Lockheed Ventura

Lockheed Ventura

Lockheed Ventura

Service Career
Ventura I
Ventura II
Ventura IIA
Ventura III
Ventura GR.V
Performance (Ventura Mk.I)
Squadrons (excluding home-based Commonwealth squadrons)


The Lockheed Ventura was a medium bomber ordered for the RAF after the early success of the Lockheed Hudson. Like the earlier aircraft it was based on an existing civilian airline, in this case the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar. This had been produced after the relative failure of the Model 14 in the civil market, and was essentially a longer version of the earlier aircraft. This allowed it to carry two extra rows of seats, making it more economical for airlines to run.

Lockheed approached the British Air Ministry in September 1939 with a proposal to produce either a maritime patrol aircraft or medium bomber based on the Model 18. Their approach could hardly have been better timed – the outbreak of the Second World War and the successful introduction into service of the Hudson meant that in February 1940 Lockheed received a contract to produce 25 of the new aircraft. In May this order was increased to 300 aircraft, powered by the 1,850hp Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp S1A4-G eighteen cylinder radial engine. By the end of the year another 375 aircraft had been ordered, bringing the total to 675.

The new Ventura was very similar in appearance to the Hudson. It was much better armed than the earlier Hudsons, with a total of eight 0.303in machine guns in early models and ten in later aircraft. Of these guns two were carried in a flexible mounting in the tip of the nose, two were fixed forward firing guns, two were placed in a ventral position near the rear of the aircraft and two (later four) in the dorsal turret. The turret was moved further forward than in the Hudson, to improve its field of fire by reducing the area blocked by the tail. The bombload was increased to 2,500lb, carried in the internal bomb bay.

The Ventura was produced by Lockheed’s Vega subsidiary. The first Ventura (of 3,028) made its maiden flight on 31 July 1941. The first production aircraft began to reach Britain in September 1941, but it would not enter combat until November 1942.

Service Career

The Ventura had a short career in its original role as a medium bomber. It entered squadron service with No.21 Squadron in May 1942, but did not enter combat until 3 November. By then No.464 (RAAF) Squadron and No.487 (RNZAF) Squadron had also received the Ventura, and on 6 December 1942 they provided forty-seven Venturas for a low level daylight raid on the Philips radio and valve factory at Eindhoven. Although the raid was a success, nine of the Venturas were lost and 37 damaged, leaving only one aircraft unscathed.

After this the aircraft switched to medium level operations, but it had entered service too late, and was already heading towards obsolescence. In May 1942 the Mosquito B.Mk IV had entered service. The “wooden wonder” could carry a very slightly smaller bombload (2,000lb compared to 2,500lb) at a much higher speed than the Ventura (385mph to 312mph) over a slightly longer range, while suffering much lower casualties. All three Ventura squadrons converted to the Mosquito FB.Mk VI during 1943 (No.487 (RNZAF) flew its last Ventura mission on 24 June, No.464 (RAAF) on 10 July 1943 and No.21 Squadron on 9 September).

After leaving Bomber Command the Ventura was sent to Coastal Command, where it replaced the Hudson in a number of squadrons (Nos.519 and 521 Squadrons used it for weather flights, while Nos.13 and 500 used it for anti-submarine patrols over the Mediterranean. All four squadrons had replaced their Venturas by the end of 1944.

The Ventura was used by most Commonwealth airforces. The RCAF received 286 aircraft, using them to equip five maritime patrol squadrons operating from Canada. The RAAF received 75 aircraft, using then on New Guinea. The RNZAF received 139 Venturas, which saw combat over the Solomon Islands. Finally the SAAF received 169 aircraft. Initially these were used to fly anti-submarine patrols from South Africa, but by July 1944 four SAAF squadrons were serving in the Mediterranean. One of these squadrons, No.25 (SAAF), even used the Ventura as a medium bomber over the Balkans.


Ventura I

The first 188 aircraft were produced as the Ventura Mk I. This was powered by two 1,850hp Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp S1A4-G civil engines, could carry 2,000lb of bombs and was armed with eight machine guns. The first aircraft reached Britain in September 1941. Of the original 188 aircraft one remained in the United States as a testbed, twenty-one went to the RCAF and three crashed while being ferried across the Atlantic.

