Combat of Michelberg, 16 October 1805

Combat of Michelberg, 16 October 1805

Combat of Michelberg, 16 October 1805

The combat of Michelberg (16 October 1805) saw the French push the Austrians out of a key position outside Ulm, making the surrender at Ulm of 20 October almost inevitable.

At the start of the War of the Third Coalition the Austrian army under General Mack advanced west along the Danube into Bavaria, eventually ending up at Ulm. At the same time Napoleon's army crossed the Rhine, swept through Germany and reached the Danube to the east of the Austrian positions, all without being discovered. The French then advanced west towards Ulm, in the expectation that Mack would attempt to break out along the south bank. In fact Mack never attempted to move south of the Danube, instead making his move in the north. A first attempt escape was held up by a small French force at Albeck (11 October 1805).

Mack's most serious attempt at a breakout came on 13-14 October, when two columns were sent north-east. By 14 October the right-hand column had reached Elchingen, where it was defeated by Marshal Ney, who had been ordered to cross to the north bank of the Danube (battle of Elchingen, 14 October 1805). While the left-hand column temporarily escaped to the north, the survivors of the right-hand column retreated to Ulm. The Austrians were now almost pinned into Ulm, but they did still have positions on the Michelberg, a hill just to the north of Ulm, and the Frauenberg.

On 16 October (15 October in some sources) Ney's corps stormed the Michelberg, while Lannes took the Frauenberg. The Austrians were now trapped in the city. On 17 October Mack and Napoleon's emissary de Ségur agreed that the Austrians would surrender on 25 October if no relief came, but eventually the demoralised Austrians surrendered early, on 20 October. Napoleon was now free to move east to deal with the Russians and the remaining Austrians.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions. It produced a brief period of French domination over most of continental Europe. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813–14), and the Seventh (1815).

  • Exile of Napoleon I to St. Helena[5]
  • Fall of the First French Empire
  • Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. [6]
  • Decline of the Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch Empires.
  • Rise of the British Empire to the dominant world superpower[7]
  • Establishment of the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, [8] and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands[9] [citation not found] [10]
  • Rise of Prussia as a great power [11]
  • Beginning of the Risorgimento[12][13] and the Unification of Germany[14]
  • Widespread rise of nationalism and liberalism in Europe[15] [citation not found] [16]
  • Major population loss [17]
  • Russians: 900,000 regulars, Cossacks and militia at peak strength [18]
  • Prussians: 320,000 regulars and militia at peak strength [4]
  • British: 250,000 regulars and militia at peak strength [19] [citation not found]
  • Austrians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Swedish and other coalition members: 1,000,000 - 2,000,000 regulars and militia at peak strength
  • French: 1,200,000 regulars and militia at peak strength [20]
  • French clients and allies: 500,000 - 1,000,000 regulars and militia at peak strength
  • Austrians: 550,220 killed in action (1792–1815) [21][22] (total dead unknown)
  • Spanish: more than 300,000 killed in action [23] and more than 586,000 killed in total [24]
  • Russians: 289,000 killed in action [22] (total dead unknown)
  • Prussians: 134,000 killed in action [22] (total dead unknown)
  • British: 32,232 killed in action [25] and 279,574 killed by wounds, disease, accidents, and other causes [25]
  • Portuguese: up to 250,000 dead or missing [26]
  • Italians: 120,000 killed or missing [23]
  • Ottomans: 50,000 killed or missing [27]Total: 2,500,000 dead
  • 371,000 French killed in action [28]
  • 65,000 French allies killed in action [29]
  • 800,000 French and allies killed by wounds, accidents or disease (most in the French invasion of Russia) [29]
  • 600,000 civilians killed [29]Total: 1,800,000 dead [30]
  1. ^ 1805, 1809, 1813–1815
  2. ^ 1806–1807, 1813–1815
  3. ^ 1804–1807, 1812–1815
  4. ^ abc 1813–1815
  5. ^ abcde 1815
  6. ^ 1809
  7. ^ 1806–1807, 1813–1814
  8. ^ abcd 1807–1812
  9. ^ 1800–1807, 1809–1815
  10. ^ 1806–1815
  11. ^ 1808–1815
  12. ^ 1804–1809, 1812–1815
  13. ^ 1801
  14. ^ 1808–1813
  15. ^ 1809–1813
  16. ^ 1807–1814
  17. ^ 1804–1807, 1812–1813
  18. ^ 1803–1808
  19. ^ 1798-1801
  20. ^ ab until the eve of the Battle of Leipzig, 1813
  21. ^ until 1813

Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a republic in chaos he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. In 1805, Austria and Russia formed the Third Coalition and waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, which is considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British severely defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805. This victory secured British control of the seas and prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia, Saxony, and Sweden, and the resumption of war in October 1806. Napoleon quickly defeated the Prussians at Jena and the Russians at Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, with the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria. At first, the Austrians won a stunning victory at Aspern-Essling, but were quickly defeated at Wagram.

Hoping to isolate and weaken Britain economically through his Continental System, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, and with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish royal family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as José I. The Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support and expelled the French from Iberia in 1814 after six years of fighting.

Concurrently, Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, routinely violated the Continental System, prompting Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812. The resulting campaign ended in disaster and the near destruction of Napoleon's Grande Armée.

Encouraged by the defeat, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies then invaded France from the east, while the Peninsular War spilled over into southwestern France. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba, and the Bourbons were restored to power. But Napoleon escaped in February 1815, and reassumed control of France for around one hundred days. After forming the Seventh Coalition, the Allies defeated him permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiled him to Saint Helena, where he died six years later. [31]

The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe and brought a period of relative peace. The wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of Britain as the world's foremost naval and economic power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, and the introduction of radically new methods of conducting warfare, as well as civil law.


Contents

A French force under Michel Ney had received orders from Napoleon I to attack the Swedish bridgehead over the Elbe river, at Roßlau, to stop the Army of the North (under the Swedish Crown Prince Charles John) from reaching Leipzig. [1] After having fought a couple of skirmishes for control over Dessau, Ney marched his troops of about 7,000–8,000 men towards the Swedish left flank. [2] [3] [4] The Swedes had around 4,000–4,500 men in the vicinity, led by Johan August Sandels consisting of the Skaraborg (3 battalions), Älvsborg (3 battalions) and Västgöta (2 battalions) infantry regiments, along with one battalion of the Värmland jägers. [5] Ney attacked on 29 September and ordered a vanguard of three battalions forward, in an attempt to quickly capture the Swedish bridgehead at Roßlau. [6]

The Swedish outposts infront of the bridgehead were attacked early in the morning and, after several hours resistance, forced to retreat [7] Sandels organized his men during this time and, instead of receiving the attack behind the cover of the entrenchments—as was instructed by Crown Prince Charles John—commenced a counterattack. One Skaraborg battalion and a detachment of jägers marched straight on the French forces in the open and stopped at a distance of just over 30 m (98 ft) before firing [6] [8] shaken by the initial volley the French withdrew slightly to seek cover at a forest a distance away, by which time an intense firefight began. After receiving two additional Skaraborg battalions, the Swedes felt confident enough to launch a bayonet-attack, which threw the French forces back into the forest. [9] [10] The Swedes pursued for almost 5 km (3 mi) [9] before the French, who progressively received more reinforcements the further back they went, were able to halt their advance the outnumbered Swedes were in turn forced to withdraw towards the bridgehead, while the French were able to deploy a battery shooting at their flank and causing significant casualties among their ranks. [11]

