Jawfish SS-356 - History

Jawfish SS-356 - History

Jawfish

SS-356, a Perch-class submarine, was named Fanegal 23 August 1942, and renamed Jawfish 24 September 1942. Construction by Electric Boat Co., Groton, Conn., was canceled 29 July 1944.


Jawfish SS-356 - History

Authors

Bibliography

Methodology

Munitions Cancelled

Ground Vehicles Canceled

Small Arms Canceled

Missiles / Flying Bombs Canceled

canceled after V-J Day. 1,400

built. Clone of V-1 Buzz Bomb. [11]
RCA/National Bureau of Standards &ldquoBat&rdquo &ndash 7,000

canceled after V-J Day. 3,000

built. Guided anti-ship missile. [12]

U.S.A.A.F Fighters Cancelled

canceled after V-J Day.
Republic P-47N &ldquoThunderbolt&rdquo &ndash 5,934 canceled after V-J Day. [9]
North American P-51D &ldquoMustang&rdquo &ndash 1,000 canceled after V-J Day.
North American P-51H &ldquoMustang&rdquo &ndash 1,445 canceled after V-J Day. 555 completed by V-J Day with last aircraft delivered in 1946. [9]
North American P-51M &ldquoMustang&rdquo &ndash 1,628 canceled after V-J Day. Single plane built. [9]
North American P-51L &ldquoMustang&rdquo &ndash 1,700 canceled after V-J Day. Never Built. [9]
Bell P-59A &ldquoAiracomet&rdquo &ndash 100 ordered in 1942. 50 canceled on 30 October 1943 due to poor performance. [9]
Curtiss P-60A &ndash 1,950 ordered on 21 October 1941. Canceled entirely on 2 January 1942 for more P-40K/L and P-47Gs. [9]
Northrop P-61C &ldquoBlack Widow&rdquo &ndash 400 to 551 canceled after V-J Day. 41 completed. Sources differ as to what was on order.
Curtiss P-62A &ndash 100 ordered on 25 May 1942. Canceled on 27 July 1942 due to fears of affecting production of Curtiss-built P-47Gs. [9]
Bell P-63E-1 &ldquoKingcobra&rdquo - 2,930 canceled after V-E Day. 13 built. [9]
Republic P-72A &ndash 100 ordered and then canceled at an unspecified time. [9]
Fisher P-75A &ldquoEagle&rdquo &ndash 2,500 ordered on 6 July 1943. 2,494 canceled on 27 October 1944. Six built. [9]
Bell P-76A &ndash 4,000 ordered in early 1942. Canceled entirely on 20 May 1942, freeing up Bell-Atlanta for B-29 production. [9]
Lockheed P-80A &ldquoShooting Star&rdquo &ndash 2,583 canceled after V-J Day.
Lockheed P-80N &ldquoShooting Star&rdquo &ndash 1,000 canceled after V-E Day. Never Built. Would have been built at NAA's Dallas plant. [9]
North American P-82B &ldquoTwin Mustang&rdquo &ndash 480 canceled after V-J Day. 20 built by August 1945.
Republic P-84A &ldquoThunderjet&rdquo &ndash 400 ordered March 1945. Contract reworked on 15 January 1946 into 15 x YP-84As and 85 x P-84Bs. [9]

U.S.A.A.F Medium/Light Bombers Canceled

U.S.A.A.F Heavy Bombers Canceled

canceled serial blocks and the commonly given claim of 5,092 B-29s canceled at V-J Day. Perhaps they mix up the B-29C with B-29? [22] [9]

U.S.A.A.F Reconnaissance Aircraft Canceled

U.S.A.A.F / U.S.N. Transport Aircraft Canceled

U.S. Navy Fighters Canceled

US Navy Attack (Torpedo/Dive) Craft Canceled

USN Patrol Bombers / Seaplanes

Battleship Cancellations

The first wave of battleship cancellations occurred in May-July 1942 with many ships being suspended, and then canceled.

21 July 1943 Cancellations (Suspended earlier in May 1942) (6 BB):

The second wave came with victory over Japan and the post-war era:

11 August 1945 Cancellations (1 BB):

20 January 1950 Cancellations (1 BB):

Aircraft Carrier Cancellations

The first carrier cancellation was in January 1943, due to a lack of slipway availability at Newport News for such a large ship.

11 January 1943 Cancellations (1 CVB)

The second wave occurred when when President Roosevelt disapproved most of the 1945 Combatant Shipbuilding Program on 22 March 1945.

27 March 1945 Cancellations (6 CV, 2 CVB)

The third wave occurred with the surrender of Japan in August 1945.

12 August 1945 Cancellations (2 CV, 16 CVE)

Some ships were delivered straight to the reserves, never being commissioned at all:

There was one last quasi-cancellation in 1947:

12 August 1947 Suspensions:

Cruiser Cancellations

The first wave of cancellations occurred on 16 December 1940, when two Clevelands were canceled to allow Kearny to concentrate on destroyer production.

16 December 1940 Cancellations (2 CL)

The second wave of cancellations occurred on 24 June 1943, when the remaining Alaskas were canceled.

24 June 1943 Cancellations (3 CB)

The third wave of cancellations occurred on 2 September 1944 and 5 October 1944, due to labor shortages at New York Shipbuilding, with one ship being reinstated shortly afterwards. The rest were not, due to Cramp's existing backlog of orders.