Ventura II

The Ventura Mk II saw an increase in engine power, with the installation of 2,000hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-31 US military engines. The bomb bay was redesigned to allow the Mk II to carry 3,000lb of bombs or a 780 US gallon fuel tank. Of the 487 Mk IIs produced 196 reached Britain and the Commonwealth, 264 were taken by the USAAF (as the Lockheed Model 37) and 27 went to the US Navy as the PV-3 (the designation PV-1 was reserved for US Navy production of the standard Ventura and PV-2 for an improved version with longer range).

Ventura IIA

The Ventura Mk IIA was the lend-lease version of the Mk II, powered by the same 2,000hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-31 engines. The IIA received the USAAF designation B-34, and of the 200 ordered only 66 were delivered to British or Commonwealth countries, while the rest served with the USAAF as the B-34, B-34A and B-34B. The Ventura Mk IIA carried American guns, so the .303in guns of the original British aircraft were replaced with .50in guns – two in the nose, two in a Martin dorsal turret, two flexible guns in the nose and ventral positions and two flexible beam guns, for a total of ten guns.

Ventura III

The Mk.III designation was reserved for the O-56/ B-37 version of the Ventura, powered by Wright R-2600-13 engines. Only 18 were produced and all were retained by the USAAF.

Ventura GR.V

The Ventura GR Mk.V was the British designation for the PV-1 naval patrol version of the aircraft. Of the 1,600 PV-1s produced 387 or 388 reached the RAF and Commonwealth airforces. The GR.Mk V used the same engines as the Ventura II, but had room for 1,607 US gallons of fuel, an increase of 263 gallons over the B-34/ Ventura II. The GR.V carried six 0.50in machine guns (two fixed forward guns, two in the dorsal turret and two in the ventral position), while the bomb bay was modified to allow it to carry six 325lb depth charges or one torpedo.

Performance (Ventura Mk.I)

Crew: 5
Engines: Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp S1A4-G
Horsepower: 1,850
Span: 65ft 6in
Length: 51ft 5in
Empty weight: 17,233lb
Loaded weight: 22,500lb
Maximum weight: 26,000lb
Maximum Speed: 312mph at 15,500ft
Cruising Speed: 272 mph
Service ceiling: 25,000ft
Range: 925 miles
Guns: eight 0.303in machine guns
Bomb load: 2,500lb

Squadrons (excluding home-based Commonwealth squadrons)







Oct 43-Dec 43

Anti-submarine duties, North Africa


I and II

May 42-Sept 43

Daylight bomber, operational 3 November 1942-9 September 1943


Feb 42-Jan 44


Aug-Oct 44

Air-sea rescue from Iceland

I and II

Nov 43-Jan 44

Airborne forces, training only

No.459 (RAAF)


Dec 43-July 44

Anti-shipping, Aegean

No.464 (RAAF)

I and II

Sept 42-Sept 43

Daylight bomber, operational 6 December 42-10 July 43

No.487 (RNZAF)

I and II

Aug 42-Sept 43

Daylight bomber, operational 6 December 42-24 June 43



Dec 43-July 44

Anti-submarine duties over Western Mediterranean


Oct 43-Oct 44

Weather flights over North Sea and north from Scotland

Dec 43-Oct 44

Weather flights from UK



Sept-Oct 43

Special duties (only two Venturas)


Aug 43-Feb 45

Maritime patrol, Mediterranean


June 44-Oct 45

Reconnaissance from Malta


July 44-Dec 44

Bomber squadron over Balkans


July 44-Jan 45

Anti-submarine duties, Mediterranean

No.1 (RNZAF) 1943-45Solomon Islands and Rabaul Campaigns
No.2 (RNZAF)1943-45Solomon Islands and Rabaul Campaigns
No.3 (RNZAF) 1944-45Solomon Islands and Rabaul Campaigns
No.4 (RNZAF) 1943-45Solomon Islands and Rabaul Campaigns
No.8 (RNZAF)1944-45Kavieng Campaign
No.9 (RNZAF)1943-45Solomon Islands and Rabaul Campaigns

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Lockheed Ventura - History

The Lockheed Ventura, also known as the Lockheed B-34 Lexington, was a twin engine medium bomber of World War II, used by the US Navy air corps.

