Supermarine Walrus

Supermarine Walrus

Supermarine Walrus

The Supermarine Walrus was one of the unsung workhorses of the Fleet Air Arm and RAF during the Second World War, operating as a fleet spotter and air sea rescue aircraft and fighting in just about every theatre of the war.

The Walrus was developed from the Seagull, a three-seat amphibian fleet spotter first developed in the early 1920s. A decade later the RAAF issued a specification for a similar aircraft, and Supermarine responded with the Seagull V, a much improved version of the earlier aircraft. The new Seagull V was powered by a Pegasus engine in a pusher configuration. The wings were of the same size as on the Seagull II, but with the number of struts reduced from twelve to eight, and the engine carried on the inner four struts. The open cockpit of the Seagull II was replaced with a enclosed cockpit. In August 1934 the Australians place an order for twenty four Seagull Vs, some of which were still in service as late as 1943.

The Air Ministry was also interested in the new amphibian, and in May 1935 placed an order for twelve Seagull Vs. The first of these aircraft made its maiden flight on 18 March 1936. At about the same time the aircraft was renamed as the Supermarine Walrus.

Early Walruses were very similar to the Seagull V. A more powerful engine – the Pegasus VI – was installed on most production aircraft, raising the aircraft’s top speed by 10mph. The number of aircraft ordered rose steadily from the initial twelve, and in July 1936 an order was replaced for 168 aircraft. Supermarine lacked the capacity to build these aircraft alongside the 310 Spitfires ordered in June, and so production was sub-contracted to Saunders-Roe.

The Walrus entered service with the Fleet Air Arm. Existing County Class cruisers were modified to carry the aircraft, while the Town Class was designed with them in mind. By the start of the Second World War the Walrus was also in use on the monitor Terror and the formerly Australian seaplane carrier Albatross.

The Walrus very rarely carried out the role it had been designed for – spotting the fall of shells during naval engagements. The aircraft from HMS Renown and HMS Manchester were used during the battle of Cape Spartivento of 27 November 1940, and that of HMS Gloucester during the battle of Cape Matapan on 29 March 1941, but a combination of the presence of carrier borne aircraft and the development of radar spotting meant that the Walrus wasn’t needed in this role.

Equally important tasks were soon found for the Walrus. In the campaigns in Norway and East Africa it was used as a combat aircraft, even performing some ground attack and bombing sorties. It was also used on anti-submarine patrols and for convoy protection, both on Atlantic and Russian convoys. They were also used as reconnaissance aircraft during the invasion of Madagascar in the spring 1942, and during Operation Torch. By the end of 1943 the ship-born Walrus had been phased out, and in the last years of the war the RAF was the main operator of the type.

The RAF used the Walrus as an air-sea rescue aircraft. No.276 Squadron at Harrowbeer was the first to get the type, using it alongside longer range land planes. The downed airmen would be spotted by fast fighter aircraft, supplies dropped from Avro Ansons, and finally be picked up by the Walrus. At least 1,000 British and Allied airmen were rescued by the Walrus, with most coming from RAF Bomber Command and the USAAF 8th Air Force.

Walrus I

A total of 555 Walrus Mk.Is were produced, 285 by Supermarine and 270 by Saunders-Roe. This was the standard metal hulled version of the aircraft, and was the version most often used on active service.

270 of the 461 produced under license by Saro- the standard metal hulled version
Plus 285 built by Supermarine

Walrus II

A further 191 wooden hulled Walrus Mk.IIs were produced by Saunders-Roe, bringing the total produced to 746. The wooden-hulled Mk.II was heavier than the Mk.I, but was easier to repair and didn’t use any of the limited supplies of light alloys needed so urgently for other aircraft. Most of the Walrus Mk.IIs were used by training units, where their lower performance didn’t matter but the ease with which they could be repaired did.