2 September 1944 Cancellations (1 CL)

5 October 1944 Cancellations (4 CL):

The fourth wave of cancellations occurred when President Roosevelt disapproved most of the 1945 Combatant Shipbuilding Program on 22 March 1945. Among the ships canceled was a 'next-generation' class of light cruisers &ndash the CL-154 class.

Canceled on 26 March 1945 (6 CL):

Canceled on 28 March 1945 (4 CA)

The fifth wave of cancellations occurred with the surrender of Japan in sight in August 1945.

12 August 1945 Cancellations (10 CL, 10 CA)

The sixth wave of cancellations occurred in 1946-47 as the final wartime contracts were eliminated.

7 January 1946 Cancellations (1 CA):

6 June 1946 Cancellations (1 CA):

24 June 1946 Suspensions ( de facto cancellations) (1 CL):

17 February 1947 Cancellations (1 CB)

Destroyer Cancellations

The first wave of cancellations occurred in 1940 and was designed to expedite destroyer production via extending the Benson class production run.

16 December 1940 Cancellations (7 DD):

The second wave of cancellations occurred in 1941 and centered around two classes of 900 ton and 1100 ton experimental destroyer escorts which were reordered as conventional destroyers the same day.

10 February 1941 Cancellations (4 DD):

The third wave followed in the Spring of 1945 when President Roosevelt disapproved most of the 1945 Combatant Shipbuilding Program on 22 March 1945. Caught up in this was a tranche of ships at Kearny Point which had been canceled earlier that month as part of a shifting of contracts.

8 March 1945 Cancellations at Kearny Point (6 DD):

27 March 1945 Cancellations (14 DD):

28 March 1945 Cancellations (16 DD):

The fourth wave occurred after Japan signaled it would surrender in August 1945.

12 August 1945 Cancellations (11 DD):

There was also a series of cancellations and quasi-cancellations in which partially complete hulks were launched off the ways and used as reserve mobilization hulks until the 1950s and 1960s. In addition, two experimental hulls from the Fiscal Year 1941 program were canceled, never having been laid down.

11 December 1945 Cancellations (1 DD):

12 December 1945 Cancellations (1 DD):

7 January 1946 Cancellations (3 DD)

13 September 1946 Cancellations (2 DD):

Unknown Cancellation Date:

Destroyer Escort Cancellations

The first wave of cancellations occurred just as the DE program was reaching full stride (378 launched in 1943). Ironically, these cancellations affected the most capable ships (24-kt, 5 inch), instead of the lesser types.

15 September 1943 Cancellations (205 DE)

2 October 1943 Cancellations (100 DE)

The second wave of cancellations occurred as it was becoming increasingly likely that the continent of Europe would be successfully invaded &ndash most of the tonnage/manpower required for the Invasion of Europe had been moved across the Atlantic, and the U-Boat threat had been greatly diminished from May 1943 onwards.

12 March 1944 Cancellations (60 DE):

13 March 1944 Cancellations (18 DE):

The third wave occurred as a result of the Normandy landings, and the realization that we had secured a firm lodgement on Europe that could not be dislodged by the Germans.

6 June 1944 Cancellations (16 DE):

10 June 1944 Cancellations (30 DE)

1 September 1944 Cancellations (5 DE):

5 September 1944 Cancellations (5 DE)

7 January 1946 Cancellations (2 DE)

Submarine Cancellations

According to Norman Friedman's U.S. Submarines Through 1945 the USN laid down planning assumptions on 1 December 1941 (or 1942) that called for a minimum production rate of 30 submarines a year, which would allow the expansion of the submarine fleet in spite of expected wartime losses, which were expected to be at 1.3 submarines per month based on British assumptions.

By mid-summer 1944, it was clear that the existing USN Fleet Submarine force was going to be more than adequate for the Pacific War, due to lower losses than planned (32 boats lost to that point, versus a planned loss of 40

for that time period) and the 'oversupply' of submarines coming on-line.

Taking all of these factors into account, on 30 June 1944, Admiral King ordered BuShips to cut submarine production as fast as possible to just 7 per month (or 84 a year), in order to free up submarine industrial facilities and equipment, such as diesel engines for landing craft production.

This manifested itself in the huge wave of submarine cancellations on 29 July 1944.

29 July 1944 Cancellations (98 SS):

A much smaller second wave of cancellations followed in the Spring of 1945 when President Roosevelt disapproved most of the 1945 Combatant Shipbuilding Program on 22 March 1945. Among the ships canceled was a 'next-generation' class of submarines which would have embodied wartime experience &ndash the SS-551 class. Their hull numbers were recycled post-war.


Two New Brazilian Jawfishes (And More To Come?)


The coral reef fauna of Brazil is home to many endemic fish species, most of which find their closest relatives further north in the Caribbean. A classic example occurs with the Royal Gramma ( G. loreto ) and the Brazilian Gramma ( G. brasiliensis ), whose distribution in the West Atlantic is divided neatly by the barrier formed from the Amazon and Orinoco river deltas. A similar (but less tidy) comparison can be made with the little blue and orange Centropyge here, split neatly into the Cherubfish ( C. argi ) in the north and the Flameback Angelfish ( C. aurantonotus ) in the south, with a small area of overlap at places like Aruba, Curacao, and Barbados.

