Lakshmi, Somanathapura

Lakshmi, Somanathapura


File:Vishnu with Lakshmi, 13th century Keshava temple Somanathpur 4.jpg

It is located at Somanathapura (Somanathpur) in South Karnataka, in a small village on the banks of the river Cauvery, about 40 km from the city of Mysuru.

The temple is one of the finest examples of Hoysala architecture and testament to the sophistication of Hindu art and architecture by the 12th-century. Completed by 1268 CE and sponsored by a commander of Hoysala king Narasimha III, it illustrates fine carvings with extraordinary details.

The temple is set on a raised platform, with rotated squares that give it a star foundation shape. The sides of the raised platform show richly carved friezes of cavalry, elephants and numerous scenes from the Hindu epics and mythologies. The temple exterior towards the spire has sculptures of gods, mainly Vishnu avatars, but others including Shiva, Brahma and Vedic gods and goddesses. Some relief panels on the exterior have names of the sculptors inscribed.

Camera location 12°㺐′㺠.26″ N, 76°㺴′㺴.77″ E      View this and other nearby images on: OpenStreetMap 12.275628 76.881325

History and Legend of Keshava Temple Somanathapura

The glorious history of Karnataka is treasured at the Keshava Temple.

  • The Hoysala Kingdom was one of the most prominent dynasties of South India. Their kingdom ranged from Karnataka, to Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. South Indian art and architecture flourished during the reign of the Hoysala dynasty.
  • The Keshava Temple was constructed by General Somanatha of the Hoysala monarch, Narasimha III. The temple hence is also known as the Somanatha Temple.
  • The temple was built during the 1254 – 1291 AD. The inscriptions engraved on a slab outside the temple during 1269 – 1550 AD provide detailed information about the time of construction of the Keshava Temple.
  • It is believed that the Keshava Temple was the last major temple built by the Hoysala dynasty.
  • As per the information of Archaeological Survey of India, the original idol of Lord Keshava went missing and later it was replaced.
  • One of the myths state that the deities were removed from the temple by the Britishers and taken away.

Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu

The Hoysaleswara temple was commissioned by King Vishnuvardhana almost during the same period as the Belur temple and is located in Halebidu, 20 km from Belur. The temple is dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, and is also proposed to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. It is a highly ornate temple, with amazingly detailed carvings displayed all around the outer walls, and is regarded as a masterpiece of southern Indian temple architecture.

Hoysaleshwara Temple, Halebidu | © Abhinav Alva

Hoysaleshwara Temple, Halebidu | © Abhinav Alva


Lakshmi Narasimha Temple - Nuggehalli

At a distance of 29 km from Shravanbelagola, and 52 km from Hassan, Lakshmi Narasimha Temple is an ancient temple located at Nuggehalli in the Hassan district of Karnataka. It is one of the popular places of heritage in Karnataka, and among the must include places in Shravanabelagola Packages.

The Lakshmi Narasimha Temple at Nuggehalli was built in 1246 CE by Bommanna Dandanayaka, a commander in the Hoysala Empire during the rule of King Vira Someshwara. The town of Nuggehalli was called Vijaya Somanathapura in ancient times and gained importance as an agrahara (place of learning) during the time of Bommanna Dandanayaka. The temple is maintained by the people who reside around the temple area called Agrahara, an area donated to Brahmins by the ruling people in view of maintaining and performing poojas in the temples that they built.

Built with soapstone, the temple is a good example of 13th-century Hoysala architecture. The temple is dedicated to Lord Narasimha who is believed to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Like other Hoysala temples, the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple at Nuggehalli is also built on an elevated platform called the jagati. The temple is constructed as a trikutachala i.e. it has three sanctums. The three shrines are located around a central closed mantapa with 9 bays. The ceiling of the closed mantapa is supported by four lathe-turned pillars which are deeply domed in the center.

The main temple is raised with a statue of Lord Narasimha in the northern sanctum, images of Kesava in the western sanctum, and images of Venugopala in the southern sanctum. The central shrine is the most prominent one and has a large tower and a vestibule that connects the shrine to the mantapa. The other two shrines have smaller towers and because they have no vestibule to connect them to the central mantapa, they have no sukanasi.

The walls of the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple are covered with intricate moldings and friezes in a horizontal treatment. These friezes are taken exclusively from the Bhagavatha. The lower eaves feature images of Hindu Gods and Goddesses with their attendants. In all, there are about 120 such sculptured panels. Below this, the wall is divided into 6 horizontal panels with two sections. These showcase elephant processions, horses, foliage, scenes from the Hindu epics, imaginary beasts, and hamsas. The intricate work on these panels is credited to Baichoja and Mallitamma, two well-known sculptures of the 13th century. The vimana tower is divided into three horizontal sections and is even more ornate than the walls. The images in the panels are mostly Vaishnava in faith and they are attributed to two well-known Hoysala sculptors, Baichoja and Mallitamma. There are a few images of the god Shiva in the form of Bhairava along with his consort Bhairavi.

Besides the Lakshmi Narasimha Temple, one can also visit Sadashiva Temple at Nuggehalli. Constructed by Bommanna Dandanayaka in 1249 CE, the temple is a fine example of the Hoysala nagara style of architecture with Bhumija type superstructure. The temple walls and the mandapa have an austere appearance, with no sculptural decoration. The temple is built on a jagati (platform) and the building material used is Soapstone. The temple houses a large linga in its sanctum and an equally large and extremely well carved Nandi in a closed hall with walls that have perforated stone windows. The temple also has a unique life-size standing image of the goddess Parvati (consort of Shiva). In the common hall are the intricately carved images of goddess Chamundeshwari, Kartikeya, Ganesha, Kala Bhairava, a set of images depicting the different incarnations of Parvati, and Surya Narayana.


Belur Chennakeshava Temple – Architecture, Timings, History, Photos

The Belur Chennakeshava Temple, also known as the Keshava, Kesava, or Vijayanarayana Temple of Belur, is a 12th-century Hindu temple in Karnataka’s Hassan district. Belur Temple was built in 1117 CE on the banks of the Yagachi River in Belur, also known as Velapura, an early Hoysala Empire capital. It was commissioned by King Vishnuvardhana. The Belur Chennakeshava Temple was constructed over three generations and took 103 years to complete. Throughout its history, it has been repeatedly damaged and plundered during wars, and it has been rebuilt and repaired numerous times. It is 35 kilometers from Hassan and about 200 kilometers from Bengaluru.

Chennakesava is a manifestation of the Hindu god Vishnu. The chennakesava temple belur is dedicated to Vishnu and has been a functioning Hindu temple since its establishment. It is described reverently in medieval Hindu texts and is still an important pilgrimage site in Vaishnavism. The architecture, sculptures, reliefs, friezes, iconography, inscriptions, and history of the temple are all noteworthy. Through numerous friezes, the temple artwork depicts scenes of secular life in the 12th century, dancers and musicians, as well as a pictorial narration of Hindu texts such as the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and Puranas. Chennakeshwara Temple Belur is a Vaishnava temple with many Shaivism and Shaktism themes, as well as images of a Jina from Jainism and the Buddha from Buddhism. The Chennakeshava temple reflects artistic, cultural, and theological perspectives in 12th century South India under Hoysala Empire rule.

The Hoysala period of South Indian history lasted from around 1000 CE to 1346 CE. During this time, they constructed approximately 1,500 temples in 958 centers. In old inscriptions and medieval texts, Belur is referred to as Beluhur, Velur, or Velapura. It was the Hoysala kings’ first capital. In later inscriptions, the Hoysalas refer to the city as “earthly Vaikuntha” (Vishnu’s abode) and “dakshina Varanasi” (Hindus’ southern holy city).