The Lockheed Ventura, also known as the Lockheed B-34 Lexington, was a twin engine medium bomber of World War II, used by United States and British Commonwealth forces in several guises, including maritime patrol.

The Ventura was developed from the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar transport, as a replacement for the Lockheed Hudson bombers then in service with the Royal Air Force. Used in daylight attacks against occupied Europe, they proved to have weaknesses and were removed from bomber duty and some used for patrols by Coastal Command.

After United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) monopolization of land-based bombers was removed, the US Navy ordered a revised design which entered service as the PV-2 Harpoon for anti-submarine work.

The Ventura was very similar to its predecessor, the Lockheed Hudson. The primary difference was not in layout rather, the Ventura was larger, heavier, and used more powerful engines than the Hudson. The RAF ordered 188 Venturas in February 1940, which were delivered from mid-1942. Venturas were initially used for daylight raids on occupied Europe but like some other RAF bombers, they proved too vulnerable without fighter escort, which was difficult to provide for long-range missions. Venturas were replaced by the faster de Havilland Mosquito. The Venturas were transferred to patrol duties with Coastal Command as the Mosquito replaced them in bomber squadrons 30 went to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and some to the South African Air Force (SAAF). The RAF placed an order for 487 Ventura Mark IIs but many of these were diverted to the USAAF, which placed its own order for 200 Ventura Mark IIA as the B-34 Lexington, later renamed RB-34.

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The first 19 RB-34s that arrived by sea from the U.S. in June had much equipment either missing or damaged. Six airworthy machines were hurriedly produced by cannibalization and sent into action with No. 3 Squadron RNZAF in Fiji. On 26 June the first PV-1s were flown to Whenuapai and No. 1 Squadron RNZAF was able to convert to 18 of these by 1 August, then replacing the mixed 3 Squadron in action at Henderson Field, Guadacanal in late October.

Lockheed B-34 Lexington

The Ventura was developed from the Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar transport, as a replacement for the Lockheed Hudson bombers then in service with the Royal Air Force. Used in daylight attacks against occupied Europe, they proved to have weaknesses and were removed from bomber duty and some used for patrols by Coastal Command.

National origin United States

First flight 31 July 1941

Primary users United States Navy

United States Army Air Forces Royal Air Force

Developed from Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar

Length: 51 ft 5 in (15.7 m) Wingspan: 65 ft 6 in (20 m)

Empty weight: 20,197 lb (9,161 kg)
Loaded weight: 31,000 lb (14,061 kg)

Max. takeoff weight: 34,000 lb (15,422 kg)

Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radial engines, 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) each

Aircraft History

The Lockheed Ventura was designed to replace the Lockheed Hudson which had well served the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) as a maritime patrol bomber during the early stages of WW II. In total the RCAF took delivery of 286 Venturas of all marks. The first Venturas, delivered to the RCAF in 1942, were 129 Mark I & II's, basically the bomber version, with a glazed nose and a Boulton-Paul dorsal turret. Most of these Venturas were assigned to No. 34 Operational Training Unit at Pennfield Ridge N.B. where RCAF instructors trained crews from all the Commonwealth countries until the end of WW II. With the pressing German U-boat threat to North America, Lockheed developed the main operational version, the Ventura Mark V, a specialized anti-submarine version with a different turret, solid nose and radar among other refinements. No. 113 BR Squadron, at Yarmouth NS, took delivery of the first RCAF Ventura Mark. V in April 1943. No. 145 BR was the second East Coast squadron to convert from Hudsons to the Ventura Mark V in May 1943 at Torbay Nfld. In Oct 1943, 145 BR Squadron moved to RCAF Station Dartmouth where it flew anti-submarine and convoy escort patrols. Venturas from 145 BR Squadron also flew Harbour Entrance Patrols off the Halifax harbour approaches to search for German U-boats that were lying in wait for convoys to enter or depart Halifax's strategic harbour, the principal western terminus for merchant convoys supplying England during WW II. No. 145 Squadron disbanded in June 1945 at RCAF Station Dartmouth.