Statistics – Walrus I
Engine: Bristol Pegasus VI radial engine
Power: 750hp
Crew: Four
Wing span: 45ft 10in
Length: 37ft 3in
Height: 15ft 3in
Maximum speed: 135mph
Service ceiling: 17,100ft or 18,500ft
Maximum range: 600 miles
Armament: One 0.303in Vickers K gun in nose, one or two K guns in beam positions
Bomb load: 600lb of bombs or two Mk VIII depth charges


Supermarine Sea Otter

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 10/23/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Best known for its famous, war-winning World War 2-era fighter, the "Spitfire", Supermarine of the United Kingdom was also a major player in the floatplane / flying boat industry. One of its contributions of the pre-war period became the "Sea Otter" (originally known as the "Sting Ray") which was produced in 292 examples as a biplane-winged "amphibian". This categorization meant that the aircraft was equally-capable of landing and taking off from either traditional runways or from water due to its multi-functional design.

The Sea Otter was developed by the company as a longer-ranged, maritime patrol version of its popular "Walrus" product of 1935 of which 740 were ultimately produced from 1936 until 1944. This aircraft, too, was an amphibian with a biplane wing arrangement and held its engine between the two planes, over the fuselage. The Sea Otter followed suit but installed its sole engine unit within the upper wing mainplane. Unlike the Walrus, which had its propelled driven in a "pusher" arrangement, the Sea Otter reverted to a more traditionally-arranged propeller mounting with the multi-bladed unit held at the front of the engine installation ("puller" arrangement).

It its earliest form, the Sea Otter was outfitted with a Bristol Perseus XI series air-cooled radial piston engine and this was used to drive a two-bladed propeller unit. When this was found to be too weak, a three-bladed propelled was substituted and a first-flight was recorded on September 23rd, 1938. Overheating issues led to a complete powerplant switch, this arriving in the form of the Bristol Mercury XXX series.

With the war in full swing, maritime patrollers like the Sea Otter were soon in high demand as seaways were contested across the globe. The British Air Ministry finally committed to the type through a January 1942 order and the series went on to see considerable wartime service under the banners of both the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Navy (RN). The latter proved the more prolific operator with no fewer than twenty-one squadrons operating the Sea Otter. The RAF utilized the line across nine squadrons as well as one experimental Marine unit.

As designed, the Sea Otter was crewed by four personnel and was given a length of 39.10 feet with a wingspan of 46 feet and a height of 15 feet. Empty weight was 6,800lb against an MTOW of 10,000lb and power from the Mercury XXX radial engine was 965 horsepower. Maximum speed reached 165 miles per hour with a range out to nearly 700 miles, a service ceiling up to 17,000 feet and a rate-of-climb nearing 870 feet-per-minute.

The Sea Otter was modestly armed through 1 x 7.7mm Vickers K machine gun fitted to the nose and 2 x 7.7mm Vickers K machine guns installed in the aft section of the aircraft. Its bombload measured 4 x 250lb drop bombs.

Outwardly, the aircraft was certainly a product of its time. The fuselage was traditionally-arranged with the cockpit seated aft of a nosecone assembly. The front and sides of the cockpit were lined with windows for better viewing by the crew. The biplane wing arrangement consisted of a lower unit fitted to the roof of the fuselage and an upper unit suspended high over the fuselage. The wings were joined by parallel strutworks and cabling. The upper wing unit held the single engine nacelle with the propeller just cleared the fuselage roof. Under each lower wing element were outboard pontoons for water-running / stability. For ground-based running, the aircraft incorporated a conventional "tail-dragge"r stance made up of two main legs emanating from the fuselage sides and a diminutive tailwheel seated under the tail structure. The tail section had a single vertical plane with a pair of mid-mounted horizontal planes.

Two production variants ultimately emerged, the first becoming "Sea Otter Mk I" and this model was used primarily in the reconnaissance and communications role. The follow-up "Sea Otter Mk II" was a dedicated Search and Rescue (SAR) platform. Some 592 units were ordered by the Air Ministry but, in the end, just 292 of the order were realized mainly due to the conclusion of the war in 1945. Global operators went on to include British allies Australia, Denmark, Egypt, France and the Netherlands.