The construction of the Chennakeshava temple in Belur took 103 years. Vishnuvardhana relocated his capital to Dvarasamudra (now Halebidu), where he began work on the Hoysaleswara Temple, dedicated to Shiva. Its construction lasted until his death in 1140 CE. His descendants carried on his legacy, completing the Hoysaleswara Temple in 1150 CE and the Chennakesava Temple in Somanathapura in 1258 CE. The Hoysalas employed many notable architects and artisans who established a new architectural tradition known as the Karnata Dravida tradition by art critic Adam Hardy.

Belur Temple Architecture :

The Chennakeshava complex at Belur consists of a 443.5 feet by 396 feet court surrounded by a wall with several Hindu temples and minor shrines. The compound is entered from the east via a Gopuram added during the Vijayanagar empire’s repairs. The following temples and monuments can be found within the walled complex:

The main temple is Chennakesava temple, also known as Kesava temple. It is located in the center of the complex, facing east and directly in front of the gopuram. It is 178 feet by 156 feet, including the later improvements. The temple is built on a three-foot-high platform terrace (jagati). The temple honors Vishnu in the form of Kesava.

The Kappe Chennigaraya temple, which measures 124 feet by 105 feet, is located to the south of the Kesava temple. It contains two sanctums, one for Venugopala and the other for Chennigaraya (local popular name of Chennakeshava, Vishnu). The temple is named Kappe Chennigaraya after a local legend in which a Kappe (frog) was discovered near its navel. This smaller temple was built concurrently with the main temple by the queen and is thought to be a smaller version of the main temple.

Under a canopy, a couple stands side by side on a stone slab in the namaste posture. The monument has been damaged.

The Viranarayana temple, which measures 70 feet by 56 feet, is located to the west of the Kesava temple. It is a small but complete temple that includes a navaranga (nine square hall) and a garbha griya (sanctum) with 59 large reliefs on the outer walls. These reliefs honor Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Bhairava (angry Shiva), Lakshmi, Parvati, Saraswati, and other deities. Some panels depict the Mahabharata’s Bhima story. The temple was built in the 12th century as well.

Belur Chennakeshava Temple Timings:

The belur temple timings are :

Morning : 7:30 AM to 1:00 PM

Afternoon : 2.30 PM to 7.30 PM

kukke subramanya to belur distance : 2 hr 15 min (94.3 km) via Bandadka – Bengaluru Rd

sakleshpur to belur distance : 50 min (34.6 km) via Belur – Somvarpet Rd

Hassan to Belur distance : 50 min (38.1 km) via Belur Rd

halebidu to belur distance : 24 min (16.8 km) via NH73

chennakesava temple location : Temple Rd, Belur, Karnataka 573115

belur temple contact number : 081772 22218

How to reach belur sri chennakeshava temple :

Via Air : Belur is approximately 130 kilometers from Mangalore Airport, and Bangalore International Airport is approximately 222 kilometers away. The most convenient mode of transportation from airports is by car.

Via Rail : Chikmagalur, which is 22 kilometers away, has the nearest railway station to Belur. Hassan railway station is approximately 32 kilometers from Belur town. There are numerous buses that travel between these towns.

Via Road : The NH75 connects Bangalore city to Belur, which is 220 kilometers away. Traveling from Mysore, the journey is 155 kilometers long via the SH 57. The NH73 connects Mangalore to the coastal city of Mangalore, which is 153 kilometers away. Regular buses run from Hassan, Chikmagalur, Bangalore, Mysore, and Mangalore to Belur.


Keshava Temple at Somanathapura In Karnataka

Keshava Temple at Somanathapura

Somanathapura is famous for the Chennakesava Temple built by Soma, a dandanayaka in 1268 CE under Hoysala king Narasimha III, when the Hoysalas were the major power in South India. The Keshava temple is one of the finest examples of Hoysala architecture and is in a very well preserved condition. The temple is in the care of the Archeological Survey of India as a protected heritage site and visitors are allowed only from 9:00AM to 5:30PM.

Located on the banks of Cauvery River, Chennakesava Temple was built in 1268 by Somnatha, a general of King Narasimha III. The temple stands on a raised platform like other Hoysala temples. The temple comprises three shrines and three wonderfully carved peaks with a common Mandapa. The three sanctums once housed beautifully carved idols of Keshava, Janardhana and Venugopala. Today, the idol of Lord Kesava is missing but the other two are still worshipped by the visitors.
The Somnathpur temple is famous for its elaborate and intricate sculptures. The temple is enclosed in a walled courtyard with a mandapa running along the wall. The temple is built on an elevated star shaped platform. At the temple, the outer walls of the main temple are decorated with a series of star-shaped folds and the entire surface is covered with carved stone plaques. The walls above the plinth are also carved with exquisite figures of gods and goddesses taken from the Hindu puranas and arranged in vertical panels.
The most characteristic feature of this temple is its 16 different ceilings, each depicting a different stage of a blooming plantain (banana flower). Small and large pieces of finely carved stone chips are set in complicated patterns. One of the main highlights of this temple is the central wall space. There are images of deities decorated with heavy jewellery, bangles on every arm, towering crowns and chunky anklets. The vimana over the sanctums have greatly carved images of gods.

The Kesava temple is a fantastic piece of art. It consists of three identical shrines built on a raised platform - with a common entrance chamber in an enclosed courtyard.
The main shrine is dedicated to Kesava however there is no image of worship now. The other shrines are dedicated to Janardhana and Venugopala.
These shrines are only about 30 feet in height. Yet they are covered profusely with ornate sculpture of the highest order, as seen in the Hoysala temples of Belur and Halebidu, with themes from the Indian epics, nature and so on.
An open corridor runs around the circumambulatory path and it has sixty four cells, meant for housing images of divinities (as in the kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram). These cells are now bereft of images.
The temple is regarded as perfect in symmetry with exquisite stone carvings. As it stands in the middle of a walled compound, the temple is an open verandah having 64 cells. It consists of carved pinnacles and a common Navranga that stands on a raised platform. The excellent architecture on this temple is symbolic of the master craftsmanship done by Mallitamma. The exterior walls of the temple are adorned with exquisite sculptures of Vishnu and there are images of 194 other idols as well. The Hindu mythological characters are sculpted on the walls of the temple. There are three splendidly carved sanctums that of the idol of Lord Keshava, Lord Janardhana and Lord Venugopala of which the idol of Lord Keshava is missing.

History Of Keshava Temple, Somanathapura :-

The Keshava Temple at Somanathapura was constructed by a commander of the Hoysala Army, Somanatha. This general had just established a small town here named after himself – Somanathapura. Obviously enjoying the favor of his overlord, the Hoysala King Narasimha III, he appealed to the king for permission and resources to undertake the project of building the magnificent temple. With the blessing of the king, the construction was started.
The construction of the temple was completed and consecrated in 1268 AD. There is an Old Kannada inscription on a stone slab in the temple which gives all these details.

Somnathpur is a small village in the Tarumakudalu Narasipur Taluk of the Karnataka district and is situated about 0.8 kilometre (half a mile) from the Kaveri river. It is about 32 kilometres (twenty miles) from Sirangapatnam. According to epigraphical records, Somnath (Soma), an officer under Narasimha III (A.D. 1254-1291), built the Kesava temple in A.D. 1268. The temple is situated in a courtyard measuring 65.53 by 53.95 metres (215 by 177 feet) the main structure is placed on a metre (three feet) high stone platform. It is a three-celled structure (Trikutachala), the main cell facing the cast and the other two facing the north and south they are surmounted by three elegantly carved towers which are identical in design and execution.