RCAF Venturas made a number of attacks on enemy submarine sightings, but never achieved a confirmed kill. This is attributable to the fact that RCAF Venturas arrived in the middle of the war when the opportunity for Canadian based, medium range BR aircraft to encounter enemy submarines was rapidly diminishing.

The Venturas' various paint schemes were enlivened through the artistry of Walt Disney artists who worked in the animation studio beside the Vega Plant in California. After Pearl Harbour, they wanted to contribute to the war effort and got permission to do the cartoons on the Venturas just going into production. Although using predominately the Disney style there were also some cartoons featuring other cartoon characters such as Warner Brothers' Bugs Bunny and Porky Pig. Over 1200 of the 2600 Venturas built received these cartoons.

Type: Medium range maritime reconnaissance and patrol bomber

Wing Span: 19.96 m (65 ft 6 in)

Length: 15.77 m (51 ft 9 in)

Height: 3.63 m (11 ft 11 in)

Max. Speed: 518 kph (322 mph)

Service Ceiling: 8015 m (26,30 ft)

Range: 2189 km (1360 miles)

Max. Weight: 14,096 kg (31,077 lb)

Empty Weight: 9161 kg (20,197 lb)

Power Plant: Two 1491 kW (2000 hp) Pratt & Whitney R-2800-31 radial piston engines

Armament: Two 12.7 mm (0.5 in) forward firing machine guns in nose, two 12.7 mm (0.5 in) machine guns in dorsal turret and two 7.72 mm (0.303 in) machine guns in ventral position plus up to1361 kg (3000 lb) of bombs or six 147 kg (325 lb) depth charges or one torpedo.

The only operational RAAF squadron to use the Lockheed Ventura in Australia and the SWPA was No 13 Squadron. (No 459 Squadron and No 464 Squadron operated RAF Venturas in the Middle East and U.K. respectively). Formed at Darwin on 1st June 1940 with Avro Ansons, No 13 Squadron re-equipped with Lockheed Hudsons the same month. In anticipation of hostilities with Japan, Hudsons were detached to Laha and Namlea in the Netherlands East Indies. After incurring heavy losses, the Squadron consolidated at Darwin from where reconnaissance flights and bombing missions continued. Enemy air raids on Darwin prompted a partial withdrawal south to Daly Waters in February 1942 and again to Hughes in May 1942.

In April 1943, the squadron became non-operational and moved to Canberra to re-equip with Bristol Beauforts and Lockheed Venturas. Initially, the Squadron's Venturas comprised a mix of the USAAC B-34 and the USN PV-1. (The Squadron relinquished its last B-34 on 5 May 1944). During November and December, a detachment of Beauforts conducted maritime patrols from Coffs Harbour, NSW. With effect from 27 December 1943, the Beauforts were handed over to 2 Squadron and 3 Squadron detached three Venturas to Camden, NSW from where they continued maritime patrols off the east coast.

On 8 June 1944, the Squadron's Venturas departed for Cooktown, Queensland. An advance party of eight aircraft departed Cooktown for Gove in the Northern Territory on 16 August 1944. From its new base at Gove, the Squadron conducted anti-submarine patrols and strikes into the Netherlands East Indies and Timor.