Sea Otters found extended post-war service in both military and civilian markets. In the latter, various facilities were added, including a lavatory and baggage compartment, to better serve passengers.


Some Happy Walrus Customers.


Sicily, 1943. Sergeant Pilot John Howell-Price, of Sydney, NSW (left) congratulated by Squadron Leader R. N. B. "Reg" Stevens DFC RAAF , also of Sydney, NSW, upon his arrival back at No. 3 (Kittyhawk) Squadron RAAF after being picked up by the Sea Rescue Flight some miles off the coast of Sicily. Howell - Price's Kittyhawk was hit by heavy anti-aircraft fire and forced to ditch into the sea about a mile and a half off Catania Harbour. Upon learning of this, Squadron Leader Reg Stevens took off to locate the missing pilot. He did sight him, radioed in and circled overhead until the Air Sea Rescue Supermarine Walrus aircraft arrived. The Walrus had trouble landing in the harbour due to fire from an 88mm gun. Sqn Ldr Stevens then attacked the gun crew, sustaining some hits before silencing it. He subsequently was forced to crash land behind Allied lines. Both men returned to the Squadron at Agnone later that day. [AWM MEA0389]


Cutella Italy. c. April 1944. [Left:] A Supermarine Walrus amphibian aircraft which came to the rescue of Flight Sergeant Harry Eaves, of No. 450 (Kittyhawk) Squadron RAAF, of Glenderg Grove, Vic, when he was forced to put his aircraft down in the sea off Pescara, Italy, after it had been hit in the cooling system by enemy ground fire. [AWM MEA1396]
[Right:] Eaves with Flight Sergeant E. J. Holmes DFM of Essex, England, and Wireless Operator J. R. Berry DFM of New Plymouth, New Zealand, both members of the Air-Sea Rescue crew. [AWM MEA1397. Note the marks painted below the cockpit window, apparently denoting at least 13 "rescues".]


Two photos of a 293 Squadron RAF Walrus in Italy in 1944. (W2757 at Pisa, with the mountains of the German "Gothic Line" rising in the background.)


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Supermarine Walrus - History

Former Assignments
RN
HMS Howe
RNAS Twatt

RAAF
1 TMO
2 FBRD
9 Squadron

Pilot P/O Walter Burford Bernie, 428901 (KIA, BR) Newtown, NSW
Radio W/O Joseph Merrick Towers Brown, 418063 (POW, died November 1, 1944, BR) Chobham, England
Passenger Captain Morris Glen Evensen, NGX189 AIF, 1st Australian Air Liaison (MIA / KIA) Mosman, NSW
Destroyed October 25, 1944


Aircraft History
Built by Supermarine as Walrus II serial number X9559. On July 14, 1942 delivered to the Royal Navy (RN) Fleet Air Arm (FAA) at RNAS Evanton and remained at that location until August 1942. On October 13, 1942 assigned to 700 Naval Air Squadron aboard HMS Howe (32) and remained until December 1942. During January 1943, transfered to Twatt Airfield (RNAS Twatt) until February 1943. Afterwards, disassembled and shipped overseas to Australia.

Wartime History
On January 19, 1944 assigned to the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and received by 1 TMO and sent to Qantas at Rose Bay to be reassembled. On May 26, 1944 assigned to 2 FBRD. Next on June 11, 1944 assigned to 5 Communication Unit (5 CU).

On June 13, 1944 this Walrus rescued the crew of a Vultee Vengeance A27-534 that ditched the previous day into Princess Charlotte Bay, QLD.

On June 18, 1944 a float was damaged after it touched the ground while landing in strong winds. Later on June 27, 1944 further damaged at Cooktown. Afterwards, repaired including changing the main plane and test flown on July 22, 1944.

On August 10, 1944 to 9 Squadron then five days later assigned to 8 Communication Unit (8 CU) in exchange for Walrus L2322 from 9 Squadron. Afterwards, this Walrus operated from New Guinea.