Outer Wall:-

Temple of Somnathpur:-

On both sides of the entrance, there runs around the front hall a railed parapet (Jagati) and from the bottom upwards horizontal friezes of elephants, horsemen, scroll - work scenes from the Epics and the Puranas, turretted pillars, miniature erotic sculpture, and lions intervening between them, and a rail divided into panels by double columns with tiny figures, have enhanced the beauty of the temple. Above them are perforated stone windows (Jali) they are also beautifully decorated with filigree work and images. From the corners on both sides of the entrance, where the rail parapet ends, there begins a row of large images with different types of ornamental canopies. Just below these images there are six horizontal friezes the first four are identical with the railed parapet design but the fifth and sixth have a frieze of mythical beasts (Makaras) surmounted by' a row of swans (or peacocks).

Somnathpur Temple Wall OutSide:-

We can easily sum up the number of large images on the walls as one hundred and ninety-four. There are fifty-four in the south cell in the corner between the west and north cells there are only fourteen figures, and there are fifty-four images round the north cell. The Brahmanical deities represented by the above images are Vishnu and his different incarnations (i.e., Narasimha, Varaha, Hayagriva, Venugopal and Parasurama), Brahma, Shiva, Ganapati, Indra-Indrani, Hara-Parvati, Manmatha, Surya, Garuda, Shakti, Mahishasura-mardini, Karttikeya, Lakshmi, Sarasvati and a Gandharva. Moreover, apart from the friezes of the Epics and the Puranas the portions running round the south cell presents scenes from the Ramayana the west cell has scenes from the Bhagavata-Purana and the north has representatives Mahabharata stories.

Internal Arrangement:-

As the temple contains three cells, each cell consists of a Garbha-griha (Adytum) and a Sukhanasi (vestibule). On the chief cell (Garbha-griha), just opposite to the main entrance, there was a Vishnu (Keshava) image about 1 .52 meters (5 feet) high, but it has been stolen. As a result, it is absolutely a dead temple nobody cares to offer puja (worship) here. However, the authorities have replaced the lost Vishnu image by another of the same size. The temple is now under the exclusive control of the Archaeological Survey of India.

Somnathpur Temple:-

The north cell has a beautiful image of Janardana, of about 1.88 meters (6 feet) height, and Venugopala (Krishna) of the same height breaks the monotony of the southern cell. With a great amount of ecstasy VenugopaIa is playing his flute before his rapt listeners, including men and animals. And this panel is really a magnificent specimen of medieval Indian art. Thus, judging from the figures here the lost image of Keshava (Krishna) must have been a piece of wonderful worksmanship. The lintels of both the Garbha-griha and the Sukhanasi doorways of all the cells are carefully decorated.
The chief cell of the Garbha-griha doorway depicts a seated figure of Vishnu at the top, an image of Lakshmi-Narayana in the centre and the ten incarnations of Vishnu at the bottom. As the base there is a tiny elephant over the Sukhanasi doorway, Paravasudeva and Keshava are also seen, apparently Vishnu as a Dvarapala (door-keeper) is on the jambs of both the doorways.

Temple of Somnathpur:-

The Navaranga (central hall) has six ceiling panels and the Mukha-mandapa (front hall) has nine. All of them are 0.91 meter (three feet) deep and are artistically executed with the plantain flower (Kadali-Pushpa) design and formerly difficult colors were painted on them. Four bell-shaped pillars support the Navaraga and fourteen of them hold the Mukha-mandapa they are all artistically-designed.
Like many other Hoysala temples, some names of the scupltors are engraved on the pedestals of different images.

They are Mallitamma (Malli), Baleya, Chaudeya, Bamaya, Masanitamma, Bharmaya, Nanjaya and Yalamasay. Thus, the sculptor Mallitamma played a very significant role in the decoration of the Keshave temple at Somnathpur. Most probably he was the artist mainly responsible for the magnificent work to be seen there. In A.D. 1249, he also worked in the Lakshmi-Narasinha temple at Nuggihalli in the Channarayapatna Taluk of Hassan district, and we necessarily must attach great historical value to three temples for their unique contribution to Indian plastic art. In this connection, we should discuss the role of the legendary sculptor, Jakanachari, who is believed to have constructed many temples of the Hoysalas. But no such name has been found in any temple of Karnataka. It may be a corruption of the Sanskrit word Dashinacharya, that is, a sculptor of the South school" and perhaps does not denote any particular artist. There is another possibility that he was the chief architect and sculptor of many Hoysala temples and unlike an ordinary artist he did not like to inscribe his name on them.

Somnathpur Temple Hall:-

There are many temples and Jain-bastis which were embellished with same amount of skill. Among them Lakshmidevi, Kappe-Channigarah, Kirtinarayana, Trimurti, Kedareshvara, Harihara, Someshvara, and many others, are of great artistic value and they were built during the heyday of the Hoysalas. “Whether we look at these temples as disinterested historians or art critics or engineers interested in the details of their structure and beauty, one fundamental truth stands out for all time, that from faith springs devotion and from devotion the virtues of courage, patience, sacrifice and intelligence. For otherwise it is hard to explain the enormous amount of labour and skill that hosts of masons and sculptors poured for centuries into the construction of these exquisite temples. To modern generations, they have become a legend. But still many devotees of Hindu culture who seek inspiration and enlightenment from a knowledge of the past will not be disappointed by a pilgrimage to these centre’s of ancient art of Mysore.”

Deity and sculptures:-

The ceiling of hall is supported by lathe curved pillars. Between pillars, the ceiling is arched as well as intricately decorated. These decorations comprise multi-petalled lotuses, banana bud motifs depending on stepped ponds as well as ananta (snake) knots indicating eternity. Among the three shrines, one is dedicated to Keshava, however the idol is missing from the sanctum. Another two shrines accommodate idols of Janardhana and Venugopala (the three idols are different incarnation of Lord Vishnu). That is exactly a Vaishnava temple and you can find no representation of any types of Hindu God Shiva.
Many sculptures are usually of depictions of the prosperity of that period including members of royal family driving well decorated chariots, soldiers as well as commoners driving horses, camel drawn vehicles, dancers, musicians, hunters armed with bows & arrows and along with their dogs, and going for the hunt. You can find sculptures of palaces of the kings protected by armed guards, jewellery including pendants, bracelets, waistbands and necklaces as well as female with unique hair styles too.
The names of the many architects and sculptors are found from which it is clear of the fact that designers used to be both local as well as from outside the province. The well-known Ruvari Mallithamma, Masanithamma, Chameya, Rameya, Chaudeya as well as Nanjeya are accounted as locals whereas Pallavachari and Cholavachari are considered artists belonging to Tamil region.

Keshava Temple, Somanathapura – Facts:-

This Hoysala temple is stunningly beautiful. Unfortunately, this temple is no longer used as a place of worship because the idols here have been broken and the temple was desecrated by the invading armies of the Muslim Sultanate. But the beautiful temple still charms visitors and reminds people of the magnificent artistic and engineering achievements of the era.

How to Reach to Keshava Temple, Somanathapura:-

Somanathapura is 38 km from Mysore. You can get bus service from Mysore and Srirangapatna to Somanathapura. There is also a Railway Station in Somanathapura. You can visit this temple throughout the year, as there is no particular time.