On 12 June 1945, the S.S William H Seward sailed from Darwin with an advance party from 13 Squadron to a destination "believed to be Morotai". The ship duly arrived in Morotai on 26 June only to be quarantined because of a case of meningitis on board. It was not until 2 July that quarantined personnel were able to disembark! The majority of personnel who were not quarantined had proceeded to Labuan by 28 June leaving only a "skeleton staff" on board ship in Morotai. On 9 July, the remaining personnel sailed for Labuan on the liberty ship S.S. John H. Rossiter which arrived on 14 July. Setting up camp and maintenance facilities was "extremely heavy work" and the Squadron was forced to beg and borrow materials and equipment from other units. The camp was constructed using timber dunnage from the S.S. John H. Rossiter. The first six Venturas arrived in Labuan from Gove on 14 August commencing operations two days later. Initially the aircraft conducted patrols but by 28 August they were relegated to dropping propaganda leaflets! One week earlier, work had commenced to strip the Venturas of armament and radar, "evidently to prepare aircraft for transport purposes". On 4 September, North West Area Headquarters ordered that the ten Venturas remaining at Gove should proceed to Darwin to have their turrets removed prior returning Gove to uplift remaining personnel to Morotai. On 24 September, eleven Venturas arrived at Labuan via Morotai.

As hostilities wound down, the Venturas were used to support Dakotas and Liberators in repatriating Australian service personnel. After the Japanese surrender, the Squadron evacuated prisoners of war to Australia and operated courier flights to Singapore, Japan and Australia. One Ventura (A59-76) was detached to the 1st Tactical Air Force in Tokyo. The Squadron disbanded at Labuan on the 11th January 1946 but reformed at Darwin in July 1989 as a non-flying reserve unit.

Lockheed Ventura - History

Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon / Ventura

(Variants/Other Names: B-34 B-37 PV-1 PV-3 Ventura Mk. I / GR Mk. I / Mk. II / Mk. IIA Model 37.)

PV-2 Harpoon N7265C, BuNo. 37396, operated by the American Military Heritage Foundation in Indiana, USA.

History: The Lockheed Company's early success in WWII with their Hudson bomber (a derivative of their Model 14 Super Electra used by the Royal Air Force) led them to propose a specialized bomber and reconnaissance version of their Model 18 Lodestar. Lockheed designated the new prototype the Model 37, and after a brief trial period, the RAF ordered a total of 675 of them, calling the new aircraft the Ventura. They were larger, heavier, carried a larger bomb load, and had better armament than the Hudson, and entered RAF service on 3 November 1942. Very quickly, the Ventura's limitations as a daylight bomber became apparent, as a large number were lost to enemy fire. They were turned over to RAF Coastal Command for domestic defense duties, and more than half of the original order was cancelled.

These spare planes were acquired by the US Army Air Force, designated as B-34s and B-37s, and were assigned to maritime patrol duties. The US Navy also placed an order, and their first airplanes were designated PV-1 Ventura. In June 1943, the Navy ordered a long-range, slightly-redesigned version, and this version became the PV-2 Harpoon. At least 2,100 navalized Venturas and Harpoons were delivered before the end of the war, and the total number of deliveries to all customers exceeded 3,000. Venturas, especially, were delivered to a number of other nations, including Brazil, France, and all the Commonwealth nations.

PV-1s and PV-2 saw combat in the Pacific Theater, and served in the US Naval Reserve until the late 1940s. Some surplus models were supplied to nations such as Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal and Peru. Quite a few others were converted into civilian VIP transport aircraft by Howard Aero Services in the USA, and others were converted into mosquito-spray planes. Now, only a few remain airworthy as warbirds.

Nicknames: Pregnant Pig (RAF nickname) Lexington (USAAF designation for B-34s and B-37s)

Specifications (PV-1):
Engines: Two 2,000-hp Pratt & Whitney R-2800-31 radial piston engines.
Weight: Empty 20,197 lbs., Max Takeoff 31,077 lbs.
Wing Span: 65ft. 6in.
Length: 51ft. 9in.
Height: 11ft. 11in.
Maximum Speed: 322 mph at 13,800 ft.
Ceiling: 26,300 ft.
Range: 1,360 miles
Armament: Two 12.7-mm (0.5-inch) forward-firing machine guns two more in dorsal turret two 7.72-mm (0.3-inch) machine guns in ventral turret plus up to 3,000 lbs. of bombs or depth charges, or one torpedo.

Number Built: 3,028 (Total Venturas and Harpoons).

Number Still Airworthy: Unknown.

All text and photos Copyright 2016 The Doublestar Group, unless otherwise noted.
You may use this page for your own, non-commercial reference purposes only.

