischer had moved to Kiel, and Boas took up geography as a way to explore his growing interest in the relationship between subjective experience and the objective world. At the time, German geographers were divided over the causes of cultural variation. Many argued that the physical environment was the principal determining factor, but others (notably Friedrich Ratzel) argued that the diffusion of ideas through human migration is more important. In 1883 Boas went to Baffin Island to conduct geographic research on the impact of the physical environment on native Inuit migrations. The first of many ethnographic field trips, Boas culled his notes to write his first monograph titled The Central Eskimo, which was published in the 6th Annual Report from the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1888. Boas lived and worked closely with the Inuit peoples on Baffin Island, and he developed an abiding interest in the way people lived.

In the perpetual darkness of the Arctic winter, Boas reported, he and his traveling companion became lost and were forced to keep sledding for twenty-six hours through ice, soft snow, and temperatures that dropped below -46 ଌ. Eventually, they secured shelter to rest and recuperate from being “half frozen and half starved.” The following day, Boas penciled in his letter diary:

I often ask myself what advantages our 'good society possesses over that of the 'savages' and find, the more I see of their customs, that we have no right to look down upon them. . . We have no right to blame them for their forms and superstitions which may seem ridiculous to us. We 'highly educated people' are much worse, relatively speaking. . . Franz Boas to Marie Krackowizer, December 23, 1883. Franz Boas’ Baffin Island Letter-Diary, 1883-1884, edited by Herbert Cole (1983:33).

Boas went on to explain in the same entry that 𠇊ll service, therefore, which a man can perform for humanity must serve to promote truth.” Boas was forced to depend on various Inuit groups for everything from directions and food to shelter and companionship. It was a difficult year filled with tremendous hardships that included frequent bouts with disease, mistrust, pestilence, and danger. Boas successfully searched for areas not yet surveyed and found unique ethnographic objects, but the long winter and the lonely treks across perilous terrain forced him to search his soul to find a direction for his life as a scientist and a citizen.

Boas's interest in indigenous communities grew as he worked at the Royal Ethnological Museum in Berlin where he was introduced to members of the Nuxálk Nation of British Columbia, which sparked a lifelong relationship with the First Nations of the Pacific Northwest.

He returned to Berlin to finish his studies, and in 1886 (with Helmholtz' support) he successfully defended his habilitation thesis, Baffin Land, and was named privatdozent in geography.

While on Baffin Island he began to develop his interest in studying non-Western cultures (in 1888 he published a book, The Central Eskimo). Moreover, in 1885 Boas went to work with physical anthropologist Rudolf Virchow and ethnologist Adolf Bastian at the Royal Ethnological Museum in Berlin. Boas had studied anatomy with Virchow two years earlier, while preparing for the Baffin Island expedition. At the time, Virchow was involved in a vociferous debate with his former student, Ernst Haeckel, over evolution. Haeckel had abandoned his medical practice to study comparative anatomy after reading Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species, and vigorously promoted Darwin's ideas in Germany. However, like most other natural scientists prior to the rediscovery of Mendelian genetics in 1900 and the development of the modern synthesis, Virchow felt that Darwin's theories were weak because they lacked a theory of cellular mutability. Accordingly, Virchow favored Lamarckian models of evolution. This debate resonated with debates among geographers. Lamarckians believed that environmental forces could precipitate rapid and enduring changes in organisms that had no inherited source thus, Lamarckians and environmental determinists often found themselves on the same side of debates.

But Boas worked more closely with Bastian, who was noted for his antipathy to environmental determinism. Instead, he argued for the "psychic unity of mankind" a belief that all humans had the same intellectual capacity, and that all cultures were based on the same basic mental principles. Variations in custom and belief, he argued, were the products of historical accidents. This view resonated with Boas's experiences on Baffin Island, and drew him towards anthropology.

While at the Royal Ethnological Museum Boas became interested in the Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest, and after defending his habilitation thesis, he left for a three month trip to British Columbia via New York. In January, 1887, he was offered a job as assistant editor of the journal Science, in New York. Alienated by growing antisemitism and nationalism, as well as the very limited academic opportunities for a geographer, in Germany, Boas decided to stay in the United States. His decision also may have been influenced by his romance with Marie Krackowizer, whom he married in the same year.

Aside from his editorial work at Science, Boas secured an appointment as docent in anthropology at Clark University, in 1888. Boas was concerned about university president G. Stanley Hall's interference in his research, yet in 1889 he was appointed as the head of a newly-created department of anthropology at Clark University. In the early 1890s he went on a series of expeditions which were referred to as the Morris K. Jesup Expedition. The primary goal of these expeditions was to illuminate Asiatic-American relations.

In 1892 Boas joined a number of other Clark faculty in resigning, to protest Hall's infringement on academic freedom. Boas was then appointed chief assistant in anthropology to F.W. Putnam at the Chicago World’s Fair. These exhibits later served as the basis for the Field (Columbian) Museum, where Boas would serve as the curator of anthropology before being replaced by Wm. H. Homes. In 1896 Boas was named the assistant curator at the American Museum of Natural History, again under Putnam.

In the late 19th century anthropology in the United States was dominated by the Bureau of American Ethnology, directed by John Wesley Powell, a geologist who favored Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of cultural evolution. The BAE was housed at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, and the Smithsonian's curator for ethnology, Otis T. Mason, shared Powell's commitment to cultural evolution. (The Peabody Museum at Harvard University was an important, though lesser, center of anthropological research).

It was while working on museum collections and exhibitions that Boas formulated his basic approach to culture, which led him to break with museums and seek to establish anthropology as an academic discipline.

During this period Boas made five more trips to the Pacific Northwest. His continuing field research led him to think of culture as a local context for human action. His emphasis on local context and history led him to oppose the dominant model at the time, Cultural evolution.

Boas initially broke with evolutionary theory over the issue of kinship. Lewis Henry Morgan had argued that all human societies move from an initial form of matrilineal organization to patrilineal organization. First Nations groups on the northern coast of British Columbia, like the Tsimshian and Tlingit, were organized into matrilineal clans. First Nations on the southern coast, like the Nootka and the Salish, however, were organized into patrilineal groups. Boas focused on the Kwakiutl, who lived between the two clusters. The Kwakiutl seemed to have a mix of features. Prior to marriage, a man would assume his wife's father's name and crest. His children took on these names and crests as well, although his sons would lose them when they got married. Names and crests thus stayed in the mother's line. At first, Boas — like Morgan before him — suggested that the Kwakiutl had been matrilineal like their neighbors to the north, but that they were beginning to evolve patrilineal groups. In 1897, however, he repudiated himself, and argued that the Kwakiutl were changing from a prior patrilineal organization to a matrilineal one, as they learned about matrilineal principles from their northern neighbors.

Boas's rejection of Morgan's theories led him, in an 1887 article, to challenge Mason's principles of museum display. At stake, however, were more basic issues of causality and classification. The evolutionary approach to material culture led museum curators to organize objects on display according to function or level of technological development. Curators assumed that changes in the forms of artefacts reflect some natural process of progressive evolution. Boas, however, felt that the form an artefact took reflected the circumstances under which it was produced and used. Arguing that "[t]hough like causes have like effects, like effects have not like causes," Boas realized that even artefacts that were similar in form might have developed in very different contexts, for different reasons. Mason's museum displays, organized along evolutionary lines, mistakenly juxtapose like effects those organized along contextual lines would reveal like causes.

Boas had a chance to apply his approach to exhibits when he was hired to assist Frederic Ward Putnam, director and curator of the Peabody Museum at Harvard University, who had been appointed as head of the Department of Ethnology and Archeology for the Chicago Fair in 1892. Boas arranged for fourteen Kwakiutl aboriginals from British Columbia to come and reside in a mock Kwakiutl village, where they could perform their daily tasks in context.

After the Exposition Boas worked at the newly-created Field Museum in Chicago until 1894, when he was replaced (against his will) by BAE archeologist William Henry Holmes. In 1896 Boas was appointed Assistant Curator of Ethnology and Somatology of the American Museum of Natural History. In 1897 he organized the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, a five-year long field-study of the natives of the Pacific Northwest, whose ancestors had migrated across the Bering Strait from Siberia. He attempted to organize exhibits along contextual, rather than evolutionary, lines. He also developed a research program in line with his curatorial goals: describing his instructions to his students in terms of widening contexts of interpretation within a society, he explained that ". they get the specimens they get explanations of the specimens they get connected texts that partly refer to the specimens and partly to abstract things concerning the people and they get grammatical information." These widening contexts of interpretation were abstracted into one context, the context in which the specimens, or assemblages of specimens, would be displayed: ". we want a collection arranged according to tribes, in order to teach the particular style of each group." His approach, however, brought him into conflict with the President of the Museum, Morris Jesup, and its Director, Hermon Bumpus. He resigned in 1905, never to work for a museum again.

Boas was appointed lecturer in physical anthropology at Columbia University in 1896, and promoted to professor of anthropology in 1899. However, the various anthropologists teaching at Columbia had been assigned to different departments. When Boas left the Museum of Natural History, he negotiated with Columbia University to consolidate the various professors into one department, of which Boas would take charge. Boas's program at Columbia became the first Ph.D. program in anthropology in America.

During this time Boas played a key role in organizing the American Anthropological Association as an umbrella organization for the emerging field. Boas originally wanted the AAA to be limited to professional anthropologists, but W.J. McGee (another geologist who had joined the BAE under Powell's leadership) argued that the organization should have an open membership. McGee's position prevailed and he was elected the organization's first president in 1902 Boas was elected a vice-president, along with Putnam, Powell, and Holmes.

At both Columbia and the AAA, Boas encouraged the "four field" concept of anthropology he personally contributed to physical anthropology, linguistics, archaeology, as well as cultural anthropology. His work in these fields was pioneering: in physical anthropology he led scholars away from static taxonomical classifications of race, to an emphasis on human biology and evolution in linguistics he broke through the limitations of classic philology and established some of the central problems in modern linguistics and cognitive anthropology in cultural anthropology he (along with Polish-English anthropologist Bronisᐪw Malinowski) established the contextualist approach to culture, cultural relativism, and the participant-observation method of fieldwork.

The four-field approach understood not merely as bringing together different kinds of anthropologists into one department, but as reconceiving anthropology through the integration of different objects of anthropological research into one over-arching object, was one of Boas's fundamental contributions to the discipline, and came to characterize American anthropology against that of England, France, or Germany. This approach defines as its object the human species as a totality. This focus did not lead Boas to seek to reduce all forms of humanity and human activity to some lowest common denominator rather, he understood the essence of the human species to be the tremendous variation in human form and activity (an approach that parallels Charles Darwin's approach to species in general).

In his 1907 essay, "Anthropology," Boas identified two basic questions for anthropologists: "Why are the tribes and nations of the world different, and how have the present differences developed?" Amplifying these questions, he explained the object of anthropological study thus:

We do not discuss the anatomical, physiological, and mental characteristics of man considered as an individual but we are interested in the diversity of these traits in groups of men found in different geographical areas and in different social classes. It is our task to inquire into the causes that have brought about the observed differentiation, and to investigate the sequence of events that have led to the establishment of the multifarious forms of human life. In other words, we are interested in the anatomical and mental characteristics of men living under the same biological, geographical, and social environment, and as determined by their past.