Bangalore International Airport

Somanathapura is well connected by road network.
One can reach Somanathpura from Mysore via T. Narasipura and Bannur
Somanathapura can be reached from Bangalore via Ramanagara, Channapattana, Maddur and Bannur.


Read More on Somanathapura Temple

Somanathapura, the town was founded by a general named Somanatha Dandanayaka in the 13 century, while he was in the service of Hoysala King Narasimha III. After that, he sought the king's permission and granted lands and resources to Brahmins to build and maintain the temples in the town, Somanathapura (known after the name of the patron). In the heart of this new town, General Somanatha built the Kesava temple and consecrated it in 1258 CE. Additionally, several other Hoysala style temples were also built in the city but all these except the Lakshmi Narasimha temple has disappeared or are in ruins after the wars between the Hindu kingdoms and Muslim sultanates ravaged the region.

According to inscriptions, the Chennakesava Temple also suffered huge damage due to the war in the 14th century but was repaired a century later by the grants and financial aid given by the Vijayanagara Empire kings. The difference in the color of stones and quality of work in the verandah and some parts of the northern tower and platform of the main temple is the evidence of these repairs. Once again, the beautiful temple suffered another bout of damage in the 19th century and was again repaired in the early 20th century by the colonial era Mysore government.


2nd PUC History Ancient Period Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What do you mean by the term Arya?
Answer:
Arya means noble or master or a person dependent on agriculture.

Question 2.
From which word is the term Veda derived?
Answer:
Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vid’.

Question 3.
What is meant by Veda?
Answer:
Veda means knowledge.

Question 4.
Name the first Veda.
Answer:
Rigveda was the first veda.

Question 5.
Who was the head of the family during Vedic period?
Answer:
The eldest male member was the head of the family during Vedic period.

Question 6.
What was the main occupation of the Aryans?
Answer:
Agriculture was the main occupation of the Aryans.

Question 7.
What was ‘Kshetra’?
Answer:
The cultivated land was called Kshetra.

Question 8.
What was considered as wealth by the Aryans?
Answer:
Cattle was considered as wealth by the Aryans.

Question 9.
What was the ceremony performed to send the child to school?
Answer:
Upanayanam was the ceremony performed to send the child to school.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name any two Vedas.
Answer:
Rig veda and Yajur Veda

Question 2.
Which two political institutions assisted the king in the administration during the Vedic period?
Answer:
Sabha and Smith were the two political institutions assisted the king in the administration during the Vedic period.

Question 3.
Name any two Varnas.
Answer:
Brahmanas and Kshatriyas.

Question 4.
Name any Two Ashramas of Aryans.
Answer:
Brahmacharya and Grihastha were the two Ashramas of Aryans.

Question 5.
Mention any two amusements of Vedic people.
Answer:
Gambling and Chariot racing were the two amusements of Vedic people.

Question 6.
Name any two learned men of Vedic period.
Answer:
Gargi and Maitreyi were the two learned women of Vedic period.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Give an account of political condition of Aryans.
Answer:
Political conditions:
The Aryan tribes gradually settled in India. The tribes called Janas. The head of the tribe was called ‘Rajan’. The tribes quarreled with each other for cattle and territories. Rajan was assisted by the Purohita, Sangahatri, Senapati, Vispathis, and Gramanis in the administration. Grama was the smallest unit of administration.

Gramin was the head of the village and Vispathi was in charge of a group of villages. The primary duty of the king was the protection of his tribe and he received gifts from the people for this. Sabha and Samithi also assisted the king in administration During the later Vedic period Janas became powerful and turned into Gopas, Vishayas and Gramas.

Kingship became hereditary. The important kingdoms were kuru, Panchala, Kashi, Videha, Vidharbha, etc. imperialism came into existence resulting in hierarchy of kings viz Raja, Maharaja, Rajadhiraj, Ekrat, Virat, Samrat, Chakravarthi, etc. the kings began to perform yagas like Rajasuya, Ashwamedha and Vajapeya to establish political supremacy.

The king had grown in power and was to perform many administrative duties including the protection of his subjects. The kings were assisted by council of ministers and a number of officers. The Sabha and Samithi continued to exist. The military was well organized and consisted of Infantry, Elephant force and Cavalry, Navy was in little use.

Warfare became complicated in the later Vedic period. The simple weapons of the early Vedic Age were replaced in the later Vedic age by improved war weapons like bows and arrows, swords, spears, maces, axes, etc, helmets and armors were used for protection. Winning the war became important and they followed the path of deceit for this purpose.

Question 2.
Explain the social condition of Aryans during the Vedic period.
Answer:
Social condition:
Joint family system was in existence. Aryan society was patriarchal. The eldest male member was the head of the family and was called Knlapathi or Grihapathi. Monogamy was in vogue. Polygamy was confined to royal families. Widow Remarriage was in existence. The status of women was high and they had equal rights with men.

Learned women like P. Vishwavara, Ghosha, Apala, etc.composed hymns. The social divisions, Chaturvamas were based on professions. They were Brahamana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. The people could change professions and hence change the Vamas. Thus there was mobility among the
Vamas.

During later vedic period, polygamy and polyandry came into existence. The position of women deteriorated. Women continued to participate in religious rites. Only the women of higher class received higher education. But the woman was now under the protection of father or husband or a son.

Vamas turned into many castes. Caste system became hereditary. Brahmanas and Kshatriyas enjoyed a high status compared to the Vaishyas and Shudras. Life of an individual was divided into four called Ashramas. They were Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa.

Wheat, rice, barley, vegetables, fruits, milk and milk products formed the diet of the people. Fish and meat were also used. Soma and Sura were intoxicating drinks used during religious and festive occasions. Aryans wore clothes made of cotton and wool. Their dress consisted of Vastra, Adivastra and Nivi.

Both women and men wore ornaments made of gold, silver and flowers. The ornaments used were necklaces, earrings, finger rings, bracelets, anklets, bangles, aimlets etc. women plaited their hair in different styles.

Gambling, chariot racing, horse racing, music, dancing, etc. were different forms of amusements. Nagari, Dundhubhi, Veena and flute were the important musical instruments of that time.

Question 3.
Enumerate the religious condition of Aryans.
Answer:
Religious condition:
Vedic religion is also known as Sanatana Dharma, Hinduism and Brahmanical religion. It is one of the oldest religions of the world which is still practiced. The early vedic Aryans were worshippers of nature. They had belief in several Gods. They worshipped Gods like Indra, Varuna, Agni, Vayu, Surya, Pruthvi, Soma etc.

hence they were polytheists. There was no idol worship. The method of worship was simple. They praised the Gods by composing hymns. Simple rituals and performance of Yajnas and Yagas were in vogue. In the later Vedic period the practice of religion became complex and rigid, the number of Gods increased many fold and Gods were attributed with different shapes and qualities.

Idol worship came into existence. Gods were graded. New deities like Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara, Ganesha, Kartikeya, Parvati, Laxmi, Kali, Durga, etc. came into existence. Cow was considered as sacred and its slaughter was prohibited. The procedure of worship also became complex with the use of mantras and elaborated rituals. The performance of of Yagas and Yajnas also became elaborate.

Hence the practice of Vedic religion became costly. Practices like evil worship, black, magic and witchcraft came into existence. Vamas, Ashramas and Purushartahs are an integral part of Vedic religion. The entire life of a Hindu is guided by samskaras. Vedic religion believes in the cycle of birth death-rebirth. It also believes in the concept of the transmigration of the soul.