In a study recently published in the journal ZooKeys , researchers have described two new species of jawfish that illustrate this same biogeographic phenomenon. Unlike the colorful examples in Gramma and Centropyge , these new jawfishes are fairly drab and easily confused with their sister species in the Caribbean. It was only with careful morphological and genetic study that their uniqueness was finally confirmed.

Opistognathus vicinus, from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Credit: Raphael M. Macieira / Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018


The newly recognized Brazilian Dusky Jawfish ( Opistognathus vicinus ) is nearly indistinguishable from the true Dusky Jawfish ( O. whitehursti ), a species commonly seen in the aquarium trade however, they are every bit as genetically distinct from one another as other recognized taxa in this genus. To tell them apart in life, the adults are more strongly banded in O. vicinus and with a better developed dorsal fin spot, to go along with some minor differences in their jaw structure and dentition.

Opistognathus thionyi, from Trindade Island, Brazil. Credit: Thiony Simon / Smith-Vaniz et al. 2018


Thiony’s jawfish ( O. thionyi ) is a poorly known new species that has thus far only been encountered at three widely distributed oceanic islands off the Brazilian coast: Trindade Island, Dogaressa Seamount, and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. This is the sister species to the Caribbean’s Mottled Jawfish ( O. maxillosus ) and differs in having the spot of the dorsal fin positioned slightly further back, as well as having a greater number of scales. It is named in honor of the late Brazilian ichthyologist Thiony Simon, who tragically died during a dive accident while exploring the mesophotic reefs of Brazil in 2016. Thiony was a talented young researcher, just 30 years of age when he passed, whose work examined the unique fauna of these isolated reef systems. His efforts led to the discovery of several new species, including another Brazilian endemic that bears his name, Thiony’s Goby (Pinnichthys aimoriensis).

Renato Morais Araujo on Twitter

6 years ago I was surveying Trindade Is, 1200 km off mainland Brazil, with my great friend, the late Thiony Simon. He showed me an undescribed jawfish he had found. It’s just been named in his honour by Smith-Vaniz, Tornabene and Macieira! @FishEvoLuke https://t.co/r8r3AddamB

Lastly, a word needs to be said on the Yellowhead Jawfish ( O. aurifrons ). In the aquarium trade, this is by far the most popular of the West Atlantic jawfishes, most of which are collected from the waters around South Florida. Here, this species sports a colorful yellow head, but specimens originating elsewhere in the region can appear dramatically different. For example, specimens observed in the Bahamas can have a drably colored head and prominent black marks on the throat (a trait never observed in the Floridian population). These differences even led to the description of a separate species in 1934, Gnathypops bermudezi , which was later synonymized.

Yellowhead Jawfish Flower Gardens

Yellowhead Jawfish from the M/V Fling at Stetson Bank Buoy #1 of the Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary on July 27, 2008.

This throat patterning is something that would be highly visible among these burrow-dwelling fishes and is likely used in species recognition. A 2012 study by Ho et al . compared the differences (both morphological and genetic) within this species across four locations and found some evidence for localized speciation. The greatest disparity comes when comparing specimens in the north (Florida, Bahamas, USVI) with those from reefs in the southern Caribbean and Brazil. This southern population, referred to in field guides as the Bluebar Jawfish, is visually distinct in having a thin blue stripe behind the eye and typically has 17 (vs. 16) vertebrae.

Yellowhead Jawfish

Yellowhead Jawfish at Blue Heron Bridge Florida

But things might be far more complicated, with new genetic data suggesting that there might actually be three separate subpopulations in the southern portions of the West Atlantic. These can be divided into those from the Southern Caribbean (Curacao, Aruba), those from Brazil, and a third at the remote Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, a region known for its high rate of endemism. This latter population is further distinguished by having shorter pelvic fins and by lacking the blue bar found in the main Brazilian population. Confusing things further, there is apparent overlap or hybridization taking place at Aruba between this unnamed southern population and those to the north, similar to that seen in the Centropyge example mentioned previously.

2009 NABS Summit 420

Yellowhead Jawfish, Opistognathus aurifrons, Grand Bahama

So exactly how many species are there lurking within the Yellowhead Jawfish? The type locality (and thus the true O. aurifrons ) is in South Florida, but there’s reason to believe that this is the only place where this fish occurs. With further study, what was once one might eventually become many. It’s not hard to imagine that there may be a speciose complex of largely allopatric species here, similar to what we see with some of the hamlets and gobies in this region.

Yellowhead Jawfish releasing hatching larvae – by Anna DeLoach

Yellowhead Jawfish releasing hatching larvae. Shot in Bonaire. You can read more about this on our blog: http://blennywatcher.com/2012/03/25/hatching-jawfish/

  • Ho, A.L., Pruett, C.L. and Lin, J., 2012. Population genetic structure, coloration, and morphometrics of yellowhead jawfish Opistognathus aurifrons (Perciformes: Opistognathidae) in the Caribbean region. Marine Ecology Progress Series , 444, pp.275-287.
  • Pinheiro, H. T. 2016. Thiony Simon 1985-2016. Journal of Fish Biology , 89(1), 1121–1123. doi:10.1111/jfb.13031
  • Smith-Vaniz WF, Tornabene L, Macieira RM (2018) Review of Brazilian jawfishes of the genus Opistognathus with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei, Opistognathidae). ZooKeys 794: 95-133. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.794.26789

Here’s another jawfish video, this time from the Cayman Islands. The black throat markings can vary from two small dots to specimens with a pair of prominent exclamation marks running down the throat. The second video is of an unusual aquarium specimen in Europe that presumably didn’t come from Florida.