These questions signal a marked break from then-current ideas about human diversity, which assumed that some people have a history, evident in a historical (or written) record, while other people, lacking writing, also lack history. For some, this distinction between two different kinds of societies explained the difference between history, sociology, economics and other disciplines that focus on people with writing, and anthropology, which was supposed to focus on people without writing. Boas rejected this distinction between kinds of societies, and this division of labor in the academy. He understood all societies to have a history, and all societies to be proper objects of anthropological society. In order to approach literate and non-literate societies the same way, he emphasized the importance on studying human history through the analysis of other things besides written texts. Thus, in his 1904 article, "The History of Anthropology", Boas wrote that

The historical development of the work of anthropologists seems to single out clearly a domain of knowledge that heretofore has not been treated by any other science. It is the biological history of mankind in all its varieties linguistics applied to people without written languages the ethnology of people without historic records and prehistoric archeology.

Historians and social theorists in the 18th and 19th centuries had speculated as to the causes of this differentiation, but Boas dismissed these theories, especially the dominant theories of social evolution and cultural evolution as speculative. He endeavored to establish a discipline that would base its claims on rigorous empirical study.

One of Boas's most important books, The Mind of Primitive Man (published in 1911), integrated his theories concerning the history and development of cultures and established a program that would dominate American anthropology for the next fifteen years. In this study he established that in any given population, biology, language, material and symbolic culture, are autonomous that each is an equally important dimension of human nature, but that no one of these dimensions is reducible to another. In other words, he established that culture does not depend on any independent variables. He emphasized that the biological, linguistic, and cultural traits of any group of people are the product of historical developments involving both cultural and non-cultural forces. He established that cultural plurality is a fundamental feature of humankind, and that the specific cultural environment structures much individual behavior.

Boas also presented himself as a role-model for the citizen-scientist, who understand that even were the truth pursued as its own end, all knowledge has moral consequences. The Mind of Primitive Man ends with an appeal to humanism:

I hope the discussions outlined in these pages have shown that the data of anthropology teach us a greater tolerance of forms of civilization different from our own, that we should learn to look on foreign races with greater sympathy and with a conviction that, as all races have contributed in the past to cultural progress in one way or another, so they will be capable of advancing the interests of mankind if we are only willing to give them a fair opportunity.

Franz Boas died of a stroke at the Columbia University Faculty Club on December 21, 1942. By that time he had become one of the most influential and respected scientists of his generation.

Between 1901 and 1911, Columbia University produced 7 PhD.s in anthropology. Although by today's standards this is a very small number, at the time it was sufficient to establish Boas's Anthropology Department at Columbia as the preeminent anthropology program in the country. Moreover, many of Boas's students went on to establish anthropology programs at other major universities.

Boas's first doctoral student at Columbia was Alfred L. Kroeber (1901), who, along with fellow Boas student Robert Lowie (1908), started the anthropology program at the University of California, Berkeley. He also trained William Jones (1904), one of the first Native American Indian anthropologists (the Fox nation) who was killed while conducting research in the Philippines in 1909, and Albert B. Lewis (1907). Boas also trained a number of other students who were influential in the development of academic anthropology: Frank Speck (1908) who trained with Boas but received his PhD. from the University of Pennsylvania and immediately proceeded to found the anthropology department there Edward Sapir (1909) and Fay-Cooper Cole (1914) who developed the anthropology program at the University of Chicago Alexander Goldenweiser (1910), who, with Elsie Clews Parsons (who received her doctorate in sociology from Columbia in 1899, but then studied ethnology with Boas), started the anthropology program at the New School for Social Research Leslie Spier (1920) who started the anthropology program at the University of Washington together with his wife Erna Gunther, also one of Boas´ students, and Melville Herskovits (1923) who started the anthropology program at Northwestern University. He also trained John R. Swanton (who studied with Boas at Columbia for two years before receiving his doctorate from Harvard in 1900), Paul Radin (1911), Ruth Benedict (1923), Gladys Reichard (1925) who had begun teaching at Barnard College in 1921 and was later promoted to the rank of professor, Ruth Bunzel (1929), Alexander Lesser (1929), Margaret Mead (1929), and Gene Weltfish (who defended her dissertation in 1929, although she did not officially graduate until 1950 when Columbia reduced the expenses required to graduate), E. Adamson Hoebel (1934), Jules Henry (1935), Ashley Montagu (1938).

His students at Columbia also included Mexican anthropologist Manuel Gamio, who earned his M.A. after studying with Boas from 1909�, and became the founding director of Mexico's Bureau of Anthropology in 1917 Clark Wissler, who received his doctorate in psychology from Columbia University in 1901, but proceeded to study anthropology with Boas before turning to research Native Americans Esther Schiff, later Goldfrank, worked with Boas in the summers of 1920 to 1922 to conduct research among the Cochiti and Laguna Pueblo Indians in New Mexico Gilberto Freyre, who shaped the concept of "racial democracy" in Brazil Viola Garfield, who carried forth Boas's Tsimshian work Frederica de Laguna, who worked on the Inuit and the Tlingit and anthropologist, folklorist and novelist Zora Neale Hurston, who graduated from Barnard College, the women's college associated with Columbia, in 1928.

He was also an influence on Claude Lévi-Strauss, whom he met during the latter's stay in New York in the 1940s (and in whose arms Boas expired in 1942).

Several of Boas's students went on to serve as editors of the American Anthropological Association's flagship journal, American Anthropologist: John R. Swanton (1911, 1921�), Robert Lowie (1924�), Leslie Spier (1934�), and Melville Herskovits (1950�). Edward Sapir's student John Alden Mason was editor from 1945�, and Alfred Kroeber and Robert Lowie's student, Walter Goldschmidt, was editor from 1956-1959.

Most of Boas's students shared his concern for careful, historical reconstruction, and his antipathy towards speculative, evolutionary models. Moreover, Boas encouraged his students, by example, to criticize themselves as much as others. For example, Boas originally defended the cephalic index (systematic variations in head form) as a method for describing hereditary traits, but came to reject his earlier research after further study he similarly came to criticize his own early work in Kwakiutl (Pacific Northwest) language and mythology.

Encouraged by this drive to self-criticism, as well as the Boasian commitment to learn from one's informants and to let the findings of one's research shape one's agenda, Boas's students quickly diverged from his own research agenda. Several of his students soon attempted to develop theories of the grand sort that Boas typically rejected. Kroeber called his colleagues' attention to Sigmund Freud and the potential of a union between cultural anthropology and psychoanalysis. Ruth Benedict developed theories of "culture and personality" and "national cultures", and Kroeber's student, Julian Steward developed theories of "cultural ecology" and "multilineal evolution."

Nevertheless, Boas has had an enduring influence on anthropology. Virtually all anthropologists today accept Boas's commitment to empiricism and his methodological cultural relativism. Moreover, virtually all cultural anthropologists today share Boas's commitment to field research involving extended residence, learning the local language, and developing social relationships with informants. Finally, anthropologists continue to honor his critique of racial ideologies. In his 1963 book, Race: The History of an Idea in America, Thomas Gossett wrote that "It is possible that Boas did more to combat race prejudice than any other person in history."


21 December 1942 - History

Established as Pacific Air Detachment on 17 January 1923.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron FOURTEEN (VP-14) on 29 May 1924.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE-Naval District 14 (VP-1D14) on 21 September 1927.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE-B (VP-1B) on 1 July 1931.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE-F (VP-1F) on 15 April 1933.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE (VP-1) on 1 October 1937.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron TWENTY-ONE (VP-21) on 1 July 1939.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE (VP-1) on 30 July 1940.
Redesignated Patrol Squadron ONE HUNDRED ONE (VP-101) on 3 December 1940.
Redesignated Patrol Bombing Squadron TWENTY-NINE (VPB-29) on 1 October 1944.
Disestablished on 20 June 1945.

Squadron Insignia and Nickname

The squadron insignia was officially approved by CNO on 18 September 1934. Patrol Squadron One adopted the elephant for its representative since that animal had always been noted for its endurance and patience. The elephant of VP-1 stood on a cloud with one eye cocked downward at a target, a bomb securely held by his trunk, waiting for the proper time to make an unerring drop. The elephant was used because it occupies the same relative position in the animal kingdom as the patrol seaplane did in regard to other naval aircraft, e.g., heavy duty. The bomb was the primary armament of seaplanes of that period. The cloud denoted high altitude. Colors: elephant, gray with black outline and markings eye and tusks, white bomb, black with white markings cloud, white outlined in black background, royal blue and circle, red. The same insignia was used throughout successive changes in squadron designation until the disestablishment of VPB-29 in 1945.

Nickname: None on record.

Chronology of Significant Events

(Squadron history from 15 Aug 1928 to WWII removed as not pertinent to this website.)

1 Jul 1939: VP-1 was redesignated Patrol Squadron 21 and assigned to the Asiatic Fleet, becoming the nucleus for the newly formed Patrol Wing 10 at Cavite Naval Base, Luzon, Philippines.

7 Dec 1941: VP-101 was placed on war alert upon receiving news of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and war patrols commenced.

14 Dec 1941: PatWing-10 was relocated from the devastated Cavite Naval Base at Luzon, to Balikpapan in an attempt to keep ahead of the advancing Japanese forces.

23 Dec 1941: VP-102 was merged with VP-101 to combine the squadrons’ dwindling assets in aircraft, crews and material. On the 25th VP-101 was relocated to Ambon, N.E.I.

27 Dec 1941: Six of the squadron’s PBY-4 Catalinas, led by Lieutenant Burden R. Hastings, conducted an early morning attack against Jolo, in the central Philippines. Enemy aircraft and AA fire broke up the formation before a bombing run could be made. Ensign Elwin L. Christman and his crew followed through alone and made a drop on an enemy vessel at 1,000 feet. The Catalina, heavily damaged by AA fire, caught fire. Three crewmen bailed out, but the others remained with the aircraft until Christman made a controlled water landing near shore. Three crewmen died the others were eventually rescued. Aviation Machinist Mate’s First Class Andrew K. Waterman was the plane captain and waist gunner on the aircraft. He shot down one enemy aircraft while defending the Catalina during the attack on shipping in the harbor, but in doing so received mortal wounds. For his courageous actions under fire Waterman was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. Radioman First Class Robert L. Pettit also stuck by his post even after the aircraft, flooded with aviation gas from perforated tanks, caught fire. For his devotion to duty Pettit was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. Ensign Christman led the surviving members of his crew to safety on the shore of Jolo Island. Lieutenant Jack B. Dawley and the surviving members of his crew, who had also been shot down immediately after dropping their bombs, joined Christman’s group on Jolo Island. The two officers led their crews inland away from the Japanese, eventually reaching U.S. Naval Headquarters at Surabaya, Java, N.E.I. Aircraft Chief Machinist’s Mate Donald D. Lurvey was awarded the Navy Cross for assisting Ensign Cough, the second pilot of Dawley’s aircraft, into a life vest and guiding him to shore. Aviation Machinist’s Mate First Class Joseph Bangust received the Navy Cross posthumously for his action as waist gunner in Dawley’s aircraft, shooting down one enemy aircraft before being mortally wounded by incoming fire. Aviation Machinist’s Mate First Class Evren C. McLawhorn, the plane captain, took over the waist gun position after Bangust was mortally wounded. He received seven wounds during the fight, but survived and received the Navy Cross for his heroism. For their courage under fire and leadership in guiding their crews through enemy-occupied territory to safety, Ensign Christman and Lieutenant Dawley were awarded the Navy Cross. Lieutenant Hastings, as leader of the gallant but unsuccessful strike, was later awarded the Navy Cross for guiding the force into the target area in the face of overwhelming odds. Lieutenant Hastings’ award was made posthumously, as he and his men were the only aircrew captured by the Japanese. They were interrogated by their captors and beheaded on the parade ground of the Jolo garrison. The fourth Catalina shot down during the strike was manned by Lieutenant Hazelton and his crew. Hazelton made a sea landing and the entire crew safely escaped the sinking aircraft into life rafts and were picked up two days later by a squadron aircraft.