The objective of the soill is to reach God, which is called Moksha. Many paths like Bhakti, Jnana, Karma and Yoga are prescribed to attain salvation. The sacred books of Hindus are many in number. Some of the important are Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Smrithis, etc. The epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata are given much importance.

Question 4.
Write a short note on education and science during Vedic period.
Answer:
Education and science:
Education was imparted in Gurukulas, Pathashalas, Agraharas and Ghatikas. Temple were also places of education. Higher education was imparted in Universities like Kanchi and Thakshashila. Education commenced with a ceremony called Upanayanam. The position of Guru was high. Both men and women received education.

Gargi, Maitreyi, Shashwati, Lopamudra, etc. were important subjects women scholars, Vedas, puranas, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, medicine, logic etc. were important subjects taught. Sanskrit was the medium of instruction. Aryans achieved great progress in Mathematics, Geometry, Medicine, and Meta flurry.

Calculations like the distance between the sun and moon, moon and earth as well as sun and earth were known to them. They also achieved great progress in medicine. The cure of diseases was done by using herbs, roots, leaves, oils, salts and mud. They followed the lunar calendar.

2nd PUC History Ancient Period Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word, or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Name the four Vedas?
Answer:
Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvanaveda.

Question 2.
Which is called Early Vedic period?
Answer:
Rigvedic period is called early Vedic period.

Question 3.
Which is called later Vedic period?
Answer:
Yajur Sama, Atharvana Vedic period is called later Vedic period.

Question 4.
Who was the head of the tribe?
Answer:
Rajan was the head of the tribe.

Question 5.
What was the smallest unit of administration?
Answer:
Grama was the smallest unit of administration.

Question 6.
Name the four stages of Ashramas.
Answer:
Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Snayasa

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were assisted to the Rajan in the administration?
Answer:
Purohit, Sangrahatri, Senapati, Vispathis and Gramanis were assisted to the Rajan in the administration.

Question 2.
What was the condition of women in the period of Aryans?
Answer:
The status of women was high and they had equal rights with men. Learned women like Vishwara, Ghosha, Apala etc. composed hymns.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the economic condition of Aryans during the Vedic period.
Answer:
In the Rigvedic age Aryans lived in the villages.agriculture was the chief occupation Cattle rearing was another important occupation. The cultivated land was called Kshetra. Simple professions like carpentry, pottery, weaving etc. existed. Trade was carried on to a limited extent. Cattle was considered as wealth. Barter system was in vogue.

In the later Vedic age, many villages turned into cities. Viz Hastinapura, Indraprastha, Kousambi, etc. agriculture continued to be the chief occupation. Cattle rearing, trade and other professions also continued to exist. Trade and commerce gained importance. We come across both inland and maritime trade. The main articles of trade were cotton, silk, etc. barter system continued to exist and Nishka was also used.

2nd PUC History The Rise of New Religions Text Book Questions and Answers

The Rise of New Religions

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Jainism?
Answer:
The founder of Jainism was Mahaveera.

Question 2.
Who was the 23rd Tirthankara?
Answer:
The 23rd Thirthankara was Pashvanatha.

Question 3.
Where was Vardhatnana born?
Answer:
Vardhamana was bomattundagrama.

Question 4.
Where did Vardhamana attain enlighten attainment Nirvana?
Answer:
Vardhamana attained enlightenment
Nirvana at Pava.

Question 5.
Who founded Buddhism?
Answer:
Goutham Buddha founded Buddhism.

Question 6.
Where was Buddha born?
Answer:
Buddha was born at Lumbini Garden

Question 7.
What was the original name of Buddha?
Answer:
The original name of Buddha was Siddartha.

Question 8.
What is the meaning of the term ‘Buddha’?
Answer:
The meaning of the term ‘Buddha’ is the enlightened one.

Question 9.
In which place did Siddartha attain enlightenment?
Answer:
Siddartha attained enlightenment at Gaya.

Question 10.
Where did Buddha deliver his first speech?
Answer:
Buddha delivered his first speech at Saranath.

Question 11.
Where did Buddha attain Nirvana?
Answer:
Buddha attained Nirvana at Kashinagar in U.P.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the parents of Vardhamana?
Answer:
The parents of Vardhamana were King Siddhartha and Queen Trishaladevi.

Question 2.
prevention any two among the of Vardhamana.
Answer:

Question 3.
Where were Jain councils held?
Answer:
Two Jaina councils were organized.

  1. The first council was held at Pataliputra in 300 BCE. It aimed at collecting and reviving the knowledge of sacred Jaina texts.
  2. The second council was held at Vallabhi in Gujarat in about 512 Cl. Here sacred texts were collected and wrr. ten systematically.

Question 4.
Mention any two of the Tripitaka.
Answer:
Vinayaka Pitaka and Sutta Pitaka.

Question 5.
Name the sects of Buddhism.
Answer:
Teravada and Mahayana.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What were the factors responsible for the rise of new religions?
Answer:
Factors responsible for the rise of new religions:
1. Complication in Vedic religion:
In the beginning, Vedic religion was very simple without any complexities. Later, due to the influence of priests, a number of rigidities crept into this religion. People got dissatisfied and they wanted a change which they found in new religions.

2. Supremacy of the priestly class:
Brahmanas established their supremacy over other castes. It became inpossible for the people to perform yajnas without priests. The Brahamans enjoyed a number of special privileges and regarded themselves as superior to all.

3. Animal Sacrifices:
Animal sacrifices formed the part of rituals which were very costly to practice. So the people lost faith in the existing religion. Rites and rituals of the Rigvedic period became complex in the later vedic period. For worldly attainments like,getting children, victory in the war, cure from diseases and also for getting salvation, the yagas and rituals were recommended. Rationalists regarded them as waste.

4. Chanting of Mantras:
Vedic literature was in Sanskrit, which was mastered by the priestly class. It was not possible for the common people to understand them In the absence of clear understanding, the people lost frith in chanting of mantras.

5. Caste system:
Social system was rigid. There was discrimination among the different castes. Brahmanas enjoyed high status. The people became discontented due to inequality in the society. Shudras had to suffer untold miseries.

6. Birth of great personalities:
When the people were unhappy and discontented there arose two great personalities, namely Mahavira and Gautama Buddha. They preached simple principles of life in the language of the common people. The simple path to salvation preached by the new religions attracted the common people towards the new faith.

Question 2.
Discuss the life and teachings of Mahaveera.
Answer:
Early life:
Vardhamana was born in 599 BCE at Kundagrama near Vaishali. His parents were King Siddhartha and Queen Trishaladevi. Siddhartha was the head of a Kshatriya clan. Vardhamana married Princess Yashodha at the age of 18. He had a daughter by name Anojja or Priyadarshini.

Due to the sudden death of his parents, Vardhamana renounced wordly comforts including clothes. He became an ascetic and went in search of truth of ife. For 13 years Vardhamana lived the life of meditation. On the tenth day of Vaishaka, Vardhamana attained enlightenment at Jrimbhikagrama in Bihar.

He attained the highest spiritual knowledge called ‘Kaivalya’ and became Kevalin or a Jina. There after, Vardhamana came to be known as ‘Mahavira’. For the next 30 years he travelled preaching the principles of Jainism in Kosala, Magadha, Videha and Anga. He attained Nirvana at Pava near Rajagruha in South Bihar at the age of 72 in 527 BCE.

Teachings of Mahavira:
Mahavira preached five vows and three Jewels for the attainment of salvation,
Five Great Vows:

  1. Sathya- Truth
  2. Ahimsa – Non-violence
  3. Astheya-Non-stealing
  4. Aparigraha-Non possession of property more than required
  5. Brahmacharya – Chastity.