Yellowhead Jawfish building his house – Macro video

Jawfish live in rubble and sand bottoms. Part of their day is spent excavating their burrows. It is quiet fun to watch them as they clean house!


What is a Jawfish?

A jawfish is a fish in the family Opistognathidae. The common name for these fish is a reference to their oversized heads and jaws that appear out of scale with the rest of their bodies. Jawfish are reef dwellers and they can be found in shallow reefs in oceans all over the world including the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, along with other bodies of water like the Gulf of Mexico. Divers and swimmers in these regions sometimes encounter these shy fish, if they are patient enough to wait for them to emerge.

Superficially, these fish resemble blennies, another type of tropical fish. Like blennies, jawfish are popular as aquarium pets. Some species are very expensive, such as the blue spotted jawfish, and they can become showpiece species for an aquarium. Jawfish are relatively hardy and easy to care for but they do have some special environmental requirements that must be met in order to stay healthy.

In the wild, the fish create burrows, moving rocks and other debris to do so. In an aquarium, they need to be provided with adequate substrate to burrow deeply, along with rubble and debris to support and camouflage the burrow. If they are not provided with materials, they can disturb everything at the bottom of an aquarium attempting to build homes for themselves. It is important to provide the fish with mixed building materials including debris like chunks of corals.

The jawfish will hover over its burrow or lurk just inside waiting for prey to pass. The fish eat a variety of small organisms that drift past in the water and can be fed in captivity using a number of different commercial preparations. When startled or frightened, the fish dart back into their burrows and conceal themselves until they think the threat is over. They can also become territorial. If they sense an invader, they may spit rocks and other debris to scare the intruder away from their burrows.

These saltwater fish are mouthbrooders. When eggs are laid, the male incubates them in his mouth to protect them from predators, periodically swishing the eggs through the water to aerate them.

Jawfish are brightly colored and they tend to be shy. They will hide from more aggressive fish and it is important to keep docile species with them in an aquarium environment to avoid stressing them. Aquarists enjoy keeping jawfish for their bright colors and interesting antics.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllThingsNature researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a AllThingsNature researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.


Ross Barnes

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射水鱼号潜艇

射水鱼号于1943年1月22日在缅因州基特里的 朴次茅斯海军船场 ( 英语 : Portsmouth Naval Shipyard ) 放置龙骨。她于1943年5月28日举行下水仪式,邀请了第一夫人埃莉诺·罗斯福的个人秘书 马尔维娜·汤普森 ( 英语 : Malvina Thompson ) 小姐负责掷瓶。海军乐队于晚上7点50分开始奏乐,欢迎贵宾入场,8点5分由船厂技工Leon W. Gridmore代表向汤普森小姐赠送礼物—一个镌有“Miss Malvina C Thompson”的银碗,8点7分由海军上尉Ralph Curtis牧师带领祷告,在几个简短演讲后,8点15分升起警告红旗,汤普森小姐左手拿一打玫瑰花,右手拿香槟酒瓶,摆好姿势拍照,3分钟后高音喇叭一声长鸣,钟声一响,汤普森小姐放下玫瑰花,左手执瓶,吟唱“我命名你为射水鱼号”,将香槟酒瓶在射水鱼号舰首用力敲破,全体观众热烈鼓掌,完成了掷瓶式。 [7] :16-19 该舰于1943年9月4日开始服役,由乔治·凯尔少校( George W. Kehl )担任舰长。

前四次巡航(1943年12月 - 1944年9月) 编辑

5月18日,威廉·哈里·莱特(英语: William Harry Wright )接任舰长。5月28日射水鱼号离开珍珠港,前往小笠原群岛地区进行第三次巡航。她在7月4日对硫磺岛的攻击期间担任救生员职责,并在7月15日返回中途岛之前救出了飞行员约翰·安德森少尉( John B. Anderson )。此次巡航对一艘1,400吨的驱逐舰与运输船队进行鱼雷攻击,击沉一艘驱逐舰,击伤总共12,000吨的两艘船,舰长莱特因此获得银星勋章。 [10] [11] [12]

射水鱼号在与 普罗透斯号潜水母舰 ( 英语 : USS Proteus (AS-19) ) 一起改装和训练演习后,于8月7日开始第四次巡航。她在本州水域活动一个多月,没有猎杀任何敌舰,出海53天后于9月29日返回珍珠港。 [13]

第五次巡航(1944年10月 - 1944年12月)击沉信浓号 编辑

1944年9月 约瑟夫·法兰西斯·恩莱特 ( 英语 : Joseph F. Enright ) 少校接任舰长。 [14] 射水鱼号于10月30日离开夏威夷,于11月9日抵达塞班岛进行航行维修,两天后离开,开始执行她的第五次任务,其主要任务是救援轰炸日本东京后迫降的的B-29超级堡垒轰炸机机员。 [3]