Mission History
On October 25, 1944 took off piloted by P/O Walter Burford Bernie on a reconnaissance mission over the north coast of New Guinea around Wewak escorted by Beaufort A9-559. Over Unei Island (Buni), the Walrus spotted three native canoes fishing on the reef to the south. The Walrus crew incorrectly believed the Unei Island and Karasau Island were not occupied by the Japanese.

Around 7:00am, this Walrus landed on the southern side of Unei Island (Buni) to talk with them. After landing, the seven natives (Kaboi, Ulienu, Kalungaluno, Sameri, Saliem and Katip) paddled to the island in their canoes and hid in the bush.

The Walrus taxied close to the shore and Captain Everson climbed onto the wing and asked them to come out to talk. Two of the natives Ulienu, Kalungaluno emerged and talked to with him. Everson asked if there were any Japanese on Karasau Island and Ulienu replied "no". He then asked them to come aboard the Walrus and to go to the island to meet village leaders and take them to Aitape. The two refused to get in the seaplane and instead said they would paddle over in their canoe, but later agreed to be towed by the Walrus across the sea to the western point on Karasau Island known as Win. The other natives paddled behind in their canoes, but instead went to the northern shore and disappeared.

This Walrus anchored approximately 60 yards off Karasau Island at the edge of the reef. Ulienu and Kalungaluno went waded ashore at low tide across the reef and reached the island. The Walrus radioed to the Beaufort: "The boongs have run away, but we are going ashore chasing them. Will you wait fifteen minutes, and call us any time for instructions".

Ashore, the Japanese had observed the seaplane approaching as their camp was only 400 yards away from a camp for the 37 Machine Cannon Company. Once ashore, Ulienu, who was loyal to the Japanese and was appointed a "Captain Grade 1" informed the Japanese about the seaplane and that there were three aboard. Meanwhile a patrol from the headquarters moved into position to capture or ambush the crew.

After the two natives went ashore, Evensen and Bernie used their dingy to go ashore and were walking slowly along the beach when they were ambushed and killed by gunfire from a light machine gun positioned only eight yards away. Next, the Japanese opened fire with a single 20mm cannon at the Walrus, wounding Brown in the arm and he was captured and became a Prisoner Of War (POW).

Search
Twenty minutes after the Walrus' last radio message, from above the escorting Beaufort observed a red and green flare were fired from the Walrus, but their meaning was unknown and the seaplane could not be reached by radio. Ground fire was observed in the area where the two that went ashore entered the tree line. Something white was observed on the pilot's canopy of the Walrus at roughly 8:00am. Low on fuel, the escorting Beaufort returned to base.

Another Beaufort arrived in the area around 8:50am and observed the Walrus burning. In retaliation, this Beaufort began strafing the area. By evening, four LCM barges and a picket boat took up positions off Karasau Island in hopes the party would see them and if alive would steal a canoe and paddle out to them. No trace of the party was observed by the boats or patrolling aircraft. Afterwards, Australian aircraft attacked the area for the next three days.

Fates of the Crew
After being captured, Brown was detained in a cave (or an air raid shelter made of stone) and guarded on the northern side of Karasau Island and spent the night. He was interrogated by the Japanese then around October 29, 1944 he was transported aboard native canoe rowed by natives and guarded by one Japanese soldier to Boiken on the north coast of New Guinea.

At Boiken, Brown was detained at the Military Police (MP) barracks commanded by Major Nakahara with WO Nakmuru. He was checked by a NCO medical orderly. On November 1, 1944 he was found dead in the morning and was deemed to have died of his wounds, loss of blood and malaria. He was buried in a blanket approximately 100 meters from the barracks in a five foot deep grave by four men from the 17 Formosan Labor Unit including Yoshimura Yasuo, Hirota and two others.