16 Jan 1942: VP-101 was ordered to evacuate Ambon due to the presence of an approaching Japanese naval task force. Assets and personnel were moved to Surabaya.

1 Mar 1942: VP-22’s assets were merged with VP-101, which was then ordered to evacuate Surabaya and withdraw to Perth, Australia, to reform and refit the devastated squadron.

7 Mar 1942: VPs 102, 21 and 22 were officially disestablished, with the remaining personnel and aircraft assets being combined to bring up to full strength the remaining squadron, VP-101.

26 Apr 1942: A desperate attempt was made to rescue personnel otherwise doomed to capture on the besieged island of Corregidor. Two Catalinas, formerly assigned to VP-102, flew a circuitous route back to the Philippines, arriving around midnight of the 29th . Over 30 nurses were flown out that night under cover of darkness.

1 May 1942: The reformed VP-101 recommenced combat patrols off the coast of Australia, operating from bases at Exmouth Gulf, Pelican Point, Geraldton and Albany. Tender support was provided by Childs (AVD 15), Heron (AVP 2) and Preston (DD 379).

9 Nov 1942㪵 Jun 1943: Upon return to Perth, Australia, VP-101 was split into three units—HEDRON, SCORON and VP-101. Combat patrols were continued from Perth until VP-101 was relocated to Brisbane, Australia, on 29 June 1943, under operational control of FAW-17.

1 July 1943: The first element of VP-101 flew into Port Moresby, Papua, New Guinea. Its aircraft were in poor mechanical shape and the decision was made to use them to supply guerrilla fighters in the vicinity of Wewak. Landings were made on the Sepik River leading into Lake Yibiri. The flights continued through October 1943, but were discontinued due to increased Japanese opposition. The guerrilla fighters were rescued in December 1943 by aircraft from VP-11. The second element of VP-101 was moved to the eastern end of New Guinea to begin Black Cat operations from the seaplane tender San Pablo (AVP 30), anchored in Namoia Bay. The squadron’s Catalinas were fitted with ASV radar sets that allowed them to find targets on the darkest of nights. The highly touted Norden bombsights proved worthless, being unable to hit fast moving, dodging Japanese ships from any height. Instead, a low-level bombing tactic was worked out using one foot of altitude for each pound of bomb weight. Thus, a 500-pound bomb was released from a 500-foot altitude leading into a target, resulting in only a gentle updraft from the bomb blast. This technique was necessary due to the lack of a four-to-five second delay on the bomb fuses.

1㪴 Dec 1943: VP-101 squadron headquarters were established at Palm Island, Australia, with advance bases at Samarai and Port Moresby, New Guinea. Combat patrols and crew training were conducted concurrently through the 28th, when the squadron returned to Perth, Australia. Upon return, the squadron again came under the operational control of FAW-10.

1 May 1944: VP-101 was relocated to Samarai, New Guinea. Dumbo missions were conducted in the area of the Green, Treasury and Manus islands, and Emirau, coming under the operational control of FAW-17.

1㪨 Jul 1944: Five squadron aircraft were based at Manus, five at Green Island, two at Emirau, and one at Treasury Island. On the 16th, the detachments were relocated to the Admiralty Islands and later the Solomon Islands chain. Operations consisted primarily of Dumbo rescue missions to recover downed Army and Navy airmen.

19 Sep 1944: VP-101 was relieved by VP-52 in the Solomons and relocated to Morotai, north of New Guinea, aboard Half Moon (AVP 26). After settling in at Morotai, the squadron commenced combat operations as a Black Cat squadron on 21 September.

1 Oct 1944: VP-101 was redesignated VPB-29. The squadron continued to conduct Black Cat missions, antisubmarine patrols and night patrols around the area of Mindanao and Tawi Tawi.


21 December 1942 - History

December 1, 1981

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar of the Los Angeles Lakers passed Oscar Robertson to become the NBA’s second all-time leading scorer, behind Wilt Chamberlain. Abdul-Jabbar finished the season with over 28,000 career points and eventually surpassed Chamberlain for the top spot with 38,387.

December 1, 1984

Phoenix Suns Coach John MacLeod became the 10th coach in NBA history to compile 500 career wins as the Suns defeated Golden State 115-103.

December 1, 1990

New Jersey Coach Bill Fitch registered his 785th career victory, 111-92 over Orlando, at the time moving him into fourth place on the NBA’s all-time list behind Dick Motta, Jack Ramsay and Red Auerbach.

December 1, 1991

Isiah Thomas became Detroit’s all-time leading scorer, with 15,493 points, after scoring a game-high 22 points in the Pistons’ 94-87 win over Houston at the Palace of Auburn Hills. Thomas passed previous leader Bob Lanier on Detroit’s all-time scoring chart.

December 1, 1996

Hersey Hawkins of the Seattle SuperSonics became part of basketball history when he scored the 7,000,000th point in NBA history off a 12-foot jumper with 7:58 left in the fourth quarter of the Sonics’ 96-90 loss to visiting Utah.

December 2, 1954

Frank Selvy of the Milwaukee Hawks, in a game against the Minneapolis Lakers at Fort Wayne, hit 24 of 26 free throws, both NBA rookie records for free throws attempted and made in a game.

December 2, 1978

Golden State Coach Al Attles captured his 400th career victory, only the 10th coach in NBA history at the time to achieve that feat, as the Warriors beat the Suns 116-108 at Phoenix.

December 2, 1986

The Washington Bullets beat the Boston Celtics 117-109 to end the Celtics’ homecourt winning streak at 38 games. Although the game was played at the Hartford Civic Center instead of the Boston Garden, it still counted as a home contest for the Celtics.

December 2, 1996

Houston’s Clyde Drexler became the fifth player in NBA history to reach 2,000 career steals, after picking up four against Toronto. Drexler retired with 2,207 steals.

December 2, 1997

The Washington Wizards began a new era when they opened the doors to the downtown MCI Center in a matchup against Seattle.

December 2, 1999

William “Pop” Gates, one of the greatest players of the 1930s and 1940s barnstorming era of basketball died of heart failure. Gates, who was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1989, earned acclaim as a player-coach of the Harlem Globetrotters in the 1950s. But those who played against him during the earlier era place him among the best of his time.

December 3, 1946

Joe Fulks of the Philadelphia Warriors set what was then a league scoring mark with 37 points against the Providence Steamrollers at Philadelphia. Fulks’ 50 field goal attempts (he made 16) were the most by a player during a game in the NBA’s inaugural season and remained the record for the most field goal attempts by a rookie in a game for 13 years.

December 3, 1976

Seattle’s Fred Brown had 10 steals in a 121-112 victory at Philadelphia to tie an NBA record held by Jerry West and Larry Steele. The record would be broken 23 days later by San Antonio’s Larry Kenon, who picked up 11 steals at Kansas City.

December 3, 1990

The Boston Celtics honored long-time announcer Johnny Most by unveiling a banner bearing a microphone on the balcony facade near his old broadcast position. Most retired following the 1989-90 season after calling Celtics games on the radio for 37 years.

December 3, 1993

The Atlanta Hawks beat the Houston Rockets 133-111, ending Houston’s record-tying streak for the best start in NBA history at 15-0. The 15-0 start tied the all-time NBA record set by the Washington Capitols at the start of the 1948-49 season.

December 4, 1948

The Washington Capitols beat Baltimore 83-82 to raise their record to 15-0, the best start in NBA history. Their streak ended with a 94-78 loss at Indianapolis on December 7. This 15-0 streak to start the season was matched by the Houston Rockets at the outset of the 1993-94 season.

December 4, 1987

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s consecutive game streak of scoring in double figures (787) is snapped at Milwaukee.

December 4, 1996

Detroit’s Terry Mills began an NBA record-tying streak of 13 straight 3-point field goals made over three games in the Pistons 100-90 win over the Hawks.

December 4, 1997

Golden State’s Latrell Sprewell is suspended without pay for one year by NBA Commissioner David Stern.

December 4, 2017

Stephen Curry of the Golden State Warriors makes the 2,000th 3-pointer in his career. He needed just 597 games to do so, 225 fewer than the previous record-holder, Ray Allen. Additionally, Curry is one of just eight players in NBA history with 2,000 or more 3-pointers.

December 5, 1967

Walt Hazzard of Seattle scored 15 consecutive points in a 133-121 loss to San Francisco at Oakland, tying an NBA record held by Wilt Chamberlain.

December 5, 1987

The San Antonio Spurs retired the #44 jersey worn by George Gervin.

December 5, 1991

Moses Malone of Milwaukee became only the sixth player in NBA history to score 26,000 career points, after he hit for 12 points in the Bucks’ 109-101 loss to New Jersey at the Bradley Center.

December 5, 1992

Detroit’s Bill Laimbeer grabbed 12 rebounds in the Pistons’ 112-88 win over visiting Philadelphia, helping him to reach the 10,000 career rebound mark.

December 5, 1996

Portland’s Jermaine O’Neal, who celebrated his 18th birthday on October 13, became the youngest player ever to participate in an NBA game.

December 5, 1997

Indiana’s Mark Jackson moved past Bob Cousy (6,955) and into seventh place on the all-time assist chart.

December 5, 2000

Karl Malone of the Utah Jazz converted a finger roll in the lane for two points, moving past Wilt Chamberlain and into second place on the NBA’s all-time scoring list. Malone scored 31 points in Utah’s 98-84 win over Toronto, giving him 31,443 career points, 24 more than Chamberlain’s 31,419 points.

December 5, 2000

Don Nelson of the Dallas Mavericks notched his 938th career coaching win in Dallas’ 94-85 victory over New York, tying him with his Boston Celtics’ mentor Red Auerbach for fourth place on the all-time coaching victories list.

December 5, 2001

With an 98-94 victory over the Dallas Mavericks, the Lakers extended their best-ever start to 16-1, landing them a spot among the top 11 starts in league annals.

December 5, 2016

Klay Thompson of the Golden State Warriors scores 60 points in a 142-106 win over the Indiana Pacers.