11月28日,她收到电讯,说当天不会有空袭,她可以在东京湾附近的水域漫游。 [3] 当天晚上8点48分,监视人员发现了由第十七驱逐队三艘驱逐舰(“浜风号”、“雪风号”、“矶风号”)护卫的不明大型舰艇。美军当时不知道信浓号航空母舰的存在,没有将她列在舰艇辨识图上,射水鱼号军官对照后无法判断是哪一艘日舰,但是仍然决定尾随该舰,浮出水面以最高的航速19节追踪,虽然四艘舰艇以27节高速航行,但是走的是为了躲避潜艇而用Z字形路线,所以很快被射水鱼号追上,伺机攻击。射水鱼号使用雷达追踪,信浓号被美舰发现,日舰以信号灯要求表明身份,射水鱼号不予理会。信浓号舰长 阿部俊雄 ( 日语 : 阿部俊雄 ) 认为美军潜艇是采取狼群战术,射水鱼号一再使用雷达只是诱敌,以利其他埋伏不用雷达的美军潜艇攻击,因此即使一艘驱逐舰抗命以35节高速迫近射水鱼号到达射程之内,它在最后关头仍被召回护航,信浓号则高速航行,企图甩掉美军潜艇后前往目的地;射水鱼号舰长猜中了信浓号的最终航向,拦截成功。由于驱逐舰保持警惕,恩赖特认为趁夜进行水面攻击是自杀行为。 29日凌晨3点5分,射水鱼号下潜,一艘驱逐舰在距它20呎处经过,射水鱼号在日本静冈县滨名湖南方176公里处发射了六枚鱼雷,恩赖特为了使目标容易翻船,鱼雷的水深设定的浅,正好在水线以下击中目标。第一枚鱼雷于3点17分命中,共有4枚鱼雷命中了“信浓号”(射水鱼号报告是六枚全中爆炸),“信浓号”于11点前沉没。 [7] :85-103 [15]

最后两次巡航(1945年1月 - 1945年9月) 编辑

射水鱼号在关岛进行了整修,舰上人员在关岛度假。1945年1月10日,该舰进行了第六次巡航。 [3] 这次任务在香港附近和台湾以南的南中国海,射水鱼号率领 蝙蝠鱼号潜艇 ( 英语 : USS Batfish (SS-310) ) 与 黑鱼号潜艇 ( 英语 : USS Blackfish (SS-221) ) 组成TG17.16(17.16任务组),称为Joe’s Jugheads(射水鱼号的舰长昵称Joe)。 [16] 她在这次巡航中击伤了一个不明的目标,但由于 艏操纵面 ( 英语 : Diving plane ) 发生问题,该巡航于3月3日提前了3天结束,经过塞班岛和珍珠港,于3月13日回到美国旧金山,在 旧金山海军船场 ( 英语 : San Francisco Naval Shipyard ) 进行修理。 [3]

该潜艇是1945年8月31日进入东京湾的12艘潜艇中的一艘,并与 普罗透斯号潜水母舰 ( 英语 : USS Proteus (AS-19) ) 一起停泊在横须贺海军设施附近。她见证了9月2日日本正式投降。 [18]

射水鱼号于1946年1月2日离开珍珠港,前往旧金山。1月8日至3月13日,该船船员进行了退役前大修。她于次日前往 马雷岛海军造船厂 ( 英语 : Mare Island Naval Shipyard ) 完成退役的最后工作。她于1946年6月12日退役,保存在马雷岛的太平洋后备船队。

在朝鲜战争期间,许多退役的海军舰艇重新编为现役舰艇。射水鱼号于1952年1月7日中选为重新服役的舰艇,3月7日起入编现役后,于3月26日向太平洋舰队报到。第二天,她从加州圣地亚哥出航进行三个星期的预备训练。然而,她的机动房于3月28日发生了一起火灾,她因此自行返回马雷岛进行维修。 5月27日修复完成后,她在西海岸进行预备训练,然后穿过巴拿马运河于7月3日加入大西洋舰队。她以佛罗里达州西屿为基地,附属于第12 潜艇中队 ( 英语 : Submarine squadron ) ,她访问了古巴的圣地亚哥-德古巴和关塔那摩湾;海地的太子港;波多黎各的圣胡安;和英属西印度群岛的特立尼达。她于1955年4月25日离开西屿前往 费城海军造船厂 ( 英语 : Philadelphia Naval Shipyard ) 退役。她在完成退役大修后,拖往康乃狄克州的新伦敦,并于1955年10月21日退役。

1959年10月2日,射水鱼号在西屿西南约15英里深度322英尺(98米)的Vestal Shoal触礁。指挥官乔治·邦德和首席工程师Cyril Tuckfield从前方逃生舱在52秒内安全地完成了302英尺的浮力上升,而两人也因为证实了潜艇深海逃生的可行性于1960年获得了 功绩勋章 ( 英语 : Legion of Merit ) 。 [19]

1960年初,射水鱼号获选参与“海洋扫描”行动,这是一项关于海洋天气条件,水成分,海洋深度和温度范围的科学研究。她于1月进入费城海军造船厂,专门为这次新任务做好准备。在此期间,该艇重新分类为辅助潜艇,船体分类符号为AGSS-311。她载著民间科学家团队于5月18日开始了“海上扫描”的第一阶段。她的此次巡航访问了英格兰的朴茨茅斯;挪威的亨墨菲斯和卑尔根;苏格兰的 法斯莱恩 ( 英语 : HMNB Clyde ) 格陵兰的图勒、卡科尔托克和努克;北爱尔兰的贝尔法斯特;以及加拿大新斯科细亚省的哈利法克斯,于12月3日回到新伦敦。 [3]

海军于1968年初宣布射水鱼号退役,并于1968年5月1日将其从 海军船舶登记册 ( 英语 : Naval Vessel Register ) 除名。1968年10月19日,该舰拖到圣地亚哥的外海后, 锯盖鱼号潜艇 ( 英语 : USS Snook (SSN-592) ) 发射鱼雷将之击沉。 [3]


USS Piranha (SS-389)

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/22/2021 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Key to victory in the Pacific Theater during World War 2 was control of the vital waterways between the various islands making up the burgeoning Japanese Pacific Empire. In her way stood the might of the Allied navy to which, for the US Navy, much focus was given to broadening the tactical reach of its submarine fleet managed by its well-trained submariners - proving the most fatal occupation in the whole of the war.