According to a captured Japanese Army document dated November 3, 1944 a citation was awarded to the 37 Machine Cannon Company for their action to spotting the Walrus while a patrol from the unit's headquarters spotted two of the crew [Bernie and Evensen] come ashore in a canoe. The Japanese encircled them and attempted to capture them, but the Australians fired their pistol and an automatic rifle and were shot and killed. Meanwhile, six Japanese attacked the seaplane and captured the other crew member [Brown] and disabled the seaplane. Two Allied aircraft then made strafing attacks.

Wreckage
After the crew was captured on October 25, 1944, the Japanese inspected the Walrus and recovered equipment then attempted to destroy it with hand grenades but were unsuccessful. Later, native Kaboi carried a container of fuel out to the plane and set it on fire. By 8:50am, the wreckage was observed to be burning by the patrolling Beaufort. By evening, the Walrus caught fire and sank underwater.

On October 1, 1945 James A. Birrell, NGX355 from ANGAU visited Karasau Island and observed a few parts of the plane's wing remained in the sea. The fuselage and engine were not observed.

Recovery of Remains
On October 1, 1945 Lt. James A. Birrell, NGX355 from ANGAU visited Karasau Island to interrogate the natives involved and search for the remains of the crew. Six of the seven natives involved had died during March 1945 in an Allied bombing raid and only Kalungaluno was still alive. He found no trace of the two crew killed, and presumed their bodies had washed out to sea, and the cave where Brown was detained. He observed part of the wing in the sea.

On December 5, 1945 the Australian Army 6th Division, 7 Australian War Graves Unit led by Captain D. H. Detherridge went to Boiken to recover remains of Brown after learning about his burial from Japanese POWs. Led by Formosan Yoshimura Yasuo who buried the body, his grave was located roughly 2.5 miles inland. The body had no personal effects or clothing to help with identification. The only wound observed was the right upper arm broken in two places. Afterwards, the remains recovered were buried at the Wewak War Service Cemetery at grave H2A.2.

During May 1946, a RAAF Searcher Team led by S/L Keith Rundle further investigated the incident and unsuccessfully searched for the bodies of Bernie and Everson. It was assumed their bodies washed away with the tide, but they recommended further investigation among Japanese POWs for information.

Memorials
Bernie and Evensen were officially declared dead on October 25, 1944 but both remain listed as Missing In Action (MIA). Both are memorialized at the Lae Memorial at Lae War Cemetery. Bernie on panel 6. Evensen on panel 1. Evensen is also memorialized at the roll of honor at Mosman, NSW.

Brown was officially declared dead on November 1, 1944. After his remains were recovered, he was buried at Lae War Cemetery at at GG. C. 2.

References
WW2 Nominal Roll - Walter Burford Bernie
WW2 Nominal Roll - Joseph Merrick Towers Brown
WW2 Nominal Roll - Morris Glen Evensen
AWM 8 Communication Unit ORB
"The aircraft was on reconnaissance off the coast of New Guinea near Wewak escorted by Beaufort A9559. It landed near Karasau Island to allow Capt Evenson to check on enemy activity there. The Beaufort watched the Walrus land and saw 2 occupants paddle ashore in a dinghy. Ground fire was then seen and the Walrus caught fire, eventually being destroyed. All occupants were reported missing, believed prisoners of war"
NAA "Evensen Morris Glen Service Number - NGX189" (NAA: B883, NGX189)
NAA "BERNIE Walter Burford - (Pilot Officer) Service Number - 428901 Aircraft - Walrus X9559 Place - Karasau Island, New Guinea Date - 25 October 1944" (NAA: A705, 166/5/752)
NAA "BROWN, Joseph Merrick Towers - (Warrant Officer) Service Number - 418063 File type - Casualty - Repatriation Aircraft - Walrus X9559 Place - Boiken, Papua New Guinea Date - 25 October 1944" (NAA: A705, 166/6/755)
ANGAU HQ "Report of Death of Capt. Evenson and Party" October 1, 1945 (NAA: A705, 166/6/755 p35-36)
Japanese War Crimes Trials, File
"The crew asked a native in a canoe if there were any Japanese on the island. They were told there were none, but on landing they were shot from ambush (Plt Off W.B. Bernie and Capt Evetson, 1st Australian Air Liaison). The Japanese then paddled out to the aircraft and shot and wounded the pilot, W/O J.M.T. Brown. Brown died a few days later from sickness and wounds. Aircraft destroyed by enemy action (fire)"
"Interrogation of Yoshimura Yashu, 27 Special Navy Base Unit" December 3, 1945 (NAA: A705, 166/6/755 p17)
ADF Serials - A2 Supermarine Seagull & Walrus - Walrus II X9559
CWGC - Joseph Merrick Towers Brown
CWGC - Walter Burford Bernie
CWGC - Morris Glen Evensen
Thanks to Edward Rogers for research and analysis