Three Jewels or Triratnas,

Mahavira did not believe in the existence of God but believed in the existence of Soul. He condemned the caste system and sacrificial rituals. He laid stress on non-violence and believed that even animals, plants, stone, mud, water, fire, etc too have life and hence no injury is to be inflicted on any life forms. He advocated severe ascetism and extreme penance for the attainment of Salvation. He had eleven disciples Or apostles known as Ganadharas.

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Sketch the life and teachings of Buddha.
Answer:
Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was bom at Lumbini Garden in 583 BCE. His early name was Siddhartha. His parents were King Shuddhodhana and Queen Mayadevi. Shuddhodhana was the chief of Shakya clan of Kapilvastu. Mayadevi died when Siddhartha was a child of seven days.

So he was brought up by his aunt Mahaprajapati Gautami. Siddhartha was brought up in great luxury. He was married to princess Yashodhara at the age of 16, a son was bom to them, who was named Rahula. According to a Jataka story, one evening Siddhartha wandered out of the palace and he saw an old man, a sick man, a funeral procession, and a sage.

Siddhartha saw only sorrows and sufferings in the first three scenes and found happiness in the fourth i.e., a sage who had renounced the worldly life. These four sights profoundly affected the life of young Siddhartha. Therefore, he decided to renounce the worldly life. He renounced his wife, child, parents, and the kingdom to find out the root cause for all the sorrows. This event is known as “The Great renunciation”.

Siddhartha spent the life of a wandering ascetic. He kept himself away from sensual desires and realized that, mere penance will not bring enlightenment. He attained enlightenment under a pepal tree at Gaya at the age of 35. He then onwards came to be known as Buddha meaning theenlightened one.

He was also called, Thathagatha meaning one who has realized the truth. The religion he founded came to be called Buddhism. Buddha dedicated the rest of his life for the good of the people. He proceeded to the Deer park near Saranath in the neighbourhood of Benaras and delivered his first sermon.

This was called the Dharma Chakra Parivarathana or Turning of the wheel of Dharma. Dharma Chakra is the symbol of Buddhism. For forty- five years, Gautama Buddha roamed around teaching his principles. His personality and simplicity attracted the people towards Buddhism.

Buddha attained Parinirvana at Kushinagara in U.P. at the age of eighty. Edwin Arnold calls him “The light of Asia”. It is interesting to note that Buddha’s births enlightenment and death were all on the full moon day. His birthday is famous as Buddha Poomima.

Teachings of Buddha:
Buddha preached his followers four basic principles such as Satya, Ahimsa, Astheya and Brahmacharya. He also preached four Noble Truths. They are,

Ashthangamarga consists of:

  • Right faith
  • Right thought
  • Right speech
  • Right conduct
  • Right effort
  • Right meditation
  • Right livelihood
  • Right mindfulness

Buddha gave importance to conduct and not to rituals and sacrifices. He opposed caste system and advocated equality. He gave importance to ahimsa. He didn’t refer to God. Buddha admitted men and women of all castes into the Sangha.

2nd PUC History The Rise of New Religions Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Why did the people lose faith in chanting matras?
Answer:
In the absence of clear understanding, the people lost faith in chanting of mantras.

Question 2.
Who enjoyed high status in caste system?
Answer:
Brahmanas enjoyed high status.

Question 3.
Who was the first Thirthankara who founded Jainism?
Answer:
Rishabhanatha was the first Thirthan kara who founded Jainism.

Question 4.
Where and when was Vardhamana born?
Answer:
Vardhamana was born in 599 BCE at Kundagrama near Vaishali.

Question 5.
Who was the contemporary of Gautama Buddha?
Answer:
Mahavira was the contemporary of Gautama Buddha.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
What is known as Kaivalya?
Answer:
Vardhamana Attained the highest spiritual knowledge called Kaivalya and became Kevalin or a Jina.

Question 2.
What are the four great principles of Parsvanatha?
Answer:

  1. Ahimsa – non violence
  2. Satya – truth
  3. Astheya – not to steal
  4. Aparigraha -non-possession of property more than required.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the causes for the spread of Buddhism?
Answer:

  1. Simple Teachings: The teachings of Buddha were simple and easy to follow. So it was accepted by the masses.
  2. Vernacular language: Buddha preached in Pah and Prakrit, the language of the common people which was easily understand by all and many people accepted Buddhism.
  3. The principle of Equality: Buddha opposed caste system and preached social and gender equality.
  4. Personality of Buddha: Lord Buddha was a man of dynamic personality. His effective way of preaching through parabes and stories was unique. Love, sympathy and compassion made the religion popular.

Question 2.
Mention the contributions of Buddhism to India.
Answer:
Buddhism also contributed to the development of art and architecture. Buddha’s disciples built Stupas, Viharas and Chaityalayas at various places. The statues of Buddha at Amaravati, Nagarjunkonda and Ajanta are famous.

The Stupas at Sanchi, Amaravathi, Nagarjunkonda etc., are famous. Viharaas and Chaityalayas can be seen at kancheri, Karle and Nasik. Gandhara art also developed.

2nd PUC History Mauryas Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who founded the Mauryan dynasty?
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya was founded the Mauryan dynasty.

Question 2.
Name the capital of Mauryas.
Answer:
Pataliputra was the capital of Maurya.

Question 3.
Which was the Royal emblem of Mauryas?
Answer:
Dharmachakra was the royal emblem of Mauryas.

Question 4.
Who wrote Mudrarakshasa?
Answer:
Vishakadatta wrote Mudrarakshasa.

Question 5.
Who wrote Arthashasthra?
Answer:
Chanakya wrote Arthashasthra.

Question 6.
Who wrote Indica?
Answer:
Megasthanes wrote Indica.

Question 7.
Who helped Chandaragupta to establish the Maury an Empire?
Answer:
Chanakya helped Chandaragupta to establish the Mauryan Empire.

Question 8.
Who was the Nanda ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Dhanananda, Nanda ruler, defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 9.
Who sent Megasthanes as ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya?
Answer:
Seleucus sent Megasthanes as ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 10.
Name the Greek ruler defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
Greek ruler Seleucus was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya.

Question 11.
Name the Mauryan ruler who followed Jainism.
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya followed Jainism.

Question 12.
Where did Chandragupta spend his last days?
Answer:
Chandragupta spent his last days in Shravanabelagola.

Question 13.
Who was the greatest ruler of Mauryan dynasty?
Answer:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of Mauryan dynasty.

Question 14.
Which Ashokan edict speaks about Kalinga war?
Answer:
Saranath edict speaks about Kalinga war.

Question 15.
Name the Mauryan ruler who accepted Buddhism.
Answer:
Ashoka accepted Buddhism.

Question 16.
Where was the third Buddhist council held?
Answer:
The third Buddhist council was held at pataliputra.

Question 17.
Which is the biggest Stupa built by Ashoka?
Answer:
Sanchi stupa is the biggest Stupa built by Ashoka.

Question 18.
Which is the National emblem of India?
Answer:
Saranath pillar is the National emblem of India.

Question 19.
Who was the founder of Satavahana dynasty?
Answer:
Simukha was the founder of Satavahana dynasty.

Question 20.
Which was the capital of Satavahanas?
Answer:
Paithan was the capital of Satavahanas.

Question 21.
Who wrote Gathasapthasati?
Answer:
Hala wrote Gathasapthasati.