The Swedish casualties in the battle were about 350 killed and wounded [12] with 44 killed and 241 wounded attributed to the Skaraborg regiment alone. According to Swedish sources, the French had lost at least 1,500 men, [9] [3] most of whom were killed as they were pursued through the forest between 700 and 800 of the killed French soldiers were reportedly buried inside Dessau. [9] The Skargaborg infantry regiment had distinguished themselves especially. [7] Some time later, as Ney returned to the Swedish bridgehead with his army, he disregarded an assault and instead attempted to blockade the Swedish entrenchments. Some progress was made but the operation was eventually cancelled with the news of the allied crossing of the Elbe, at Wartenburg, on 3 October. [11] Having crossed the river, the allied armies were then able to encircle the French emperor and decisively defeat him at the Battle of Leipzig, on 16–19 October 1813. [13]

Because of Charles John's unwillingness to commit his Swedish troops on the battlefield—to save them for a forthcoming invasion of Denmark and campaign in Norway—the performance of the Swedes was often disregarded in German literature as has been the case with this lesser-known battle. While it had no strategic effects at all, it was one of very few times in the war that a larger Swedish force was fully committed in battle. [14]


HistoryLink.org

On October 16, 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition reaches the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers at present-day Pasco, beginning the final leg of 4,000-mile journey of exploration from St. Louis, Missouri, to the Pacific Ocean.

The 33-member expedition, led by Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838), had hurried down the Clearwater River in Idaho to its junction with the Snake, at the border between Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington, and from there to the Columbia. Their arrival at the fabled "River of the West" made them the first Euro-Americans to see the Columbia east of the Cascades.

The confluence of the Columbia and the Snake was a popular gathering spot for Sahaptin-speaking Indians, members of the extended Nez Perce nation, who came to fish, trade, and socialize. It was spawning season, and the explorers saw salmon by the hundreds of thousands, some still alive and swimming in the crystal clear water, others piled up dead on the banks and in stillwater pools. Clark estimated that there were 10,000 drying on racks in one village alone. But game was scarce, and the explorers wanted meat, so they bought dogs from the Indians -- a total of 26 over the next two days.

The expedition made its presence felt among the dog population up and down the Columbia. The men (Clark a notable exception) didn’t mind eating dog or horse meat, but they never learned to adapt completely to a fish diet.

The party camped at the confluence for two days, repairing equipment, mending clothes, and otherwise preparing for the journey to the mouth of the Columbia. The first night, they were visited by a delegation of about 200 Indians from a nearby village, who formed a half circle around the explorers and entertained them for a while with singing and drumming. The captains gave them small gifts. Lewis delivered what had become his standard speech of diplomacy, using sign language to express "our friendly disposition to all nations, and our joy in Seeing those of our Children around us . " (Clark, Oct. 16, 1805).

Clark speculated later that the Indians were hospitable largely because of the presence of Sacagawea, the wife of one of the interpreters, and her infant son. A woman and child traveling with a party of men was evidence of peaceful intentions. Recent scholarly research indicates the Shoshone woman’s name was spelled and pronounced with a "g" rather than the previously accepted "j." However, to the federal Works Progress Administration, which developed a state park at the confluence in the late 1930s, she was Sacajawea, and so she remains at least as reflected in the name of Sacajawea State Park today.

Clark noticed that many of the Indians in this area suffered from "Sore and weak Eyes," leading to partial or total blindness, which he attributed to the nearly constant reflection of the sun off water. He also noted that "They have bad teeth, which is not common with indians, maney have worn their teeth down and Some quite into their gums" (Clark, Nov. 1, 1805). He thought that might be due to their habit of eating roots that were still covered with sand and grit from the earth.

The consensus among scholars today is that the eye problems were caused by trachoma, an inflammation of the eye’s mucous membranes, and possibly sometimes by venereal diseases. The teeth were ground down by fine sand borne carried by the high winds on the Columbia Plateau the sand settled on drying salmon and acted as an inescapable abrasive when the fish was eaten.