Rare 1942 Lockheed PV-1 Ventura Patrol Bomber Offered For Sale

A Lockheed PV-1 Ventura patrol bomber has hit the market.

The listing states that the machine was manufactured by Lockheed in 1942 and delivered to the US Navy that same year. It was then transferred to the RAF under a lend lease agreement to 23 Squadron SAAF in 1943. In August 1955, it was converted to perform VIP flight duties, flying then state president General Smuts. The aircraft was last flown in November 1958. In 1959, the machine was moved to the South African Airways Apprentice School. In 1989 it was again moved for display in a military memorial garden, where it remained until 2001.

The Lockheed was cleaned and repainted professionally 2010 and has unfortunately been exposed to the elements since 2010. The Lockheed when painted in 2010, was restored to its original war time colours as it would have been when it left the Lockheed Vega factory in 1942. Very few of these aircraft still remain. According to Warbird recorded, only 11 survive world wide. Only 2000 Lockheed PV-1 Ventura’s were manufactured in 1942. This is a good example ready for restoration.

The machine is located in Basingstoke, United Kingdom and is currently being offered for GBP 200,000, although bids are also being accepted. Click here to check out the complete listing.

Ventura History

Mission San Buenaventura, named for Saint Bonaventure, was the most successful and influential of the California Missions founded by Father Junipero Serra. Following the great earthquake of 1812-13, the Mission lands were divided up among the settlers. Administrators were appointed to transfer such lands to private property owners and to proceed with secular development of the country.

In 1841 the Rancho San Miguel was deeded to Raimundo Olivas, who built the most magnificent hacienda south of Monterey on the banks of the Santa Clara River. Along with the Old Mission, this building, the Olivas Adobe, is part of Ventura’s historic past, and has been restored and refurnished as a splendid example of early California life.

Settlers came in after the Civil War, buying land from the Mexicans or simply squatting on property. Vast holdings were later acquired by Easterners, including the railroad magnate, Thomas Scott. He was impressed by one of the young employees, Thomas R. Bard, who had been in charge of train supplies to Union Troops, and Bard was sent west to handle Scott’s property.

Bard is often regarded as the Father of Ventura and his descendants have been prominently identified with the growth of Ventura County. The Union Oil Company was organized with Bard as President in 1890, and has offices in Santa Paula. The main Ventura oil field was drilled in 1914 and at its peak produced 90,000 barrels a day.

For most of its history, Ventura has escaped the thrust of immigrating people, and has been able to enjoy its own more leisurely, less crowded way of life. At the same time, Ventura became prosperous. The city is located between two richly endowed valleys, the Ventura River and the Santa Clara River, and so rich was the soil that citrus grew better here than anywhere else in the state. The growers along these rivers got together and formed Sunkist, the world’s largest organization of citrus production.

Until the completion of the Ventura Freeway from Los Angeles to Ventura – the last link finished in 1969 – travel by auto was slow and hazardous. For most of the century which followed the incorporation of Ventura in 1866, it was pretty much isolated from the southern part of the State.

Even from the north, entrance was by way of a single road along the beach and stage coach passengers either had to wait until low tide when the horses could cross on the exposed wet sand, or go up the Ventura River Valley and then cross over the mountains to Santa Barbara via Casitas Pass, always a long and difficult trip. Inland, Ventura was hemmed in by the Los Padres National Forest, composed of mountainous country, deep canyons, and peaks that rise as high as 8,831 feet, namely Mt. Pinos. Thus Ventura was isolated in that direction also, until a narrow road, the Maricopa Highway, was built in the 1920’s.

Ventura County, California

Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the state of California. Based on the 2010 census, the population was 823,318. The county seat is Ventura. The county was created March 22, 1872. In 1782 the Mission San Buenaventura was named San Buenaventura (now known as Ventura). Buenaventura is composed of two Spanish words, buena meaning "good"and Ventura meaning "fortune."

Ventura County comprises the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. It is also considered as the southernmost county along the California Central Coast

Etymology - Origin of Ventura County Name

In 1782 the Mission San Buenaventura was founded as San Buenaventura (now known as Ventura). Buenaventura is composed of two Spanish words, buena meaning "good" and ventura meaning "fortune."