Question 22.
Which was the inscription issued by Gautami Balashri?
Answer:
Nasik caves inscription issued by Gautami Balashri.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name any two important sources which help to know about Mauryan Dynasty.
Answer:

  1. Arthashasthfa of Kautilya
  2. Indica of Megasthanes were the two important sources which help to know about Mauryan dynasty.

Question 2.
Name any places where Ashokan inscriptions have been found in Karnataka.
Answer:
Maski in Raichur district and Gavimatha and Palkigonda in Koppala district.

Question 3.
Which were the two types of courts that existed in the Mauryan period?
Answer:
The Mauryan empire had two types of courts called Dharmastheyas which dealt with civil cases and Kantakashodana which dealt with criminal cases. These courts existed in all towns and cities.

Question 4.
What is the importance of Maski edict?
Answer:
The Maski edicts refers to the king as Devanampriya Ashoka. This confirmed that Devanampriya and Priyadarshi Raja was none other than Ashoka himself.

Question 5.
Who was Megasthanes?
Answer:
Name his worts. Megasthanes was the ambassador of Seleucus. Indica was his work.

Question 6.
Name any two works of Vishkadatta.
Answer:
Mudrarakshasa and Devichandra Guptam.

Question 7.
Who was Kautilva? Which is his famous work?
Kautilya was a famous statesman of ancient India. He was also known by other names Chanakya and Vishnugupta. He played an important role in the dethronement of Nandas and the establishment of Mauryan Empire. He was largely responsible for setting up of a well organized administrative system Arthashasthra is his famous work.

Question 8.
Which ruler appointed Dharma mahamathras? What was their duty?
Answer:
Ashoka appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras. They want to spread Dharma among the people.

Question 9.
Name any two important rulers of Sathavahanas.
Answer:
Hala and Gauthamaputra were the two important rulers of Sathavahanas.

Question 10.
Name any two architectural centers of Sathavahanas.
Answer:
Amaravathi and Nagaijunakonda were the two arolatectural centers of Sathavahanas.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Write about the achievements of Chandragupta Maurya.
Answer:
Chandragupta Maurya is the founder of Maurya’ dynasty. He built a strong army under the guidance of Chanakya. He defeated the petty ruler of Punjab and captured it. Thereafter he marched against Magadha. He killed Dhananandha, the last ruler of Nandas and ended his oppressive rule and laid the foundation of the Mauryan Empire.

Alexander had established his sovereignity over the north western parts of India and had nominated his representatives to rule over them. Chandragupta Maurya defeated them and annexed the territories to his empire. After Alexander’s death Sleucus became the master of the Greek empire over Central Asia.

In 305 BCE, he crossed the Indus to re-conquer Alexander’s Indian possessions. Chandragupta Maurya defeated him Hence, Selucus had to conclude a treaty with him. Accordingly he gave Chandragupta a large territory, which included Kabul, Afghanistan, Kandahar and Baluchisthan. He also gave his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta Maurya.

In return Chandragupta presented him with 500 elephants trained in warfare. Seleucus maintained friendly relations with Mauryas and sent Megasthanes as ambassador to Pataliputra. It is said that Chandragupta undertook many military conquests and established a large empire. But we do not have a clear picture of all such conquests. Similarly, the extent of his empire cannot be clearly demarcated.

Question 2.
What were the measures taken by Ashoka for the spread of Buddhism?
Answer:
Measures adopted for the spread of Buddhism:
Ashoka was responsible for the spread of Buddhism not only in India but also outside India. He took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. They are,

  1. He visited the Buddhist holy places such as Lumbini Garden, Kapilavastu, Gaya, Saranath and Kushinagar and arranged discourses on religion.
  2. He built a large number of monasteries all over the empire and spent large sums of money in endowing them.
  3. He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the caves throughout the vast empire.
  4. He appointed officers called Dharmamahamathras. Yukthas and Rajjukas to spread Dharma among the people. He also appointed three Adhyaksha Mahamatra to take care of women and bring religious awareness among them.
  5. He organised the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputhra in 250 BCE to settle the internal differences among the monks.
  6. Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in Afghanistan, Burma, Srilanka and Europe. He sent his son Mahendra and daughter anghamithra to Srilanka with a Bodhi sapling as a symbol of peace.
  7. He undertook many welfare activities. He dug wells built rest houses planted fruit bearing trees along road sides constructed hospitals for men and animals and established schools. He made arrangement to feed the poor and physically unfit people. He was like a father to his subjects. His motto was service and sacrifice.

Question 3.
Explain the contributions of Mauryas to art and architecture.
Answer:
Art and architecture:
Mauryas built various buildings, palaces and monuments. The buildings prior to Ashoka were built of wood. Ashoka gave up the use of wood and brick and started using stone.

Stupas:
The Stupas were dome like mounds of brick or stone built in honor of Buddha or over the relics of Buddha. It is believed that Ashoka built about 84000 Stupas all over his empire. They have perished in course of time. The only surviving stupa is at Sanchi in Madyapradesh. It is the biggest stupa.

Palaces:
Chandragupta Maurya’s palace at Pataliputra was famous. The Chinese piligrim Fahien who came to India gives us a vivid description of the foundation of the palace. He exclaimed that it was created by God.

Caves:
Ashoka and his grandson Dasharatha built cave for meditation of the Buddhist monks. The caves in Barabur Mountains near Gaya and Nagarjuna hills belong to this age.

Pillars:
The stone pillars in various designs were built during the reign of Ashoka. It is believed that Ashoka built more than 30 pillars. Each stone pillar weighs 50 tons and measures 30 feet in height. The most important among them is the pillar at Saranath. It consists of an inverted lotus, the Dharmachakra and on the abacus four lions are seated back to back. The capital of Sarariath pillar is the national emblem of India.

Question 4.
Describe the administration of Mauryas.
Answer:
Contributions of Mauryas:
1. Mauryan Administration:
The Mauryans established an efficient system of administration. They were the first to establish a uniform administrative system throughout their empire. Arthashastra played an important role in the administration of the Mauryas.

The Central Government:
King:
The king was the head of the state. He was the chief sources of legislative, executive, judicial and military powers. The king was bound by the Dharma. The main duty of the king was to work for the welfare of the people.

Manthri Parishad:
There was a council of ministers called Manthri Parishad to assist the king in the administration. The ministers were appointed by the king after considering the merits and abilities. The number of ministers varied from 4 to 12. Each minister was in charge of one or more departments. All the matters were considered and discussed in Manthriparishad. The king could supersede the advice of the Mantriparishad.

Secretariat:
Administrative matters of the central government were divided into 30 departments each under a superintendent. They dealt with activities of state such as irrigation, market, education, famine relief etc.

Administration of justice:
In the Mauryan Empire, the king was the highest court of appeal The Mauryan Empire had two types of courts called Dharmastheyas which dealt with civil cases and Kantakashodana which dealt with criminal cases.

These courts existed in all towns and cities. Village assemblies and its headmen were responsible for justice in their areas. Megasthanes observed that punishments were severe, which included beheading and amputation of limbs.

Revenue administration:.
Land revenue was the main source of income of the state. 1/6 ofthe produce was fixed as the tax. Taxes were collected both in cash and kind. They were collected by local officers. Taxes were also levied on professions, houses, cattle, livestock, forest products and sales tax.

Provincial government:
Mauryan Empire was divided into five provinces with their capitals at Girnar, Taksjashila, Ujjain, Tosali and Suvamagiri. Each province was put under the charge of a governor belonging to the royal, family or one ofthe relatives ofthe king. The provinces were further divided into districts that were governed by Sthanikas.