As they descended the Columbia, the explorers moved from wooded mountains into treeless plains. Firewood became as scarce as game. They gathered weeds and willow bushes for their cooking fires, bought driftwood from the Indians when they could, and once violated a self-imposed rule and stole part of a pile of split timber that they found stockpiled in an Indian fishing camp.

Confluence of Snake and Columbia rivers, 1805

Sketch by Meriwether Lewis, Courtesy UW Special Collections

Marker commemorating Lewis and Clark expedition's 1805 camp at confluence of Snake and Columbia rivers, Sacajawea State Park, Pasco, July 2015

HistoryLink.org Photo by Kit Oldham

Confluence of Snake and Columbia rivers, Sacajawea State Park, Pasco, July 2015


Lewis and Clark depart Fort Mandan

After a long winter, the Lewis and Clark expedition departs its camp among the Mandan tribe and resumes its journey West.

The Corps of Discovery had begun its voyage the previous spring, and it arrived at the large Mandan and Minnetaree villages along the upper Missouri River (north of present-day Bismarck, North Dakota) in late October. Once at the villages, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark directed the men to build a sturdy log fort. The following winter was a harsh one, but the expedition had plenty of provisions. The two captains made the best of their enforced halt, making copious notes in their journals and preparing maps of their route. Most importantly, they met frequently with the local Native Americans, who provided them with valuable information about the mysterious country that lay ahead.

As spring came to the upper Missouri, Lewis and Clark prepared to resume their journey. Lewis penned a long report for President Thomas Jefferson that would be sent back down to St. Louis with 16 men traveling on the expedition’s large keelboat. Although Lewis had yet to explore any truly unknown country, his report provided a good deal of valuable information on the upper Missouri River region and its inhabitants. He optimistically predicted the expedition would be able to reach the Pacific and make a good start on the return journey before the coming winter. “You may therefore expect me to meet you at Monachello [Monticello] in September 1806,” he told the president.

In fact, the journey was more difficult and slow than Lewis anticipated. The expedition actually spent the winter of 1805-06 along the Pacific Coast, and Lewis did not finally meet with Thomas Jefferson in Washington, D.C., until January 1, 1807. However, as Lewis and Clark prepared to leave Fort Mandan on this day in 1805, they did not know the trials ahead and were likely filled with optimism and excitement. As the keelboat shoved off and started down the Missouri with Lewis’ report to Jefferson, the Corps of Discovery (and their female guide, Sacagawea) resumed the far more difficult task of rowing their small boats upstream.

That night Lewis wrote in his journal that, “Our vessels consisted of six small canoes, and two large pirogues. This little fleet altho’ not quite so rispectable as those of Columbus or Capt. Cook, were still viewed by us with as much pleasure as those deservedly famed adventurers ever beheld theirs.” As Lewis began his journey into a land “on which the foot of civilized man had never trodden,” he proclaimed this day of departure as 𠇊mong the most happy of my life.”


Wargame Considerations

This would be hard battle to wargame since, unless the dice were stacked against the Austrian player, his overwhelming numbers should easily overrun the few French markers. In reality, it was a near-run thing for Dupont, who wasn't sure he would survive the day. The right hand Austrian forces under Reisch (supported by Wernek) were enjoying some success at the end. And, had they been handled properly, the left wing force under Ferdinand and Schwarzenberg, could have also overwhelmed the French at Jungingen. I personally hate wargame rules that stack the deck with artificial hindrances to the side that historically lost. You learn nothing that way. And no one wants to take the loser's side. Might as well toss a coin and go for a beer.

But I have some suggestions on how to make a wargame of Haslach-Jungingen more interesting:


1. Hidden French Forces
Since Mack and the Austrians were not sure what power lay behind Dupont's division from what they could see through their telescopes, one could provide for as much as Ney's entire corps in the French OOB. Assuming Murat had seen the logic in Ney's argument of keeping all three of his divisions and cavalry on the left bank of the Danube, the French player could keep the markers of each division, including Baraguey d'Hillier's dismounted dragoon division, in little piles of reserve. At designated turns in the game, he would be allowed to roll for the appearance of each division, keeping himself and the Austrian player guessing as to when they'd show up (if ever). I have included the orders of battle for the rest of Ney's corps as well as Barageuy's dragoons below for those who want to use this option.