December 6, 1966

Rick Barry of the San Francisco Warriors made an NBA-record 14 free throws in one quarter as the Warriors beat the Knicks 126-116 at New York.

December 6, 1984

Milwaukee retired uniform No. 16 in honor of center Bob Lanier, who had retired after the 1984 NBA Playoffs.

December 6, 1986

The Seattle SuperSonics posted a 136-80 win over the Rockets at The Summit in Houston. The 56-point margin made it the most one-sided road win in NBA history. The most one-sided road win in NBA Playoff history was the Lakers’ 126-70 win at Golden State in Game 3 of the 1973 Western Conference Finals on April 21.

December 6, 1997

The Houston Rockets defeated the Dallas Mavericks 108-106 in the first regular season game to be played in Mexico City at the Palacio de los Deportes.

December 6, 2000

Antawn Jamison of the Golden State Warriors and Kobe Bryant of the Los Angeles Lakers each scored 51 points in the Warriors’ 125-122 overtime victory. It was the first time in nearly 38 years and only the third time in NBA history that opposing players each scored at least 50 points in an NBA game. The feat last occurred on December 14, 1962, when Wilt Chamberlain scored 63 points for the Philadelphia Warriors and Elgin Baylor tallied 50 points for the Los Angeles Lakers. For Jamison, it was also the second straight game in which he scored 51 points, having hit that number December 3 in a loss to Seattle.

December 6, 2016

John Wall of the Washington Wizards scores 52 points in a 124-116 loss to the Orlando Magic.

December 7, 1948

The Indianapolis Jets beat the Washington Capitols 94-78, snapping the Capitols’ NBA-record streak at 15 consecutive games won at the start of the season. The mark was tied by the 1993-94 Houston Rockets.

December 7, 1956

Larry Bird is born in West Baden, Indiana.

December 7, 1982

The Utah Jazz, in a 137-121 loss at Portland, set an NBA record for free throw percentage in a game, connecting on all 39 of their attempts from the line.

December 7, 1986

The Los Angeles Lakers beat Golden State 132-100 for Coach Pat Riley’s 300th career victory. He reached that plateau in 416 games, faster than any other coach in NBA history, beating Billy Cunningham’s previous record of 430 games.

December 7, 1990

The New Jersey Nets retired jersey No. 23 in honor of “Super John” Williamson, who played three years in the ABA and four years in the NBA with the Nets. Williamson owned the second-highest NBA scoring average (22.5 ppg) in team history.

December 7, 1993

The Orlando Magic established an NBA record by holding the visiting Detroit Pistons to only six points in the fourth quarter of a 91-89 victory. The Pistons broke the previous NBA low of seven fourth-quarter points, set by Houston against the Los Angeles Lakers on November 15, 1991.

December 7, 1994

The Philadelphia 76ers, behind Jeff Malone’s game-high 34 points, posted a 111-102 road win at Miami to become the third NBA franchise (joining Boston and the Los Angeles Lakers) to reach 2,000 victories.

December 7, 1995

Veteran NBA referee Jake O’Donnell announces his retirement after officiating more than 2,100 regular-season and 279 playoff and 39 NBA Finals games in 28 seasons in the league.

December 7, 1995

The NBA and the National Basketball Referees Association sign a five-year labor agreement, through the 1999-2000 season, ending a lockout of referees that began on October 1.

December 7, 1996

Detroit’s Terry Mills tied an NBA record for the most consecutive 3-point field goals made, with 13, after connecting on his first attempt during the Pistons’ 95-69 win at New Jersey. Mills’ streak, which stretched over three games, tied the mark set by Brent Price during the 1995-96 season.

December 7, 2012

With a right-handed runner in the second quarter of the Los Angeles Lakers 103-87 win over the New Orleans Hornets, Kobe Bryant becomes the youngest player in NBA history to reach 30,000 points for his career. At 34 years, 104 days old, Bryant breaks Wilt Chamberlain’s record of 35 years, 179 days.

December 8, 1961

Larry Costello of the Syracuse Nationals scored 32 straight points without missing — 13 field goals and six free throws — as Syracuse lost 123-111 at Boston.

December 8, 1961

Wilt Chamberlain scored 78 points, the second highest scoring performance in NBA history, in the Philadelphia Warriors’ 151-147 loss to the Los Angeles Lakers in three overtimes.

December 8, 1989

Jack Sikma, playing for the Milwaukee Bucks, grabbed his 10,000th career rebound, becoming only the 18th player in league history at the time to accomplish that feat.

December 8, 1992

Atlanta’s Dominique Wilkins set an NBA record for most free throws made in a game without a miss, as he went 23-for-23 from the FT line in the Hawks’ 123-114 win over visiting Chicago.

December 8, 1998

The NBA announced the cancellation of the 1999 NBA All-Star Weekend, including the 49th Annual NBA All-Star Game scheduled for February 14 at the First Union Center in Philadelphia. This is the first time that the annual event had been cancelled. The cancellation was due to a labor dispute between the NBA and the National Basketball Players Association.

December 8, 1999

Houston Rockets forward Charles Barkley’s storied career came to an end in Philadelphia, when he attempted to block a shot by the Sixers’ Tyrone Hill. Barkley, who scored 23,755 points (13th in NBA history) and grabbed 12,545 rebounds (14th in NBA history), tore the left quadriceps tendon away from the kneecap in the first quarter of Houston’s 83-73 loss to Philadelphia. After the game, Barkley held a news conference and paid tribute to former teammates Julius Erving, Maurice Cheeks, Andrew Toney and Bobby Jones, who Barkley said initiated him in the ways of the NBA in his early years with the 76ers. Barkley would return to play token minutes in the last game of the regular season, which would then be the final game of his career.

December 8, 2000

Hakeem Olajuwon passed the 26,000-point plateau for his career in a 111-98 loss to Sacramento, becoming only the fifth NBA player to record 26,000 career points and 13,000 career rebounds. Olajuwon joined Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Wilt Chamberlain, Moses Malone and Elvin Hayes.

December 8, 2000

Shaquille O’Neal of the Los Angeles Lakers broke a 40-year-old NBA record when he missed all 11 of his free throw attempts against Seattle. Wilt Chamberlain missed all 10 of his free throw attempts against Detroit on November 4, 1960.

December 8, 2006

Andre Miller of the Denver Nuggets dished out 20 assists in a 123-107 win over the Miami Heat.

December 8, 2011

The NBA and NBPA officially ended the 161-day lockout that started on July 1, 2011. Free agency, trades and training camps began the next day.

December 8, 201 1

In an unprecedented move, a three-team trade that would have sent Chris Paul from the New Orleans Hornets to the Los Angeles Lakers is vetoed by Commissioner David Stern. With the NBA owning a majority-stake in the Hornets, the trade was overturned amid pressure from other team owners who opposed the transaction. Paul was subsequently traded to the Los Angeles Clippers before the NBA sold the Hornets to New Orleans Saints owner Tom Benson.

December 9, 1988

Jerry Sloan was named head coach of the Utah Jazz, replacing Frank Layden, who resigned as head coach. Sloan’s coaching tenure with the Jazz is the longest current term of service among head coaches in the NBA.

December 9, 1993

Kevin Johnson of Phoenix became the 13th NBA player to record 10 steals in a game, during the Suns’ 114-95 win over visiting Washington.

December 9, 1997

Chicago’s Michael Jordan becomes the NBA’s third-leading scorer in a 100-82 win over New York, scoring 29 points to give him 27,432 points over 13 seasons. Jordan moved ahead of Moses Malone, who had scored 27,409 points in 19 seasons.

December 9, 2000

Gary Payton scored 35 points in a loss to Houston, becoming the all-time leading scorer in Seattle SuperSonics history. Payton finished the game with 14,044 career points, surpassing “Downtown” Fred Brown’s 14,018 points.

December 10, 1971

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar scored a career-high 55 points in Milwaukee’s 120-104 victory over Boston.

December 10, 1985

The Boston Celtics beat Atlanta 118-101 to win the first of an NBA-record 38 straight home games over two seasons, ending November 28, 1986.

December 10, 1985

The Indiana Pacers made just 19 field goals in an 82-64 loss to the New York Knicks, setting an NBA record for the fewest field goals made by one team since the inception of the shot clock. The record stood for more than 13 years before the Chicago Bulls converted just 18 field goals in a game against Miami on April 10, 1999.

December 10, 1994

Dallas Coach Dick Motta moved into third place on the all-time coaching wins list (passing Jack Ramsay) with 865 career victories, following the Mavericks’ 99-86 win over visiting Charlotte.

December 10, 1995

James Worthy became the sixth player in Los Angeles Lakers’ history to have his jersey retired, when the team retired his No. 42 jersey at halftime of the game against Detroit at the Great Western Forum. Worthy, who played in 926 regular-season and 143 playoff games for the Lakers over 12 seasons, was also a member of NBA Championship teams in 1985, 󈨛 and 󈨜.

December 10, 1996

In Detroit’s 93-85 win over Milwaukee, Terry Mills of Detroit missed his first 3-point field goal attempt since extending his NBA-record streak to 13 straight 3-point field goal attempts without a miss against the Nets on December 7th.

December 10, 1999

Chicago Bulls guard Hersey Hawkins saw a streak of 527 consecutive games played end when he was unable to suit up for the Bulls’ 71-69 win over New Jersey. Hawkins suffered a torn muscle in his left calf in a December 8 game against Cleveland. Hawkins’ 527-game streak was the second-longest active consecutive games played streak behind all-time leader A.C. Green. Before the injury, Hawkins had missed only seven games in his 12-year NBA career.

December 10, 2008

Carmelo Anthony matches George Gervin’s NBA record for points in a quarter with 33 points in the third. He finishes with a season-high 45 points in the Denver Nuggets’ 116-105 victory over the Minnesota Timberwolves.

December 10, 2016

Twelve-time NBA All-Star Dolph Schayes, a Hall of Famer, dies at the age of 87.

December 11, 1946

The Chicago Stags defeated the Cleveland Rebels 88-70 in an experimental game featuring 15-minute quarters, instead of the usual 12-minute quarters.

December 11, 1959

Richie Guerin scored 57 points, at the time the most ever by a Knick, as New York defeated Syracuse 152-121. His team record survived 25 years until being surpassed by Bernard King, who tallied 60 points against New Jersey on December 25, 1984.

December 11, 1971

The NBA’s Silver Anniversary team was announced. It included Bob Cousy, Bob Davies, Paul Arizin, Joe Fulks, Sam Jones, George Mikan, Bill Russell, Dolph Schayes, Bill Sharman and Bob Pettit. The coach was Red Auerbach.

December 11, 1984

The Boston Celtics beat the New Jersey Nets 130-121 at Hartford as the two teams combined to shoot a record 63.2 percent (108-for-171) from the field.

December 11, 1992

The National Hockey League Board of Governors named Gary Bettman, the NBA’s Senior Vice President and General Counsel, the first Commissioner of the NHL.

December 11, 1993

With 12 rebounds during Philadelphia’s 99-86 road win at Milwaukee, Moses Malone became the fifth NBA player to surpass 16,000 career rebounds.