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Contents

The Walrus was initially developed as a private venture in response to a 1929 Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) requirement for an aircraft to be catapult-launched from cruisers, and was originally called the Seagull V, although it only resembled the earlier Supermarine Seagull III in general layout. Construction was started in 1930 but owing to Supermarine's other commitments it was not completed until 1933.

The single-step hull was constructed from aluminium alloy, with stainless-steel forgings for the catapult spools and mountings. Metal construction was used because experience had shown that wooden structures deteriorated rapidly under tropical conditions. [3] The wings, which were slightly swept back, had stainless–steel spars and wooden ribs and were covered in fabric. [4] The lower wings were set in the shoulder position with a stabilising float mounted under each one. The horizontal tail-surfaces were positioned high on the tail-fin and braced on either side by N stuts. The wings could be folded on ship, giving a stowage width of 17 feet 6 inches (5.33 m). The single 620 hp (460 kW) Pegasus II M2 radial engine was housed at the rear of a nacelle mounted on four struts above the lower wing and braced by four shorter struts to the centre-section of the upper wing. This powered a four-bladed wooden propeller in pusher configuration. The engine nacelle contained the oil tank, arranged around the air intake at the front of the nacelle to act as an oil cooler, and electrical equipment and had a number of access panels for maintenance. A supplementary oil cooler was mounted on the starboard side. [4] Fuel was carried in two tanks in the upper wings. [4] The pusher configuration had the advantages of keeping the engine and propeller further out of the way of spray when operating on water and reducing the noise level inside the aircraft. Also, the moving propeller was safely away from any crew standing on the front deck, which would be done when picking up a mooring line. [5] The engine was offset by three degrees to starboard to counter any tendency of the aircraft to yaw due to unequal forces on the rudder caused by the vortex from the propeller.

A solid aluminium tailwheel was enclosed within a small water-rudder, which could be coupled to the main rudder for taxiing or disengaged for takeoff and landing.

Although the aircraft typically flew with one pilot, there were positions for two. The left-hand position was the main one, with the instrument panel and a fixed seat, while the right-hand seat could be folded away to allow access to the nose gun-position via a crawl-way. [6] An unusual feature was that the control column was not a fixed fitting in the usual way, but could be unplugged from either of two sockets at floor level. It became a habit for only one column to be in use and when control was passed from the pilot to co-pilot or vice versa, the control column would simply be unplugged and handed over. Behind the cockpit, there was a small cabin with work stations for the navigator and radio operator. [6]

Armament usually consisted of two .303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers K machine guns, one in each of the open positions in the nose and rear fuselage with provision for carrying bombs or depth charges mounted beneath the lower wings. Like other flying boats, the Walrus carried marine equipment for use on the water, including an anchor, towing and mooring cables, drogues and a boat-hook. [6]

The prototype was first flown by "Mutt" Summers on 21 June 1933 five days later it made an appearance at the SBAC show at Hendon, where Summers startled the spectators (R. J. Mitchell among them) by looping the aircraft. [7] Such aerobatics were possible because the aircraft had been stressed for catapult launching. On 29 July Supermarine handed the aircraft over to the Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment at Felixstowe. Over the following months extensive trials were carried out, including shipborne trials aboard Repulse and Valiant carried out on behalf of the Royal Australian Navy and catapult trials carried out by the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough, becoming the first amphibious aircraft in the world to be launched by catapult with a full military load, [8] piloted by Flight Lieutenant Sydney Richard Ubee. [Note 1]