2. Combat Efficiency and Morale
Since, in reality, the French forces were at their peak proficiency at this stage of the Napoleonic Wars, and the Austrians were going through a painful growth spurt in their reforms, it would be appropriate to rate their relative combat efficiencies (in whatever way your game system does that) differently. This is not an artificial hindrance it only reflects reality.

In my own system, I rate all the French at 95%+, regardless of whether they are "elite" or "line." And I rate the Austrians at 75-85%, or what some might call "green" or "militia" since they had had only minimal training to prepare for this war ("You go to war with the army you have," as was glibly said by U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, the "Unfortunate Mack" of our era).

Likewise, the morale of each side would be at a different level. The Austrian troops, as well their company and battalion grade officers, were not well practiced in their new formations. And they weren't sure about the judgment of their commanders (who were not sure of their own judgment themselves). This would have taken a marked tax on their own spirit. The French, on the other hand, had been training for this moment for two years and were itching to prove what they could do, so their morale would have been high, in spite of their realization that they were outnumbered.

3. The Weather
It had been snowing for over a week. So we can assume the ground was covered in snow. There would have been days of intermittent rain and sleet, as well, so the ground was probably muddy, or at least slushy. This would have had an effect not just on troop movement, but on the efficacy of artillery, particularly roundshot, which depends on hard ground to extend its range through ricochet. Shells, too, would have had a tendency to bury themselves in the muddy, snowy ground, minimizing their blast radius.

In a wargame, then, I would reduce the artillery power and range by half. One might argue that this shouldn't apply to close range canister fire, but those bullets would have also buried themselves in the soft ground.

4. Victorious Cavalry Losing Control
We've seen where the Austrian cavalry did pretty well in combat (when they finally got moving). They had been considered the best in Europe at the time. But we also saw how, once they'd won their local battle against Sahuc's dragoons, they turned into a mob and decided to reward themselves with a raid up north to the French baggage train. They were in such disorder, in fact, that when Baraguey showed up with his advanced guard of only 60 mounted dragoons, he was able to disperse and capture hundreds of them.

To reflect this in a simulation, then, I would roll for order at the conclusion of each cavalry fight, regardless of whether which side won. If order is lost (whatever test you use dice, randomizing algorithm, etc.) that marker is either flipped as disordered or taken of the board entirely. Of course, this test should apply fairly on both sides, not just the Austrian. But with the French rated at higher combat efficiency levels, they should be able to pass such a control test.

I apply this post-victory cohesion test in all of my battle games (both cavalry and infantry). Human nature is such that when one side wins in a close combat, there is an overwhelming urge to chase after the fleeing troops and loot his camp. One military historian (it might have been Paddy Griffith) describes the behavior as "flight forward". So the notion in wargames where the side that loses a close combat (vs a fire combat) and is eliminated or forced to retreat while nothing happens to the victorious marker seems unrealistic. Both sides should test their cohesion. Greater discipline is what prevents this from happening. And it will provide another incentive for each player to consider the risk of committing to an attack.

Cavalry is particularly prone to this "flight forward" since it is already moving forward at great speed, and for the herd instinct of horses. If one of more horses start galloping in a direction, they all do, and it is very difficult to get them under control. The troopers, if they are not trained, will just hang on for the ride.

Orders of Battle

The following orders of battle come primarily from Scott Bowden's excellent study of this campaign, Napoleon and Austerlitz. The French strength numbers are precise, coming from recovered records of parade states either on 11 October (Dupont's forces) or 23 September (for the rest of Ney's corps). The Austrian numbers are less precise and estimated in round numbers.