December 11, 2001

Larry Costello, who guided the Milwaukee Bucks to their only NBA title in 1971, died after battling cancer for more than a year. he was 70.

December 11, 2006

The NBA announces that it will cease using the new synthetic ball (in use since the 2006-07 season began), and revert to the old leather one.

December 11, 2006

Jerry Sloan became the fifth coach in NBA history to record 1,000 wins when the Utah Jazz beat the Dallas Mavericks 101-79.

December 11, 201 0

George Karl becomes the seventh coach in NBA history to record 1000 career wins after the Denver Nuggets defeated the Toronto Raptors 123-116. Karl had missed the entire 2009-2010 season while battling cancer.

December 11, 2018

A 111-86 win by the San Antonio Spurs against the Phoenix Suns gives coach Gregg Popovich career win No. 1,211. That victory pushes him past Hall of Fame coach Pat Riley for fourth on the all-time victories list.

December 12, 1932

Bob Pettit is born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

December 12, 1971

Los Angeles defeated Atlanta 104-95 at the Forum for the Lakers’ 21st consecutive victory, breaking the NBA record of 20 straight wins, previously shared by the Washington Capitols (over two seasons) and Milwaukee Bucks. The Lakers went on to win 33 straight games, the longest winning streak in NBA history.

December 12, 1984

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar scored 15 points to become the first player in NBA history to surpass 32,000 career points in the Lakers’ 131-107 victory over Golden State.

December 12, 1988

With a 110-94 loss to Utah at the Salt Palace, the Miami Heat set an NBA record for the most consecutive games lost at the start of a season with 17. The Los Angeles Clippers opened the lockout-shortened 1998-99 season with 17 straight defeats, tying the Heat’s mark.

December 12, 2001

Sacramento’s Rick Adelman became the 22nd coach to register 500 victories as the Kings defeated Orlando 112-100 at ARCO Arena.

December 12, 2006

Ten-time All-Star Paul Arizin, a member of the Hall of Fame and one of the first jump-shot specialists, dies at the age of 78.

December 13, 1983

Detroit beat Denver 186-184 in a triple-overtime game that set NBA records for most points scored in a game, one team (Detroit-186) and combined (370) most field goals, one team (Detroit-74) and combined (142) and combined assists (93).

December 13, 1986

The Washington Bullets retired uniform #25 in honor of the late Gus Johnson.

December 13, 1991

Boston’s Robert Parish became the fifth player in NBA history to appear in 1,200 career games (joining Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Elvin Hayes, John Havlicek and Paul Silas) during the Celtics’ 117-97 win over Seattle at Boston Garden.

December 13, 1994

Philadelphia’s Willie Burton set a Spectrum scoring record by pouring in 53 points during the Sixers’ 105-90 win over Miami. That broke the previous scoring high at the Spectrum of 52 points, set by Michael Jordan during the 1988-89 season.

December 13, 2000

John Stockton of the Utah Jazz collected his 14,000th career assist in a 111-102 loss to Milwaukee. When Stockton notched the assist, he increased his lead over No. 2 career assist man Magic Johnson (10,141 assists) to 3,859 assists.

December 13, 2001

Larry Costello, who guided the Milwaukee Bucks to their only NBA championship in 1971, passed away after battling cancer for more than a year. He was 70 years old.

December 14, 1962

Wilt Chamberlain scored 63 points for the Philadelphia Warriors and Elgin Baylor tallied 50 points for the Los Angeles Lakers, one of only three times in NBA history that opposing players each scored at least 50 points in the same game.

December 14, 1965

Rick Barry of San Francisco poured in 57 points during the Warriors’ 141-137 setback against New York at Madison Square Garden. Barry’s 57 points were the second-highest total ever scored by a rookie in an NBA game (Wilt Chamberlain twice scored 58 for Philadelphia in 1960), and his 21 free throws (in 22 attempts) tied Frank Selvy’s NBA rookie record for the most free throws made in a game.

December 14, 1975

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar grabbed 29 defensive rebounds, an NBA record, in a 110-100 win over Detroit. Prior to the 1973-74 season, offensive and defensive rebounds were tabulated collectively.

December 14, 1985

The Utah Jazz retired Pete Maravich’s uniform #7. “Pistol” Pete averaged 24.2 ppg in 10 NBA seasons ending in 1979-80.

December 14, 1988

The Miami Heat won their first game in the NBA, defeating the Los Angeles Clippers 89-88 at the LA Sports Arena. The win by Miami broke a 17-game losing streak, which established an NBA record for consecutive losses at the start of a season that was tied by the Clippers nearly 11 years later.

December 14, 1990

Alex English of Dallas scored his 25,000th career point during the Mavericks’ 106-104 road loss to the Trail Blazers.

December 14, 1996

The Clippers beat the Kings 106-94, enabling coach Bill Fitch to join Lenny Wilkens, Red Auerbach and Dick Motta as the only coaches in NBA history to win 900 games.

December 14, 1999

The Los Angeles Clippers scored just 19 points in the first half against the Los Angeles Lakers, snapping a nearly 25-year old record for fewest points in the first half of a game held by the New Orleans Jazz. New Orleans scored 20 points in the first half against Seattle on January 4, 1975.

December 14, 2000

Rudy Tomjanovich of the Houston Rockets earned his 400th head coaching victory in a 98-95 win over Golden State. Tomjanovich became the 29th NBA coach to accumulate 400 wins.

December 14, 200 4

Jerry Sloan coaches his 1500th game against the Los Angeles Clippers, winning 93-91.

December 14, 2004

The Atlanta Hawks lose their tenth consecutive overtime game, stretching over three seasons, to tie the NBA record. The other record holders are the Golden State Warriors (1979-81) and the Minnesota Timberwolves (1992-95).

December 14, 2011

Chris Paul was traded from the New Orleans Hornets to the Los Angeles Clippers.

December 15, 1984

Gus Williams of the Washington Bullets recorded his 1,404th steal during a 109-103 loss to the Los Angeles Clippers to become, at the time, the NBA’s all-time leader in that category.

December 15, 1994

Recognizing that 3-point field goals were becoming more frequent at a shorter distance, the NBA announced that it was changing the statistical minimum, from 50 to 82, of three-point baskets needed in order for a player to qualify for the 3-point field goal percentage title.

December 15, 1995

Toronto’s Alvin Robertson picks up three steals in the Raptors’ 122-103 loss at Boston, becoming the third NBA player to move past 2,000 career steals.

December 15, 1997

Chicago plays Phoenix in front of their 500th consecutive home sellout. At the time, it was the longest active streak and third-longest in NBA history. Portland had 814 and Boston is next on the list with 662.

December 16, 1961

Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors began a streak of seven consecutive games in which he scored 50 points or more, another of Chamberlain’s many NBA records.

December 16, 1993

Patrick Ewing moved past Walt Frazier to become New York’s all-time leading scorer, with 14,618 career points, after hitting a second-quarter jumper during the Knicks’ 108-85 win over the visiting Los Angeles Lakers.

December 16, 1997

Houston’s Clyde Drexler had five steals to give him a career total of 2,115 and move him into fourth place on the all-time steals list.

December 16, 2006

In a game between the New York Knicks and Denver Nuggets there was a fight where all ten players on the court were ejected by Dick Bavetta and his officiating crew. The league eventually suspended seven of the players for a total of 47 games and fined both teams $500,000.

December 17, 1976

The Philadelphia 76ers retired Billy Cunningham’s uniform #32. He scored 13,626 points in just nine seasons with the Sixers and was a member of the 1967 NBA Championship team.

December 17, 1991

Cleveland, which had eight different players score in double figures, defeated Miami 148-80 at Richfield Coliseum. The 68-point margin of victory set an NBA record, shattering the previous mark of 63 points in the Los Angeles Lakers’ 162-99 win over Golden State on March 19, 1972.

December 17, 1996

Atlanta set an NBA record by making 19 3-point field goals (in 27 attempts) during a 109-73 victory at Dallas. Mookie Blaylock led the Hawks’ barrage from downtown, hitting 7-of-10 attempts.

December 17, 1996

As part of the NBA’s 50th anniversary season, the Top Ten Coaches in NBA History were announced. The list included Red Auerbach, Chuck Daly, Bill Fitch, Red Holzman, Phil Jackson, John Kundla, Don Nelson, Jack Ramsay, Pat Riley and Lenny Wilkens.

December 17, 200 8

Chris Paul steals an attempted pass from Tony Parker to set a new record for consecutive games with a steal at 106 games, breaking the old record previously held by Alvin Robertson.

December 17, 2016

Russell Westbrook of the the Oklahoma City Thunder dishes 22 assists in a 114-101 win over the the Phoenix Suns.

December 18, 1984

The Washington Bullets beat the New Jersey Nets 104-95 to give Gene Shue his 700th NBA career coaching victory. Shue became only the third coach to reach that plateau at the time, joining Red Auerbach and Jack Ramsay.

December 18, 200 2

The NBA Expansion Committee unanimously recommends that the NBA Board of Governors approve an expansion franchise for the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, to be owned and operated by Robert L. Johnson. That franchise is now the Charlotte Bobcats.

December 18, 2017

In a halftime ceremony at Staples Center, Kobe Bryant’s No. 8 and No. 24 jerseys are retired by the Los Angeles Lakers. He became the 10th player in team history to have his number retired and the only player with two jerseys retired by the Lakers.

December 19, 1956

Upon his return from Melbourne, Australia, where he led the U.S. Basketball squad to an Olympic gold medal, Bill Russell signed his first contract with the Boston Celtics.

December 19, 1968

The Detroit Pistons traded Dave DeBusschere to the New York Knicks for Walt Bellamy and Howard Komives. The acquisition of DeBusschere is often credited as providing the last piece to the Knicks’ championship teams of 1970 and 1973. The midseason trade also allowed Bellamy to play in an NBA record 88 games that season with New York and Detroit.

December 19, 1990

Boston’s Kevin McHale scored 23 points in 29 minutes of play, helping the Celtics down Philadelphia 115-105 while reaching the 15,000 point mark for his career.

December 19, 1992

New York’s 91-87 win over Miami at Madison Square Garden gave Knicks Coach Pat Riley his 600th career victory, the 12th coach in NBA history to reach that mark.

December 20, 1966

Seattle was named the 11th franchise city in the NBA. Approximately one month later the team was named the SuperSonics, the result of a local contest won by Howard E. Schmidt.

December 20, 1992

Buck Williams becomes only the 20th player in NBA history to collect 10,000 rebounds in his career as Portland defeats Golden State, 130-114.

December 20, 1997

New York’s Patrick Ewing suffered a Lunate dislocation and torn ligaments in right wrist in game vs. Milwaukee Bucks and was declared out for the remainder of the season following surgery.

December 20, 2001

Chick Hearn, the Lakers’ play-by-play announcer, was not be behind the microphone for the Lakers-Rockets game as he recovered from heart surgery to replace a blocked aortic valve, bringing to end an astonishing streak, one that lasted more than 36 years and 3,338 games.

December 20, 2005

Kobe Bryant scored 62 points in three quarters against the Dallas Mavericks. The Mavericks had 61 points total, making this the only time a player had done this through three quarters since the advent of the shot clock.