The Balao-class family of diesel-electric submarines was part of the growing underwater arm of the USN with construction of these boats beginning in 1942. Manufacture would span into 1946 to which the last vessel would be retired in 1971. Some 128 boats in the class were completed and led by the USS Balao herself with many storied careers and histories born from this submarine family which - next to the preceding Gato-class - were the most important class to the USN scope of operations in the Pacific (the Balao-class was actually built as an improved Gato-class). The end of the war signaled the cancellation of some 63 boats that had been ordered and, of the 117 officially retired, nine of the class went on to see preservation as war memorials.

One boat in the Balao-class was the USS Piranha (SS-389). She was built by the skilled workers of the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard of Kittery, Maine beginning with her keel laid down on June 21st, 1943. She was launched to sea on October 27th of that year and, after passing her requisite sea trials, was commissioned on February 5th, 1944. As part of the Balao-class of attack submarines, the USS Piranha followed the same sleek clean lines with a boat-like bow, tapered stern and contained conning tower. The deck of the class was designed as flat to allow for walking by crew and management of the surface guns. Armament included 10 x 21" (533mm) torpedo tubes of which six were mounted to face forward in the bow and the remaining four set to face the rearwards at the stern. This allowed the vessel to engage targets at front and rear without having to turn the entire vessel around. Surface threats were countered by her 5" (127mm) /25 caliber deck gun which could also be used for offshore bombardment. Aerial threats were countered by 1 x 40mm Bofors and 1 x 20mm Oerlikon anti-aircraft guns. Her crew complement included 10 officers and around 70 enlisted personnel. Watches were kept in shifts to allow for recovery on the extended patrols required of all submarines during the war. Crewmembers were cross-trained when possible and various specialists (cooks, gunners, mechanics, pilots) made up her ranks throughout.

Propulsion was made possible by the configuration consisting of 4 x Fairbanks-Morse Model 38D8-1/3 10-cylinder diesel engines driving electrical generators and coupled to 2 x 126-cell Sargo batteries with 4 x Elliot electric motors. The propulsion system drove a pair of shafts to which, when surfaced, the submarine relied on its diesel engines which outputted 5,400 shaft horsepower and could make 20.25 knots with a displacement of 1,550 tons. When submerged, the boat relied on its battery supply to power the critical system, able to make 8.75 knots with a displacement of 2,500 tons. As with other diesel-electric submarines of the day, the USS Piranha was required to surface to recharge her batteries and oxygen supply (deadly CO2 levels would build up over time and needed to be expelled lest they kill the crew). This meant that the vessel could only remain submerged for up to 48 hours and, when surfaced, she was highly vulnerable to enemy attack by air (primary from diving floatplane and flying boat aircraft) or surface warship. On her diesel engines alone, the Piranha could be kept out at sea for some 75 days total, assuming food supplies were ample. The USS Piranha could reach depths beyond 350 feet (tested down to 400 feet) before hull pressures could take her.

Following many of the boats before her, the USS Piranha set sail for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by passing Floridian waters en route to the Pacific Ocean via the Panama Canal. She arrived at Pearl on May 18th, 1944 and took on her first war patrol of the war in June working in conjunction with other USN forces. Her primary target became Japanese convoys that were assigned to resupply forward positions to which the USS Piranha sank the Nichiran Maru and the Seattle Maru on July 12th and July 16th respectively. Though attacked by enemy warships and aircraft, the USS Piranha managed to avoid damage and returned to Majuro in the Marshall Islands for resupply.

Reconnoitering then followed throughout September, this assisting the Third Fleet during its successful attack on Peleliu of the Palau Island chain. She struck out on patrol on her own following the assault and faced off with a Japanese Navy patrol craft on October 9th, escaping is depth charge bombardment before returning to Pearl on October 23rd, 1944. She was then assigned to the South China Sea as part of a submarine attack group from November 19th to January 13 , 1945 and also charged with recovering downed air crew during their assault on Kyushu. Despite landing a pair of fish (torpedoes) into a Japanese merchant (not sinking her), the Piranha was forced to retreat due to the presence enemy warships. The USS Piranha made her way to Guam for a needed refit and remained there until February 11th.

Covering a triangle passage between Hong Kong (China), Formosa (modern-day Taiwan) and Luzon (Philippines), the USS Piranha once again operated as part of a coordinated attack group, concentrating on merchant vessels in the area. She successfully engaged a lesser vessel on February 27th and missed out on a large convoy converging on Hong Kong on Match 5th (slowed in her interception by the large presence of civilian fishing boats (her crew actually had fabricated an IJN flag and maneuvered the fishing boats successfully only to have missed the convoy altogether by the time Piranha had passed through).