A Legend Lost

The first to reach the enemy was Collingwood's Royal Sovereign. Charging between the massive Santa Ana (112) and Fougueux (74), Collingwood's lee column was soon embroiled in the "pell-mell" fight that Nelson desired. Nelson's weather column broke through between the French admiral's flagship, Bucentaure (80) and Redoubtable (74), with Victory firing a devastating broadside that raked the former. Pressing on, Victory moved to engage Redoubtable as other British ships hammered Bucentaure before seeking single-ship actions.

With his flagship entwined with Redoubtable, Nelson was shot in the left shoulder by a French marine. Piercing his lung and lodging against his spine, the bullet caused Nelson to fall to the deck with the exclamation, "They finally succeeded, I am dead!" As Nelson was taken below for treatment, the superior training and gunnery of his seamen were winning out across the battlefield. As Nelson lingered, he fleet captured or destroyed 18 ships of the Franco-Spanish fleet, including Villeneuve's Bucentaure.

Around 4:30 PM, Nelson died just as the fighting was concluding. Taking command, Collingwood began preparing his battered fleet and prizes for a storm that was approaching. Assaulted by the elements, the British were only able to retain four of the prizes, with one exploding, twelve founderings or going ashore, and one recaptured by its crew. Four of the French ships that had escaped Trafalgar were taken at the Battle of Cape Ortegal on November 4. Of the 33 ships of Villeneuve's fleet that had departed Cadiz, only 11 returned.


7. Battle of Antietam

Also called the Battle of Sharpsburg, it’s considered to be the first major skirmish of the American Civil War, as well as the bloodiest one-day conflict in American history. On 17 September 1862 Union Army Major General Joseph Hooker’s men attacked Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s left flank beside the Antietam River near Sharpsburg in Maryland.

The Union army separated the Confederate forces, but did not press their advantage. Union Major General Ambrose Burnside joined the fray, attacking the Confederate army’s right, but were driven back by Confederate General AP Hill. The Confederates eventually retreated to consolidate their forces after losing 1,546 men.

Although the Union lost 2,108 men, they declared themselves the victor, encouraging President Lincoln to sign the Emancipation Proclamation.


General

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"We no longer support the RemoteFX 3D video adapter. If you are still using this adapter, you may become vulnerable to security risk. Learn more (https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=2131976)”

What's new for Windows 10, version 1909 and Windows 10, version 1903 release notes

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Battle Notes

Prussian Army
• Commander: Blücher
• 5 Command Cards and 4 Iron Will Counters
• 5 Tactician Cards
• Move First

2 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 5 3 1 1 3 3 3

French Army
• Commander: Marmont
• 5 Command Cards
• 4 Tactician Cards

12 4 3 1 1 1 1 4 6

Victory
15 Banners

Special Rules
• The Allies gain 1 Temporary Victory Banner at the start of the turn for occupying each town Gross and Klein Wiederitzsch. The French gain 1 Temporary Victory Banner when no Allied units occupy Gross or Klein Wiederitzsch. The French start with 2 Victory Banners.
• The Allies gain 1 Permanent Breakthrough Victory Banner for every unit, excluding Cossacks, that exit the battlefield from any hex on the French baseline.
• The three town hexes of Möckern, the Tower and Manor form a Temporary Majority Group Victory Banner worth 3 Temporary Banners for the Prussians and 2 Temporary Banners for the French. The French start with 2 Victory Banners.
• The Elster River is impassable except at the ford and bridge.
• The Stream has no battle restrictions, but stops movement and will break a cavalry charge. This means cavalry ordered by a Charge Command card will not gain additional die listed on the Charge card, if cavalry unit moves onto, starts on or is on a breakthrough through the stream.
• Pre-Battle Mother Russia Roll is in effect. Saber rolls have no effect.


Watch the video: Η Μάχη του Κιλκίς 19-21 Ιουνίου 1913 ιστορικό ντοκιμαντέρ