Ventura County History

A constitution had been adopted for the California territory, by 1849, The new Legislature met and divided the pending state into 27 counties. The area that would become Ventura County was the southern part of Santa Barbara County

On January 1, 1873, Ventura County was officially split from Santa Barbara County, bringing a flurry of change. That same year, a courthouse and wharf were built in San Buenaventura. A bank was opened and the first public library was created. The school system grew, with the first high school opening in 1890

Geography: Land and Water

As reported by the Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,208 square miles (5,719 km 2 ), of which, 1,845 square miles (4,779 km 2 ) is land and 363 square miles (940 km 2 ) (16.43%) is water.

Anacapa Island of Channel Islands National Park and San Nicolas Island are located in the county. North of Highway 126 the county is mountainous and mostly uninhabited, and contains some of the most rugged and unreachable wilderness remaining in southern California. Most of this land is in the Los Padres National Forest, and includes the Chumash Wilderness in the northernmost portion, adjacent to Kern County, The large Sespe Wilderness and portions of both the Dick Smith Wilderness and Matilija Wilderness (both of these protected areas straddle the line with Santa Barbara County). All of the wilderness areas are within the jurisdiction of Los Padres National Forest.

The highest peaks in the county include Mount Pinos (8831', 2697 m), Frazier Mountain (8017', 2444 m), and Reyes Peak (7525', 2294 m), all except Reyes Peak in the San Emigdio Mountains (Pinos and Frazier Mountain are sometimes assigned to the Tehachapis). The uplands are well-timbered with coniferous forests, and receive plentiful snow in the winter.

Mount Pinos is sacred to the Chumash Indians. It is known to them as Iwihinmu, and was considered to be the center of the universe being the highest peak in the vicinity, it has a spectacular view, unimpeded in three directions.

The Santa Clara River is the principal waterway. Lake Casitas, an artificial reservoir, is the largest body of water.

PV-1 Ventura Model Airplanes, Plastic Model Kits, Aviation Hobby Shop.

Lockheed PV-1 Ventura Models, These aircraft were used by the U.S. Navy as both a long-range patrol bomber and as a gunship to attack enemy ground targets and shipping in World War II, P&W R-2800 "Double Wasp" radial engines with rotating propellers, wing-mounted fuel tanks, a dorsal gun turret and optional chin-mounted M2 Browning machine guns, an ASD-1 search radar, a choice of three markings (VB-133 at Iwo Jima, VP-135 in Alaska, and 149 Squadron, RCAF, in British Columbia)

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Lockheed PV-1 Ventura Airplanes

Lockheed PV-1 Ventura Aviation Art

The Hunters

Don Feight.
This salute to Lockheed's line of land-based submarine hunters features the PV-1 Ventura of World War II, the P2V Neptune of the Cold War, and the P-3 Orion, which is still in service today. 28"x 22" limited edition print is signed and numbered by the artist.

PV Ventura/Harpoon Units of WW2
Combat Aircraft Vol. 34
Softbound Book

Softbound Book
Carey. The Ventura saw widespread service as a bomber and as an anti-submarine platform with the U.S. Navy and others. Built by Lockheed in response to Britain's need to replace the Hudson, the Ventura succeeded because of its long range and impressive armament. Book details its wartime service with all operators and includes firsthand accounts, scale drawings, tables and more. 96 pages, 98 B&W photographs, 30 color profiles, 7"x 9", softcover.

Vega Ventura
Softbound Book

The Operational History of Lockheed’s Lucky Star Stanaway. One of the most overlooked warbirds of WWII. Used for anti-sub, penetration bombing, recon, and night fighting, the plane was fashioned from the Lockheed Model 14 airliner. 112 pgs., 200 photos, 8"x 11", sfbd.