December 20, 2006

New York Knicks forward David Lee scores a game-winning basket with only 00:00.1 seconds left on the clock. The shot counts because Lee deflects the inbounds pass into the basket. It is the first occurrence of a team winning an NBA game with one-tenth of one second left since the NBA implemented the Trent Tucker Rule in 1990.

December 20, 2016

DeMarcus Cousins of the Sacramento Kings scores 55 points in a 126-121 win over the Portland Trail Blazers.

December 21, 1980

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar became only the fifth player in NBA history to notch 25,000 points as he scored a season-high 42 points in the Lakers’ 135-102 win over San Antonio.

December 21, 2001

With 16 points in a 100-94 victory over New Jersey, Indiana’s Reggie Miller improved his career scoring total to 21,801 points and moved past Larry Bird into 19th place on the NBA’s all-time scoring list.

December 21, 2014

One-time All-Star Paul Walther dies at the age of 87.

December 22, 1949

In his 13th game as a Celtic, Tony Lavelli scored 26 points as Boston beat the Minneapolis Lakers, who were on their way to a second straight NBA title. At halftime, the versatile Lavelli treated the 5,206 fans at Boston Garden to an accordion mini-concert, one of about two dozen performances he gave around the league for which he was paid $125 per concert by the NBA.

December 22, 1956

Bill Russell made his debut for the Boston Celtics at home against the St. Louis Hawks. The Celtics won 95-93. Russell scored six points and grabbed 16 rebounds.

December 22, 1962

The NBA’s 1,000,000th point was scored in either the Detroit-Chicago, New York-Boston or Syracuse-San Francisco game.

December 22, 1996

By pulling down 12 rebounds in Utah’s 100-94 setback at Cleveland, Karl Malone became the 11th player in NBA history to reach 20,000 and 10,000 rebounds in a season.

December 22, 2020

A shortened 2020-21 NBA season begins with a doubleheader — Warriors vs. Nets and Clippers vs. Lakers — to begin a 72-game season. The coronavirus pandemic of 2020 caused the season to start later than its typical mid-October start.

December 23, 1990

In a game that took 26 days to decide, the Boston Celtics downed the Atlanta Hawks 132-104 at the Garden. The game was originally scheduled to be played on November 28, but a wet playing surface, caused by condensation from the ice underneath the parquet floor, forced postponement of the game 90 seconds into the second quarter and the Celtics ahead 37-22.

December 23, 1992

Michael Jordan scored 57 points to lead Chicago over Washington 107-98, giving Bulls Coach Phil Jackson his 200th career victory, in an NBA record 270 games.

December 23, 1994

Dana Barros of Philadelphia began a streak of 58 games in which he sank at least one three-point field goal, breaking the NBA record for a single season previously held by Michael Adams at 43.

December 23, 1997

Hall of Famer Les Harrison, who led the Rochester Royals to the NBA Championship in 1951 as owner, general manager and coach, died at the age of 93.

December 23, 1997

Chicago’s Phil Jackson recorded his 500th victory as an NBA coach, reaching the mark in his 682nd game, faster than any other coach in NBA history.

December 23, 1999

The Philadelphia 76ers are selected to host NBA All-Star 2002, the NBA announced. NBA All-Star 2002 will include the 51st NBA All-Star Game, the events of NBA All-Star Saturday, the NBA TeamUp Celebration and the NBA All-Star Jam Session presented by Fleer. NBA All-Star 2002 will be held February 8-10, 2002. The First Union Center, which opened during the 1996-97 season, will host the NBA All-Star Game and the events of NBA All-Star Saturday, while the Pennsylvania Convention Center will play host to the NBA All-Star Jam Session. The city of Philadelphia and the 76ers were originally scheduled to host the 1999 NBA All-Star Weekend, which was cancelled due to a league work stoppage. This will mark the fourth time the NBA All-Star Game will be held in the city of Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Warriors hosted the game in 1960 at Convention Hall, where 10,421 turned out to see the East top the West, 125-115, behind 25 points from Wilt Chamberlain.

December 23, 2007

In Madison Square Garden against the New York Knicks, Kobe Bryant became the youngest player ever to reach 20,000 points (29 years, 122 days).

December 24, 1960

Boston pulled down 109 rebounds in a game against Detroit to establish an NBA record as the Celtics beat the Pistons 150-106.

December 25, 1960

The host Syracuse Nationals routed the New York Knicks 162-100 in a holiday game, setting a record for margin of victory (62 points) that would last for 12 years.

December 25, 1984

Bernard King scored a franchise-record 60 points for New York, but the Knicks bowed to the New Jersey Nets 120-114.

December 25, 200 4

In their first meeting since the November 19, 2004 brawl, the and Detroit Pistons beat the Indiana Pacers, 98-93 at the Conseco Fieldhouse in Indianapolis without further incidents

December 25, 2008

Shaquille O’Neal became the second player in NBA history to miss 5,000 free throws, joining Wilt Chamberlain.

December 25, 2008

The Los Angeles Lakers defeated the Boston Celtics, making Phil Jackson the sixth coach to win 1,000 games. He also became the fastest to 1,000, usurping Pat Riley.

December 25, 2020

Hall of Famer K.C. Jones, an Olympic gold medalist and two-time NCAA champion who won eight straight NBA titles during the Celtics’ Bill Russell era and then coached the Boston teams with Larry Bird, Kevin McHale and Robert Parish to two more championships in the 1980s, dies at 88.

December 26, 1976

Larry Kenon of San Antonio set an NBA record with 11 steals in the Spurs’ 110-105 victory over Kansas City. Kendall Gill of the New Jersey Nets tied Kenon’s mark more than 22 years later when he recorded 11 steals against Miami on April 3, 1999.

December 26, 1995

The NBA Jam Session presented by Fleer, the league’s interactive basketball attraction, opens at the annual Barcelona Children’s Festival in Spain, the first time that Jam Session ventured onto European soil.

December 26, 1997

San Antonio’s David Robinson scored 24 points to pass the 15,000-point plateau for his career.

D ecember 26, 2000

Don Nelson of the Dallas Mavericks notched his 945th head coaching win when Dallas defeated Seattle 114-93, moving ahead of Bill Fitch (944) and into third place in all-time NBA coaching victories.

December 26, 2011

Several members of the 2011 draft make their debuts on this night. Kyrie Irving debuts for the Cleveland Cavaliers in a 104-96 loss to the Toronto Raptors. Kawhi Leonard debuts for the San Antonio Spurs in a 95-82 win over the Memphis Grizzlies. Isaiah Thomas debuts for the Sacramento Kings in a 100-91 win over the Los Angeles Lakers. And Kemba Walker debuts for the Charlotte Bobcats in a 96-95 win over the Milwaukee Bucks.

December 26, 2001

Philadelphia 76ers coach Larry Brown became the ninth coach in NBA history to reach 800 victories in the league after the Sixers’ 100-86 triumph over the Los Angeles Clippers.

December 27, 1956

Bill Sharman’s consecutive free throw streak ended at 55, an NBA record that lasted for 19 years. Houston’s Calvin Murphy broke the record with 58 consecutive free throws during the 1975-76 season. The current record is 97 by Micheal Williams of the Minnesota Timberwolves, set in 1993 over two seasons.

December 27, 1964

Oscar Robertson of Cincinnati had 16 free throw attempts in one quarter of the Royals’ game at Baltimore, the most free throw attempts in one quarter in NBA history. The mark has been matched by five players in 36 years, including Michael Jordan in 1992, but it has never been surpassed.

December 27, 1967

The New York Knicks named Red Holzman head coach, replacing Dick McGuire. Holzman went on to lead the Knicks to NBA titles in 1970 and 1973, utilizing several players recommended by McGuire, who became the team’s chief scout.

December 27, 1978

Seattle’s Paul Silas played in his 1,123rd regular season game, at that time trailing only John Havlicek’s 1,270. Robert Parish now holds the record for the most games played in an NBA career, with 1,560.

December 27, 1980

Calvin Murphy of the Houston Rockets began a streak of 78 consecutive free throws made in a game against Washington. It was the first of 16 games Murphy would need for his then NBA record FT streak.

December 27, 1991

Tim Hardaway of Golden State set an NBA record for most field goals attempted with none made in a game when he shot 0-for-17 in the Warriors’ 106-102 OT win at Minnesota.

December 28, 1950

Dolph Schayes of Syracuse pulled down 35 rebounds, at the time an NBA record in the new statistical category, in a game at Philadelphia against the Warriors.

December 28, 1995

Dick Motta of Dallas became the third NBA coach to win 900 games when the Mavericks beat the Grizzlies, 103-101 in double-overtime. He joined Red Auerbach (938) and Lenny Wilkens (then with 1,014).

December 28, 2019

In a game between the Indiana Pacers and New Orleans Pelicans, history was made by the Holiday brothers. Aaron Holiday started for the Pacers as did Jrue Holiday for the Pelicans. Then, with seven minutes and 47 seconds left in the first quarter, Justin Holiday checked in off the Pacers’ bench. That made them the first trio of siblings to play in the same NBA game.

December 29, 1979

Houston’s Rick Barry scored 19 points in a 104-100 victory over Philadelphia, becoming only the 15th player at the time to surpass 18,000 career points.

December 29, 1997

Dallas’ Bubba Wells recorded six fouls in three minutes of a 111-105 loss to Chicago. He broke the 41-year-old NBA record of five minutes set by Dick Farley of the Syracuse Nationals.

December 29, 1999

The late Wilt Chamberlain became the first player to have his number retired by three teams when the Golden State Warriors retired his #13 jersey at halftime of their game against the Philadelphia 76ers. The No. 13 jersey was presented to Barbara Lewis and Yvonne Chamberlain, Wilt’s sisters, and Oliver Chamberlain, his brother. Chamberlain’s number had already been retired by the Philadelphia 76ers, where he was part of the 1967 NBA championship team, and the Los Angeles Lakers, where he was part of the 1972 title team. Chamberlain spent six years with the Warriors organization, averaging 41.5 points and 25.1 rebounds in 429 games.

December 29, 1999

Philadelphia 76ers coach Larry Brown became the 11th coach in NBA history to reach the 700-victory plateau when the 76ers defeated Golden State 97-94 in Oakland.

December 29, 2001

Don Nelson became the third coach in league annals to win 1,000 games as his Dallas Mavericks defeated Atlanta 113-97, and Jerry Sloan became the 10th coach in NBA lore to win 800 games when his Utah Jazz downed Philadelphia 89-81. Nelson joined Lenny Wilkens and Pat Riley in the 1,000-victory club.

December 30, 1961

Wilt Chamberlain scored 42 points in a 116-111 loss to Boston, the 14th straight game in which he scored at least 40 points, an NBA record.

December 30, 1971

The Los Angeles Lakers posted a 122-106 victory at Seattle, giving them a perfect 16-0 record for December, the best monthly record in NBA history. It was the Lakers’ second consecutive undefeated month, as they also posted a 14-0 mark in November, during their NBA record 33-game winning streak.