A Japanese presence on the small island of Prata in the South China Sea allowed Piranha to utilize her deck gun against several before leaving for Midway Island while evading roaming enemy aerial patrols. Piranha was out of action from April 21st to May 17th, eventually entering her next war patrol and undergoing the usual (patrol-recovery-bombardment) service - this time assisting air, land and naval forces at Marcus Island (Minami-Tori-Shima) from May 22nd to May 31st.

By this time, Allied gains were such that the USS Piranha and her kind were consistently operating closer to the Japanese mainland, continuing to target merchant ships and other vessels of opportunity though at the expense of operating far from home and within crowded shallow waters. She claimed a tanker, an oil trawler and a pair of other trawlers while being repeatedly chased and targeted by Japanese hunters. After suffering damage from a depth charge attack, the USS Piranha retreated to the safety of Pearl Harbor, arriving on July 10th, 1945 (the war in Europe had concluded in May through Allied gains and the suicide of Hitler, now leaving all of the Allied war effort to focus solely on the Pacific).

The USS Piranha was re-launched from Pearl Harbor on August 14th and took to her sixth war patrol. The war situation for the Empire of Japan had become exceedingly worse as her naval prowess was neutered while her air power extremely limited. Lack of viable armored fighting vehicles and adequate replacements only served to hurt Japanese war-making capacities. Furthermore, between August 6th and August 9th, the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fell victim to the power of American atomic bombs which ultimately forced the surrender process (as many as 246,000 people were believed killed in the blasts, not taking into account effects of radiation exposure in the years following). While devastating to the Japanese, the bombs served to spare the lives of the soldiers that would have been required to take the fiercely-defended Japanese mainland in an projected all-out amphibious assault. If the Pacific Theater proved anything to the Allies it was that the Japanese would fight to the last and make life a living hell for the American soldier.

On August 15th, the end of the war against Japan was formally announced with an unconditional surrender. The USS Piranha was recalled to Pearl and made her way back to San Francisco on September 11th, 1945, formally completing her wartime service with the USN. She served in "Operation Magic Carpet", the returning of thousands of veterans stateside for a time. In all, the boat was honored with five Battle Stars for her combat service. She was decommissioned on May31st, 1946 and lay in reserve status. On November 6th, 1962, she was given the new classification of "AGSS-389" and served out the remainder of her days as such until she was officially struck from the Naval Register on March 1st, 1967. She joined many USN vessels in being unceremoniously scrapped, her hull be sold off on August 11th, 1970.

The USS Piranha (SS-389) is the only USN vessel to have been named after the Piranha, a ferocious omnivorous fresh water fish of South America.


یواس‌اس جافیش (اس‌اس-۳۵۶)

یواس‌اس جافیش (اس‌اس-۳۵۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Jawfish (SS-356) ) یک زیردریایی بود که طول آن ۳۱۱ فوت ۹ اینچ (۹۵٫۰۲ متر) بود.

یواس‌اس جافیش (اس‌اس-۳۵۶)
پیشینه
مالک
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: ۱٬۵۲۶ long ton (۱٬۵۵۰ تن)
درازا: ۳۱۱ فوت ۹ اینچ (۹۵٫۰۲ متر)
پهنا: ۲۷ فوت ۳ اینچ (۸٫۳۱ متر)
آبخور: ۱۶ فوت ۱۰ اینچ (۵٫۱۳ متر)
سرعت: ۲۰٫۲۵ گره (۳۷٫۵۰ کیلومتر بر ساعت)

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Meet Our Team

Jim is an experienced entrepreneur and business leader with a demonstrated history of working in the high-tech industry, adding value by helping small, mid, large size companies to get organized, work smarter and grow. He believes that success is simply a matter of doing what you do best and getting it done.

He is skilled in entrepreneurship, strategic planning, business development, customer acquisition, relationship management and team building. He helps company leaders to set realistic goals, to focus on what really matters and to make their business succeed and achieve their goals.

He has a passion for analyzing situations to discover unrealized areas of improvement and unexplored ways of organizing a business or assisting customers. Throughout his career, he has proven ability to implement effective change initiatives to expand market reach for his customers. His philosophy has always been to honor customer needs/wants by developing a product/service/business model that serves the customer and their revenue goals.

Hank Park | VP of Sales and Digital Marketing

Hank has spent the last 25 years in sales and sales management roles. His first sales role was one of the original outside b2b sales reps for MCI. While in this role he was part of a 120-person sales force producing $400 million annually. Hank rose through the ranks of MCI eventually managing the South Eastern U.S. After leaving MCI Hank along with 4 other partners created the first Communications brokerage house in the United States. C2k was the first company to put all of a company’s telecommunication services on a single bill. While there Hank oversaw a direct sales force, channel sales force and eventually a successful MLM division of the company. After selling his interest in C2K Hank went on to be the VP of Sales for ICS/DVX which was the nationwide backbone for prepaid calling cards and outsourced call center applications. After a brief retirement to the Caribbean Hank came back to be a partner in a restaurant group POP Management, POP Management operated 11 nightclubs with an average location annual revenue of $7 million. From there, Hank was a partner in an OOH advertising agency that focused on the on-mall advertising. For the last several years Hank has been the Principal in a consulting firm offering fractional senior management services to small companies throughout the United States.