The Lockheed Twins
Marson. This is the ultimate reference on all the commercial and military versions of the Lockheed 10 Electra, Lockheed 12, Lockheed 14, Hudson, Lodestar, Learstar, PV-1 Ventura, PV-2 Harpoon, Saturn, and the many post-war civil conversions. Preserved and civil P-38 Lightnings and P2V Neptunes are also covered. Includes more than 7,000 aircraft histories with over 330 photos. 680 pgs., 8"x 11", hdbd.

Lockheed Ventura - History

Japanese Guitar Quality & Various Factories

Since this page is devoted to Ventura branded guitars, which were mostly made in the 1970's,  the
comments below apply to that era, but may also apply to earlier or later Japanese guitars. The
plain truth is that most Japanese guitar manufacturers were "contract houses" that made guitars
to the specifications of the "trading companies" (Japanese middlemen) that took orders from the
American companies that were importing them (such as C. Burno). This resulted in a wide variety
of qualities in guitars shipped by most of the "contract houses". What this means is that Ibanez
(Fuji Gen-Gakki), as well as Aria (Matsumoku), and to a lesser extent Tokai (Kasuga), made both
very high quality, and very low budget guitars, and various qualities between, depending on what
was ordered by the trading company for the importer they represented. I've even seen
respectable quality guitars that came from Teisco (Kawai),  though most of their product was  at
the lower end of the scale.

Further complicating identification of origin  many of the parts Japanese guitars were built from,
(pickups, tailpieces, bridges, etc. ) were sub-contracted to smaller "contract houses" that
specialized in making one part. Often, the companies bought their parts from the same
contractors. So, similar or identical parts may be seen on guitars built in different factories.
Conclusion: Just because two guitars have similar parts or even construction, does not
necessarily mean they were manufactured in the same factory, or even by the same company.

Something Different about Ventura Guitars

A label inside the soundhole of some Ventura acoustic guitars states: "Designed in America -
Crafted in Japan". I have never seen similar stickers in other Aria / Matsumoko manufactured
guitars. (Or any other Japanese made guitars for that matter). I have found several pieces of
evidence pointing to factories other than Aria (Matsumoku) for the acoustic guitars of this period.

A Short History Of The Bruno Company

C Bruno company music distributors had a very long history before modern times. They go back
at least predating the Civil War! You may click on this old catalog to see exactly how far back the
Bruno company went into American History! (1834 . )

Before they had instruments imported for them from overseas they had relationships with many
American instrument makers to supply them with a broad range in price and quality of all kinds of
music instruments, especially stringed instruments including mandolin, banjo, uke, and just
about any kind of instrument popular enough to sell in quantity.

Many years ago I called Kaman music distributors and asked to speak to the company historian.
Most all companies of any size have someone in charge of keeping the key points of a company
chronicled for posterity. I was told that unfortunately I had contacted Kaman about a year after the
last old-timer who would know anything about the purchase of Bruno had passed on. So it
seems, from that perspective there is no longer a history to follow. I have talked at length to
long-time local music store owners with long associations with first Bruno, and then Kaman

Misinformation - Intentional or Otherwise

Time and again I see Ventura/Bruno guitars for sale (even at vintage dealers that should know
better) or at auction on eBay, claiming that a Ventura guitar was made in the "Ibanez" factory. In
my many years of interest in Japanese guitars (I got my first in 1968) I have found no solid
evidence that any Ventura branded guitar was ever made by Ibanez/Hoshino. In fact, there is no,
and never has been an "Ibanez factory." as any Ibanez fan will tell you, they are made in the Fuji
gen Gakki factory.  If anyone has proof to the contrary, I welcome you to share it. It is my
contention that sales/auctions making such claims, are done either out of ignorance, or are
intentional deception, attempting to cash in on the misguided concept that Hoshino/Ibanez  
manufactured guitars are inherently superior to guitars made in other Japanese factories. This is
not necessarily the case.

Almost as bad are the people who assume every guitar made in Japan came from Teisco

Under light of new evidence, I may have to change the above statement somewhat. As I've now
found evidence that some Ventura solid body Fender copies, and some archtops may have come
from Fuji-Gen-Gakki. However, there are still bad eBay dealers dropping names out of context in
hopes of making some bucks by hook or crook!



Watch the video: Lockheed Ventura