December 30, 1990

Orlando’s Scott Skiles dished off an NBA record 30 assists as the Magic defeated Denver 155-116 at Orlando Arena. Skiles surpassed previous record holder Kevin Porter of New Jersey, who handed out 29 assists in the Nets’ 126-112 win over Houston on February 24, 1978.

December 30, 1992

The Phoenix Suns defeated Houston 133-110 to finish December with a 14-0 record, tying for the third-best month in NBA history. The Lakers set the NBA record by going 16-0 in December 1971.

December 30, 1996

New York became the fourth NBA franchise to reach 2,000 victories, following a 98-96 home win over New Jersey. The other three NBA teams that had surpassed 2,000 victories are the Celtics, Lakers and 76ers.

December 30, 1997

Chicago’s Michael Jordan scored 33 points to surpass Kareem Abdul-Jabbar’s mark of 787 consecutive games with at least 10 points.

December 30, 1997

San Antonio’s David Robinson recorded five blocked shots to move into eighth place on the all-time chart ahead of George T. Johnson (2,082).

December 30, 2016

Isaiah Thomas of the Boston Celtics scores 52 points in a 117-114 win over the Miami Heat.

December 31, 1954

The Fort Wayne Pistons and the Minneapolis Lakers combined to attempt 127 free throws, the most ever in a regulation NBA game. Minneapolis won 103-91.

December 31, 2016

James Harden of the Houston Rockets scores 53 points in a 129-122 win over the New York Knicks.


22 December 1942

Adolf Hitler signs the order to begin development the V2 rocket as a weapon.

Early in World War II, Hitler was not particularly enthusiastic about the rocket program believing that the weapon was simply a more expensive artillery shell with a longer range. As the conflict progressed, Hitler warmed to the program and on December 22, 1942, authorized the A4 to be produced as a weapon. Though production was approved, thousands of changes were made to the final design before the first production missiles were completed in early 1944. Initially, production of the A4, now re-designated the V-2, was slated for Peenemunde, Friedrichshafen, and Wiener Neustadt, as well as several smaller sites.

This was changed in late 1943, after Allied bombing raids against Peenemunde and other V-2 sites erroneously led the Germans to believe their production plans had been compromised. As a result, production shifted to underground facilities at Nordhausen (Mittelwerk) and Ebensee. The only plant to be fully operational by war’s end, the Nordhausen factory utilized slave labor from the nearby Mittelbau-Dora concentration camps. It is believed that around 20,000 prisoners died while working at the Nordhausen plant, a number that far exceeded the number of casualties inflicted by the weapon in combat. During the war, over 5,700 V-2s were built at various facilities.


The Caldwell News and The Burleson County Ledger (Caldwell, Tex.), Vol. 57, No. 21, Ed. 1 Friday, December 18, 1942

Weekly newspaper from Caldwell, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

Physical Description

eight pages : ill. page 20 x 13 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Creation Information

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 90 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

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Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library

The Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library is a public library affiliated with the system that serves the North Texas city of Caldwell in Burleson County. In 2011, the library was awarded a Tocker Foundation grant to digitize Burleson County's historic newspapers and to provide access to them on the Portal to Texas History.


Update Log

2nd June - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito VP178 - VP355 , VR330 - VR806 , VT571 - VY726 , VX860 - VX916 & Instructional 3509M - 6330M , 6343M - 7806M added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

1st June - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito TW101 - TW119 , VA871 - VA928 & VL613 - VL732 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

31st May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito TH976 - TH999 , TJ113 - TJ158 , TK591 - TK656 & TV954 - TV990 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

30th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito TA113 - TA234 , TA235 - TA355 , TA356 - TA481 , TA482 - TA584 , TA585 - TA633 , TA634 - TA724 Also TE587 - TE705 , TE706 - TE823 , TE824 - TE932 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

28th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito RS666 - RS920 , RV295 - RV367 , SM700 & SM701 , & SZ958 - SZ999 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

27th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito RL213 - RL268 , RR270 - RR319 , RS501 - RS580 & RS593 - RS655 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

25th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito RK929 - RK999 , RL113 - RL154 & RL155 - RL212 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

24th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito RG113 - RG195 , RG196 - RG259 & RG260 - RG318 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

23rd May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito RF678 - RF789 , RF790 - RF914 &RF915 - RF999 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

22nd May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito PZ255 - PZ378 , PZ379 - PZ476 & RF580 - RF677 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

21st May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito PF494 - PF615 , PF616 - PF680 & PZ161 - PZ254 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

20th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito NT431 -NT530 , NT531 - NT621 & PF379 - PF493 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

19th May - Bomb Aimers Notebook added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

18th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito NS891 - NS999 , NT112 - NT203 , NT204 - NT308 & NT309 - NT430 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

17th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito NS496 - NS632 , NS633 - NS779 & NS780 - NS890 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

16th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito MP469 , MT456 - MT500 & MV521 - MV570 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

15th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito MM458 - MM577 , MM578 - MM706 & MM707 - MM822 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

14th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito ML896 - ML999 , MM112 - MM228 , MM229 - MM347 & MM348 - MM457 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

13th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito KB493 - KB594 , KB595 - KB699 & LR248 - LR362 , LR363 - LR495 , LR496 - LR585 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

12th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito KA314 - KA425 , KA426 - KA923 & KB100 - KB237 , KB238 - KB394 , KB395 - KB492 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

10th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito HX802 - HX984 , KA100 - HA200 & KA201 - KA313 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

9th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito HR359 - HR506 & HR507 - HR649 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

8th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito HK244 - HK375 , HK376 - HK534 , HP848 - HP989 & HR113 - HR212 , HR213 - HR358 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

6th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito HJ769 - HJ893 , HJ894 - HJ999 & HK107 - HK243 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

5th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito DZ492 - DZ632 , DZ633 - DZ761 & HJ642 - HJ768 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

4th May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito W4050 - W4079 , DZ228 - DZ360 & DZ361 - DZ491 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

3rd May - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for de Haviland Mosquito DD600 - DD800 & DK284 - DK339 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

2nd May - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - July , August & September 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

30th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - April , May & June 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - November & December 1944 , January, February & March 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - September & October 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

24th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - May, June, July & August 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

22nd April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - March & April 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

21st April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - January & February 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

20th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - November & December 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

19th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - September & October 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

18th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - July & August 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

17th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - May & June 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

16th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - March & April 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

15th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - January & February 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

13th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - November & December 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - September & October 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

11th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Short Stirling for - 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

11th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - November & December 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

10th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - September & October 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

9th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - July & August 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

8th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - May & June 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

7th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - March & April 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

6th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - January & February 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

5th April - Manual of Air Navigation A.P.1234 in 2 parts added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

4th April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - November & December 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

3rd April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - September & October 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

2nd April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - June & July 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

1st April - Updated photo of Sgt Rowland A Williams added to his page The Crews - Rowland A Williams

1st April - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - May & June 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

31st March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - March & April 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

30th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - January & February 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

29th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - April & May 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley for - January , February & March 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - For 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

27th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - August , September , October, November & December 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - May , June & July 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - EB282 - EB410 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

25th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - January , February , March & April 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

24th March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - October , November & December 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

23rd March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - July , August & September 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

22nd March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - April , May & June 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

21st March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Hampden - January , February & March 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

19th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hampden - November & December 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

18th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hampden - September & October 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

17th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hampden - June , July & August 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

16th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hampden March , April & May 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

14th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hampden January & February 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

13th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hereford 1941 also Handley Page Hampden 1939 & September - December 1940 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th March - Form 1180 for Handley Page Hereford 1939 & 1940 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley -LA846 - LA951 & Converted to Instructional 1780M - 4824M added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

11th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - BD412 - BD555 , BD556 - BD693 & LA763 - LA845 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

10th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - AD665 - AD174 , BD189 - BD274 & BD275 - BD411 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

9th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - Z9167 - Z9291 , Z9292 - Z9428 & Z9429 - Z9463 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

8th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - Z6751 - Z6838 , Z6839 - Z6961 & Z6962 - Z9166 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

7th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - T4130 - T4179 , T4200 - T4273 & T4274 - T4339 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

6th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - Z6461 - Z6555 , Z6556 - Z6647 & Z6648 - Z6750 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

5th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - P4930 - P4969 , P4970 - P5014 , P5015 - P5070 & P5071 - P5112 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

4th March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - N1345 - N1394 , N1405 - N1468 & N1469 - N1528 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

3rd March - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - K8936 - K8973 , K8974 - K9014 & K9015 - K9055 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

2st March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - October , November & December 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

1st March - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - July , August & September 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - April , May & June 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

27th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - March in 2 parts - 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - February in 2 parts - 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

25th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - November part 2 , December 1944 & January part 1 - 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

24th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - October in 2 parts & November part 1 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

23rd February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - August in 2 parts & September 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

22nd February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - June in 2 parts & July 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

21st February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - April 1944 & May 1944 in 2 parts added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

20th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - February part 2 & March in 2 parts 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

19th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - January in 2 parts & February part 1 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

18th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - October , November in 2 parts & December in 2 parts 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

17th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - July , August in 2 parts & September in 2 parts 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

15th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - April . May & June 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

14th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - January , February & March 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

13th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - August - October & November - December 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - January - April & May - July 1942 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Handley Page Halifax - Jan - Dec 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

11th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - December 1943 in 3 parts 1st - 11th , 12th - 22nd, & 23rd - 30th added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

10th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - November 1943 in 3 parts 1st - 12th , 12th - 23rd, & 24th - 3oth added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

9th February - Navigation for Air-Crews Part 1 1942 added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

8th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - October 1943 in 3 parts 1st - 7th , 8th - 17th, & 18th - 31st added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

7th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Oct - Dec 1940 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

7th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Jan - Sept 1940 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

6th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley Jan - Dec 1939 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

6th February - Navigation for Air-Crews Prt2 1943 added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

5th February - Air Navigation Plotting added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

5th February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - December 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

3rd February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - November 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

1st February - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - October 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th January - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - September 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th January - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - August 1941 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

23rd January - The Interpretation of Air Photographs 1943 added in Books, Notebooks & Manuals

23rd January - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - December 1940 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

23rd January - Form 78 - Aircraft Movement Cards for Armstrong Whitworth Whitley - Prototype - K4587 - K4587 , K7183 - K7210 , K7211 - K7236 , K7237 -K7262 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

21st January - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Vickers Wellington - January - July & August - December 1939 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

13th January - Mehr Flugzeuge - aber wie - Die Flugzeugproduktion der Westmächte. Eine Bilanz (More aircraft - but how - the aircraft production of the Western powers. A balance sheet) added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

13th January - Allgemeine Einführung in das Flugwesen (General introduction to aviation) added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

10th January - Fliegen Lernen! added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

10th January - Die Luftfahrt-Navigation in 2 parts added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

9th January - Deutsche Luftwacht Luftwissen Sept 1943 added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

22nd December - Deutscher Luftwaffen Kalender 1944 added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

12th December - Kriegsflugzeuge 1943 Zusammengestellt Unter Mitwirkung des RLM (Warplanes assembled in 1943 with the participation of the RLM) added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