Daniel Shinaman | Business Development

Daniel is a creative and performance driven individual with experience in implementing both marketing and sales strategies. His previous experience consists of 3 years of retail sales and he is now our point of contact with both potential customers and clients.

He is responsible for lead generation, email marketing, sales strategies, client retention, and managing our contact lists.

In his spare time, Daniel enjoys outdoor activities such as hiking and skiing and also creating art using digital media.

Jackie Scott | Business Development

Jackie comes with 12 years of Business Management experience and 1-year Real Estate Management with the ability to produce proven and consistent results. A large part of her role is responding to our client needs and building relationships. She is essentially the bridge between clients and the team!

Jackie went to Central Texas College for Business Management and Finance then continued on with studies in Interior Design and Childhood Education. With these focus areas combined, she has a passion for learning and customer service in multiple aspects.

In her spare time, if that exists, Jackie is raising 3 daughters and heavily involved in her Church Children’s Ministry!

Melinda Burris | Digital Marketing Specialist

Melinda Burris is a professional Writer and Editor with 25 years experience in creating quality, engaging content for a wide array of clients.

As a Digital Marketing Specialist, Melinda brings her skills as a writer and her extensive background in public relations and marketing to bear as she works with clients to ensure they receive maximum benefits from our targeted digital marketing services.

Ashley Stufano | Sales and Marketing Specialist

Ashley is an experienced professional in Content, Sales, and Marketing with a demonstrated history of working with social media marketing, content creation, SEO, and Digital Marketing. She is involved in many different aspects of marketing for Jawfish Digital, from content strategy, editing, client content, and social media. She brings innovative and creative ideas to any project, enjoys working with team members, and learning every day.

Ashley has graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a degree in English and came to the marketing world through a number of work and extracurricular experiences, and has never looked back.

In her spare time, Ashley is an amateur photographer, avid reader of historical fiction, and enjoys going on walks with her dog, Tank.

Shannon Saunders | Digital Marketing Specialist

Creating digital campaigns that click with clients is Shannon’s specialty. She plans and executes campaigns across multiple platforms. Research, strategy and custom audience development – it’s all in her wheelhouse. Google Analytics certification? Check. Google Ads certifications? Of course.

Her marketing experience is strong, spanning diverse industries ranging from higher ed and government agencies to sporting goods and a fortune 500 motorcycle manufacturer.

In her free time, you’ll find Shannon enjoying coffee, traveling and hanging out with her family. Her superpowers include navigating the minefield of parenting teenage daughters and naming all 50 states in alphabetical order in under 30 seconds.

Kim Sugnares | Social Media Manager

Kim has been working in the market for more than 10 years, helping customers to expand their market reach. Experienced in customer support and social media.

She is responsible for LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, Pinterest, Snapchat and so on. She monitors, moderates and responds to audience comments manages social media partnerships with other brands and creates and/or posts shareable videos and images. She keeps being creative and staying on top of emerging trends and technologies for our customers. She helps our customers by coming up with engaging, sharply written content on the fly, and using the next big tool or channel in social media to do it.

Jon Strouse | Web Designer

Jon has a variety of experience in marketing, graphic design, and web development. He is passionate about creating and optimizing digital content, graphics, and applications, and he puts a high priority on clean and compelling user experiences.

He is responsible for web design and development, and monitors client requests for site maintenance, optimization, and content updates. He is a gifted problem solver with the ability to see his work from the perspective of his clients and end-users.

Letitia Evans | Web Designer/Marketing Analyst

Letitia is joining our team as a Web Designer/Marketing Analyst. Letitia comes to the team with 10 years of technical writing, marketing, web/content management and business analysis experience within the Federal Government, Medicaid, Healthcare, Financial and Information Technology Industries. Her experience has been accumulated at companies and clients that include: Gimme Credit Publications, Conduent, Latitude/NIH, ActioNet/CMS, Hewlett Packard, and IBM. She holds a B.A. Communications with an English minor from NC State University and an MBA from Pfeiffer University, Misenheimer, NC.

Her hobbies include writing, reading, shopping and international travelling.


    (Also T-1 (SF-1)) (Also T-2 (SF-2)) (Also T-3 (SF-3))
  • Amberjack (SS-219) (Also Schley and AA-1) (Also AA-2) (Also AA-3)
  • completed as SST-1 (AGSS-570)
  • 438 to 474 cancelado
  • 744 to 749 não atribuído
  • SS-108 cancelado
  • SS-495 to SS-521 cancelado
  • SS-530 to SS-550 cancelado
  • SS-553 offshore procurement of KNM Kinn (S316)
  • SS-554 offshore procurement of HDMS Springeren (S329)
  • SS-556 offshore procurement for Norway
  • SS-557 to SS-562 cancelado

Listagem de submarinos da Marinha dos Estados Unidos organizados pela classe/era os anos mostrados entre parênteses representam o lançamento da embarcação.

Era dos submarinos velejadores Editar

Era Vitoriana Editar

Marinha dos Estados Unidos (bandeira usada de 1777-2002 conhecida como Union Jack)

  • Alligator (1862)
  • Fenian Ram (1881)
  • Holland I (1878)
  • Holland III protótipo
  • Intelligent Whale (1862)
  • Sub Marine Explorer (1885)

Primeira Guerra Mundial Editar

Marinha dos Estados Unidos [ 1 ] (bandeira usada de 1959-presente usada somente em terra)


Watch the video: Jawfish building a new den