The strength of the aircraft was demonstrated in 1935, when the prototype was attached to the battleship Nelson at Portland. [9] With the commander-in-chief of the Home Fleet, Admiral Roger Backhouse, on board the pilot attempted a water touch-down, forgetting that the undercarriage was in the down position. [Note 2] The Walrus was immediately flipped over but the occupants only had minor injuries the machine was later repaired and returned to service. Soon afterwards, the Walrus became one of the first aircraft to be fitted with an undercarriage position indicator on the instrument panel. [10] Test pilot Alex Henshaw later stated that the Walrus was strong enough to make a wheels-up landing on grass without much damage (he also commented that it was "the noisiest, coldest and most uncomfortable" aircraft he had ever flown). [11]

When flying from a warship, the Walrus would be recovered by touching-down alongside, then lifted from the sea by a ship's crane. The aircraft's lifting-gear was kept in a compartment in the section of wing directly above the engine – one of the Walrus' crew would climb onto the top wing and attach this to the crane hook. Landing and recovery was a straightforward procedure in calm waters, but could be very difficult if the conditions were rough. The usual procedure was for the parent ship to turn through around 20° just before the aircraft touched down, thus creating a 'slick' to the lee side of ship on which the Walrus could alight, this being followed by a fast taxi up to the ship before the 'slick' dissipated. [12]

The RAAF ordered 24 examples of the Seagull V in 1933, these being delivered from 1935. These aircraft differed from the prototype and the aircraft flown by the RAF in having Handley-Page slots fitted to the upper wings. [13] This was followed by the first order for 12 aircraft from the RAF, placed in May 1935 [14] with the first production aircraft, serial number K5772, flying on 16 March 1936. In RAF service the type was named the Walrus. Initial production aircraft were powered by the Pegasus II M2: from 1937 the 750 hp (560 kW) Pegasus VI was fitted.

Production aircraft differed in minor details from the prototype. The transition between the upper decking and the aircraft sides was rounded off, the three struts bracing the tailplane were reduced to two, and the trailing edges of the lower wing were hinged to fold 90° upwards rather than 180° downwards when the wings were folded, and the external oil cooler was omitted. [15]

A total of 740 Walruses were built in three major variants: the Seagull V, Walrus I, and the Walrus II. The Mark IIs were all constructed by Saunders-Roe and the prototype first flew in May 1940. This aircraft had a wooden hull, which was heavier but had the advantage of using less of the precious wartime stockpiles of light metal alloys. [16] Saunders-Roe would go on to build under license 270 metal Mark Is and 191 wooden-hulled Mark IIs. [16]

The successor to the Walrus was the Supermarine Sea Otter – a similar but more powerful design. Sea Otters never completely replaced the Walruses, and served alongside them in the air-sea rescue role during the latter part of the war. A post-war replacement for both aircraft, the Supermarine Seagull, was cancelled in 1952, with only prototypes being constructed. By that time, helicopters were taking over from small flying-boats in the air-sea rescue role. [17]

The Walrus was affectionately known as the "Shagbat" or sometimes "Steam-pigeon" the latter name coming from the steam produced by water striking the hot Pegasus engine.


Walrus

Hubert Carpenter was a New York City cab driver who lived with Humber, an eccentric uncle (who was also a mad scientist). Humber used experimental technology to enhance Hubert's physical abilities. Apparently, the dim-witted individual decided to do nothing more with his powers than to make a life of petty crime.

He made his first known appearance as one of the villains battling the Defenders, only to be taken out by their erstaz associate, the Frog-Man. He slipped back into obscurity, surfacing again when the White Rabbit wanted to form a league of past Frog-Man villains to gain revenge on the crime-fighting amphibian. This plan ended in failure as well, as the so-called "Terrible Two" were defeated by Frog-Man and Spider-Man.