7th December - BCIS - Bomber Command Instructors School 1st Dec '44 - 7th Aug '45 added in Group, Squadron, CU , HCU & Appendices ORB's

3rd December - Die Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte (Enemy Powers Warplanes) 1943 added in Kriegsflugzeuge der Feindmächte

2nd December - Laughs With The RAF - Giles - added in Books Notebooks Manuals

21st November - 1 LFS Lindholme December 1943 - February 1944 added in Group, Squadron, CU , HCU & Appendices ORB’s

18th November - 1668 Conversion Unit - 5 LFS August 1943 - March 1945 added in Group, Squadron, CU , HCU & Appendices ORB’s

30th August - Aircraft Hydraulics Simplified added in Books Notebooks Manuals

28th August - AP1480A Recognition Handbook of British Aircraft added in Books Notebooks Manuals

27th August - Air Ministry Pamphlet 229 - Air Power - Three Papers added in Books Notebooks Manuals

26th August - AP957 RAF Fire Manual added in Books Notebooks Manuals

26th August - Britische Frontflugaeuge II & Die Wichtigften Italienifchen Frontflugzeuge German Aircraft Identification pamphlets added in Books Notebooks Manuals

25th August - Air Ministry - The Airmen's Welfare - Notes for Officers added to Books Notebooks Manuals

25th August - US War Department - TM 1-900 Mathematics for Aircrew Trainees added to Books Notebooks Manuals

24th August - Air Publications AP. 1762 - Electrical & Radio Notes for Wireless Operators added to Books Notebooks Manuals

23rd August - Air Publication AP 129 - Flying Training Manual - Part 1 Landplanes added to Books Notebooks Manuals

19th August - Students & Instructor Notes on - Principles of Flight , Meteorology prt 1, Meteorology Prt 2 , Air Navigation , Theory of Bombing , Armament , Theory of Tracer Ammunition , Anti Gas added to Books Notebooks Manuals

13th August - All items dated 13th August have been added to Group, Squadron, CU , HCU & Appendices ORB’s

13th August - 9 Squadron ORB - 1st January ‘43 - 30th December ‘43

13th August - Squadron Appendices 207 Squadron 16th January ‘41 - 1st September ‘41 RAF Scampton 8th January ‘43 - 28th June ‘43

13th August - Group ORB’s 1 Group ORB 1st August ‘40 - 31st December ‘45

13th August - Conversion Units ORB’s 1654 CU- 19th May ‘42 - 31st January ‘44 1655 Mosquito - 30th August ‘42 - 3rd January ‘45 1656 CU - 10th October ‘42 - 27th September ‘43 1657 CU - 6th October ‘42 31st January ‘44

13th August - 1658 CU - 17th February ‘42 ‘ 30th November ‘44 - 1659 CU - 6th October ‘42 - 31st December ‘43 - 1660 CU - 20th October ‘42 - 31st January ‘44 , 1661 CU - 9th November ‘42 - 31st January ‘44

13th August - 1662 CU - 1st February ‘43 - 31st December ‘43 , 1663 CU - 2nd March ‘43 - 31st January ‘44 , 1664 CU - 10th May ‘43 - 31st December ‘43,

13th August - Moved from own page:- 12 Squadron - War Diary - 1st September 1943 to 31st July 1944 , 12 Squadron -Sortie Reports - 12th January 1943 to 22nd December 1943

13th August 12 Squadron - Sorties & Operational Hours - January 1943 to December 1943 , 12 Squadron - Routine Orders & Reports - 26th January 1943 to March 1944

12th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - October , November & December 1946 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

11th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - July , August & September 1946 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

10th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - April , May & June 1946 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

8th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - January , February & March 1946 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

7th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - December 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

6th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - November 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

5th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - October 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

4th August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - September 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

2nd August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - August 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

1st August - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - July 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

31st July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - June 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

30th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - May 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

29th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 3 of April - 19th - 30th April 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 2 of April - 11th - 18th April 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

27th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 1 of April - 1st - 11th April 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

26th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 3 of March - 22nd - 31st March 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

24th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 2 of March - 11th - 21st March 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

23rd July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 1 of March - 1st - 10th March 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

21st July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 3 of February - 20th - 28th February 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

20th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 2 of February - 9th - 19th February 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

19th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - Part 1 of February - 1st - 8th February 1945 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

18th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - January 1945 in two parts added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

17th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - December 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

15th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - November 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

14th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - October 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

13th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - September 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

12th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - August 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

11th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - July 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

10th July - AP.2095 Pilots Notes General 2nd Edition added in Books Notebooks Manuals

10th July - Pilots Notes for Lancaster I Four Merlin XX Power Plants Mk. I AP.2062-A added in Books Notebooks Manuals

10th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - June 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

10th July - Link Trainer Instructors Handbook AP.1920 added in Books Notebooks Manuals

9th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - May 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

9th July - Handbook Merlin Engines added in Books Notebooks Manuals

9th July - Merlin AP-1590 P S & U Vol 1 added in Books Notebooks Manuals

8th July - Merlin 22, 23, 24 & 25 Maintenance Manual added in Books Notebooks Manuals

8th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - April 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

8th July - Halifax - Pilot Notes AP1719F added in Books Notebooks Manuals

8th July - Beaufighter - AP1721 A, F & J added in Books Notebooks Manuals

6th July - Wellington I - AP.1578 A added in Books Notebooks Manuals

6th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - March 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

5th July - Stirling Aircraft Mk III & IV - A.P 1660C & D added in Books Notebooks Manuals

5th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - February 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

4th July - Whitley AP1522E Pilots Notes added in Books Notebooks Manuals

4th July - Hampden Pilots Notes AP1579A added in Books Notebooks Manuals

4th July - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - January 1944 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

3rd July - Key Card for Forms 1180 added to Abbreviations Forms 78 & 1180

2nd July - Form 78's For Stirling - LK114 - LK238 , LK239 - LK381 , LK382 - LK503 , LK504 - LK562 , MZ260 - MZ264 , PJ878 - PJ999 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

2nd July - Form 78's for Stirling - PK115 - PK237 , PW255 - PW465 , TS262 - TS265 & Converted to Instructional - 3010M - 5904M added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

29th June - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - November 1943 & December 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

28th June - The 'Lancaster' Aircraft AVRO Type '683' Mk X - Schedule of Spare Parts - added in Books Notebooks Manuals

27th June - Instructional Course Handbook June1944 - "Lancaster" Aircraft Type "683" Mk I. II. III. & X , added in Books Notebooks Manuals

27th June - Form 78's for Stirling - LJ540 - LJ653 , LJ667 - LJ894 , LJ895 - LJ999 , added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

27th June - Form 1180 - Accident Reports Cards for - October 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

25th June - Form 78's for Stirling - EH875 - EH996 , EJ104 - EJ127 , LJ440 - LJ539 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

24th June - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards for Lancaster - September 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

24th June - Form 78's for Stirling - EF425 - EF518 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

23rd June - Form 78's for Stirling - EF114 - EF207 , EF208 - EF322 , EF323 - EF413 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

21st June - Form 1180's For August 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

21st June - Form 78's for Stirling - DJ972 - DJ979 , EE871 - EE912 , EE913 - EE975 Added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

18th June - Pilots Notes AVRO Manchester Mk1 - added to Books Notebooks Manuals

18th June - Form 78s - for Stirling BF473 - BF580 , BK592 - BK701 , BK702 - BK818 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

18th June - Form 1180 - Lancaster for July 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

15th June - Form 1180 - Lancaster - for June 1943 added to Form 1180 Accident Report Cards

15th June - Form 78's For Stirling - BF309 - BF389 , BF390 - BF472 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

14th June - Form 78s - for Stirling W7426 - W7534 , W7535 - W7639 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards

14th June - Form 1180's Lancaster - for - May 1943 added to Form 1180- Accident Report Cards

13th June - Form 1180 for Lancaster April 1943 Added to Form 1180 Accident Report Cards
13th June - Stirling form 78 for R9141 - R9265 , R9266 - R9358 added to Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards
12th June - Form 78's for Short Stirling - L7600 & L7605 , N3635 - N3723 , N3724 - N6038 , N6039 - N3129 added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards
12th June - Form 1180's For January , February , March 1943 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards
12th June - Form 78 - Lancaster - Converted to Instructional - 3471M - 6899M added in Form 78 Aircraft Movement Cards
10th June - Form 1180 Accident Report Cards - Manchester Feb '41 - Dec '41 , Jan '42 - June ' 42 , July '42 - Dec '42 & Lancaster January '42 to December '42 added in Form 1180 Accident Report Cards
10th January - 5th June - update list Missing
9th January - Night Raid Reports for March , April & May 1945 added in Night Raid Reports , Form 78 for Halifax EB127 - EB199 added in Form 78 Movement Cards
8th January - Form 78's for Halifax DT732 - DT786 & DT787 - DT808 added in Form 78 Movement Cards , Night Raid Reports for January & February 1945 added in Night Raid Reports
7th January - Night Raid Reports - November & December 1944 added in Night Raid Reports , Form 78 Movement Cards for Halifax DT671 - DT731 added in Form 78 Movement Cards
6th January - Night Raid Reports - September & October 1944 added in Night Raid Reports , Form 78 Movement Cards for Halifax DT481 - DT670 added in Form 79 Movement Cards
5th January - Night Raid Reports - January 1943 & August 1944 added in Night Raid Reports , Form 78 Movement cards for Halifax DK183 - DK271 added in Form 78 Movement cards
4th January - Form 78 Halifax DJ980 - DJ999 & DK114 - DK182 added in Form 78 Movement Cards , Night Raid Reports for February 1943 , June & July 1944 added in Night Raid Reports
2nd January - Form 78's Lancaster W4102 - W4179 added in Form 78 Movement Cards , Night Raid Reports for May 1944 added in Night Raid Reports & Form 78 Halifax DG363 - DG424 added in Form 78 Movement Cards


21 December 1942 - History

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The welfare state

'From cradle to grave'

The Beveridge Report aimed to provide a comprehensive system of social insurance 'from cradle to grave'. It proposed that all working people should pay a weekly contribution to the state. In return, benefits would be paid to the unemployed, the sick, the retired and the widowed. Beveridge wanted to ensure that there was an acceptable minimum standard of living in Britain below which nobody fell.

'Social citizenship'

Despite the rising costs of the NHS, the postwar reforms of the Labour government established a domestic political consensus that lasted for nearly 30 years. As the sociologist TH Marshall wrote in 1965, 'it is generally agreed that. the overall responsibility for the welfare of the citizens must remain with the state'. Marshall's own concept of 'social citizenship' - which put forward a new model of citizenship based on economic and social (as well as political) rights - was characteristic of this collective approach to social welfare after 1945.

'Rolling back the state'

The 'social citizenship' model was not really challenged until the emergence of Margaret Thatcher as Conservative Party leader (1975) and then Prime Minister (1979). Thatcherism promised low taxes, less state intervention, and lower levels of public spending. This involved, in theory at least, substantial cuts in welfare spending. The succession of Thatcher governments between 1979 and 1990 became synonymous with the idea of 'rolling back the state'.