Fear Itself

The Superhero Database Classification number, or SHDB Class, is a number that represents the overall 'power' of a character. All traits of a character are used for calculating the Classification.

What it DOESN'T mean

This doesn't mean that a higher class would always beat a lower class character. But the bigger the difference in Class is, the more obvious it is who'll win in a fight.

How is this calculated
Super Power Score and Level

Every Super Power has a score (SPS) that is used to calculate the Class. Each Super Power also has 3 levels (SPL). The level is set when connecting that Super Power to a character. The level determines the final score, of the Super Power, being used in the calculation.


Walruses use their iconic long tusks for a variety of reasons, each of which makes their lives in the Arctic a bit easier. They use them to haul their enormous bodies out of frigid waters, thus their “tooth-walking” label, and to break breathing holes into ice from below. Their tusks, which are found on both males and females, can extend to about three feet, and are, in fact, large canine teeth, which grow throughout their lives. Male walruses, or bulls, also employ their tusks aggressively to maintain territory and, during mating season, to protect their harems of females, or cows.

The walrus' other characteristic features are equally useful. As their favorite meals, particularly shellfish, are found near the dark ocean floor, walruses use their extremely sensitive whiskers, called mustacial vibrissae, as detection devices. Their blubbery bodies allow them to live comfortably in the Arctic region—walruses are capable of slowing their heartbeats in order to withstand the polar temperatures of the surrounding waters.


Hunting the Walrus

Karin Margarita Frei, study leader and a senior scientist at the National Museum of Denmark explains, asking: “One big question is: ‘where were the walruses caught?’

“We’ve found walrus tusk ivory in many places, and we know that there must’ve been some trade. But, biologically speaking, Greenlandic and Icelandic walruses are similar, which makes it impossible to investigate these trade routes.

Previously developed by Frei, a breakthrough method of revealing where a person has lived and traveled is going to enable scientists to distinguish between walrus populations, which was previously impossible using traditional analysis. Frei used these strontium tests to show that the famous Bronze Age Egtved Girl was not from Denmark , where the girl had been buried.

The coffin and remains of the Bronze Age Egtved Girl. With strontium analysis, researchers found the high-status teen was born and raised far from her burial site in Denmark. Credit: Karin Margarita Frei, National Museum of Denmark

ScienceNordic reports, “Strontium is transmitted to us through food and water many countries have a unique strontium isotope signature, which makes it possible to track peoples’ movement throughout their lives. Unfortunately, strontium isotopes in seawater are the same throughout all the world's oceans, and so the method is useless to show where a walrus tusk came from.”

However, Canadian researchers found that examining the lead in walrus tusks revealed differences between populations. This discovery enabled Frei and colleagues to test the lead in the ivory to determine for certain where the walruses came from, enabling routes to be traced.


One Sad Walrus Incident. Cutella Italy, 29 April 1944:

Ken McRae [Squadron Engineering Officer]:

". The whole Wing had had an op, and we were just getting refuelled. And we were right on the coast, good spot.

And out of the blue came four Thunderbolts, American aircraft, and they shot us up. I'm yelling to the ack-ack post near me, 'Shoot them down!'

'Not ruddy likely', he said, 'We can't shoot them down. They're Allies'.

I said, 'Strike a ruddy light', and here we are, there's fires galore, I've got a photo there.


Cutella Airfield, Italy. 29 April 1944. [MEA1918]

. Best hunting they ever had. And the only aircraft on there were Kittyhawks and Mustangs - all American aircraft!

. And one Walrus pilot (which was the air/sea rescue) he was the bloke that was killed."

In memory of: Warrant Officer Roland Corner GLEW, DFM, of 293 Sqdn., Royal Air Force,
Buried at the SANGRO RIVER WAR CEMETERY , Plot X. E. 28.
Nationality: United Kingdom Date of Death: 29/04/1944. Service No: 552144.


Sangro River War Cemetery. Now a beautiful and peaceful spot.


Watch the video: Supermarine Walrus 148 от AirFix