Gramika was the head of the village. The official in charge of ten villages was called Gopa. Ashoka appointed Dharmamahamathr in both at the center and in the provinces. ’

City administration:
The Greek ambassador Megasthanes gave a very detailed description about the administration of Pataliputra. The administration of the city was entrusted to a committee of thirty members divided into six boards of five each. They looked after roads, markets, hospitals, temples, schools, water supply etc.

Military administration:
the military administration of Chandragupta was very efficient and well organized. The king personally led the army during wars. The war office was administered by six boards each consisting of five members.

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Explain the life and achievements of Ashoka.
Answer:
Life and achievements of Ashoka:
Ashoka was the greatest ruler of the Mauryas and one of the renowned rulers of the world. He is mentioned in his edicts as Devanampriya and Priyadarshi. They indicate his great personality. He came to power in 273 BCE but his coronation was celebrated in 269 BCE. The history from 273-269 BCE is not clear. Historians believe that during this period there was a struggle for succession between Ashoka and his hundred brothers.

The Kalinga War:
During the reign of Ashoka, Kalinga was a powerful kingdom. Ashoka wanted to extend his imperialism over Kalinga. So he marched upon Kalinga. A fierce battle was fought between them. Ashoka was filled with sorrow at the sight of bloodshed, this became his last war as he decided not to wage wars in future. Ashoka changed his foreign policy.

Instead of Digvijaya, he adopted the policy of Dharmavijaya. Thus the war of Kalinga became a turning point in the life of Ashoka. He embraced Buddhism under the influence of UpaGupta, a Buddhist saint. Ashokan Empire extended from Kashmir and Afghanistan regions in the North to Karnataka in the South and from Bengal in the East to Sindh and Bahichaisthan in the west.

Edicts of Ashoka:
Ashoka was the first to issue edicts in India. They have been found throughout the length and breadth of the empire. The edicts help us to know about his ideals and outlook besides throwing light on the religion, society and administration of the Mauryas. The language of the edict is Prakrit, Pali and Greek and the script used is Brahmi and Kharoshti.

Brahmi script, which was a riddle for a longtime was deciphered by James Princep in 1831. The edicts are classified into major rock edicts, minor rock edicts, pillar inscriptions and cave inscriptions.

Religion:
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. According to him the law of piety consisted of the following virtues.

  1. Father and mother must be obeyed and teachers must be respected.
  2. Everyone should speak the truth.
  3. Servants, juniors and dependents must be treated with love.
  4. No injury should be caused to men and animals:
  5. One must suppress anger, cruelty and extravagance.

Measures adopted for the spread of Buddhism:
Ashoka was responsible for the spread of Buddhism not only in India but also outside India. He took many measures for the spread of Buddhism. They are,

  1. He visited the Buddhist holy places such as Lumbini Garden, Kapilavastu, Gaya, Saranath and Kushinagar and arranged discourses on religion.
  2. He built a large number of monasteries all over the empire and spent large sums of money in endowing them.
  3. He spread the doctrines of Buddha by engraving them on rocks, pillars and on the walls of the Caves throughout the vast empire.
  4. He appointed officers called Dharma mahamathras. Yukthas and Rajjukas to spread Dharma among the people. He also appointed Sthree Adhyaksha Mahamatra to take care of women and bring religious awareness among them.
  5. He organised the third Buddhist council at Pataliputhra in 250 BCE to settle the internal differences among the monks.
  6. Ashoka sent missionaries to preach Buddhism in Afghanistan, Burma, Srilanka and Europe.
  7. He undertook many welfare activities. He dug wells, built rest houses, planted fruit bearing trees along road sides, constructed hospitals for men and animals and established schools. He was like a father to his subjects. His motto was service and sacrifice.

2nd PUC History Mauryas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was Moriya?
Answer:
Mahavamsha is known as Moriya.

Question 2.
Which is the royal emblem of Mauryan Empire?
Answer:
Dharmachakra was the royal emblem of Mauryan Empire.

Question 3.
Who issued edicts first in India?
Answer:
Ashoka issued edicts first in India.

Question 4.
By whom Brahmi script was deciphered?
Answer:
Brahmi script was deciphered by James Princepin 1831.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the seven limbs of the state by Arthashastbra?
Answer:
The seven limbs of the state are Raja, Manthri, Janapada, Durga, Kosha, Bala and Mithra.

Question 2.
What are the revenue administration of Ashoka?
Answer:
Land revenue was the main source of income of the state. 1/6 of the produce was fixed as the tax. Taxes were collected both in cash and kind. They were collectd by local officers. Taxes were also levied on professions, houses, cattle, livestock, forest products and sales tax, etc.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the contributions of Ashoka to religion?
Answer:
Ashoka made a great contribution to religion. According to him the law of piety consisted of the following virtues.

  1. Father and mother must be obeyed and teachers must be respected.
  2. Everyone should speak the truth.
  3. Servants, juniors and dependents must be treated with love.
  4. No injury should be caused to men and animals.
  5. One must suppress anger, cruelty and extravagance.

2nd PUC History Kushanas Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which was the original home of the Kushanas?
Answer:
China was the original home of the Kushanas.

Question 2.
Who was the first ruler of the Kushanas?
Answer:
The first ruler of the Kushanas was Kujala Kadphisis or Kadphisis I.

Question 3.
Who was the greatest king of the Kushanas?
Answer:
Kanishka was the greatest king of the Kushanas.

Question 4.
Name the Chinese general who defeated Kanishka.
Answer:
Pan-chao

Question 5.
Which was the capital of Kanishka?
Answer:
Purushapura was the capital of Kanishka.

Question 6.
Who influenced Kanishka to embrace Buddhism?
Answer:
Ashwagandha

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Why was the fourth Buddhist council held? When?
Answer:
The main purpose of this council was to settle the disputes existing in Buddhism at that time so he conducted the fourth Buddhist council at Kundalavana in Kashmir in 102 CE.

Question 2.
Write any two measures of Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism.
Answer:

  1. Viharas and Monasteries were built for the use of the monks.
  2. A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries like Japan, Tibet and parts of Central Asia for the spread of Buddhism

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the achievement of Kanishka.
Answer:
Kanishka was the great warrior who extended the boundaries of his empire in all directions very rapidly, after his accession. His Empire consisted of Bactria, Persia, Afghanistan, Punjab and a large portion of Sindh. Kanishka extended his empire by his conquests.

Kashmir:
Kanishka conquered Kashmir, where he built many monuments. He laid the foundation of atown ‘Kanispura’. It was also known as Kanishkapura. Today it is known as Srinagar.

Magadha:
Kanishka is claimed to have waged a war against Magadha and captured it. But many scholars opine that he captured only some parts of Magadha.

War against Saha- Sathrapas:
In Northern India, the Saka Sathrapas were still powerful. Kanishka waged a series of battles against Saka Satrapas of Punjab and
Muthura and finally established his supremacy.

War with China:
After the conquest of the Northern India, Kanishka turned his attention towards China. Kadphises II had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Chinese general pan-chao and as a result of this defeat the Kushanas had to pay annual tribute to the Chinese King. Kanishka stopped paying the tribute and invaded China.

But, the Chinese general Pan-chao defeated him. This was a setback to the political ambitions of Kanishka for some time. However, after making preparations, Kanishka made a fresh attack on China. At this juncture, the great Chinese general Pan-chao had died and his son pan-chiang was the new general.

Kanishka registered a victory over the Chinese forces and annexed three Chinese provinces into his empire. These three provinces were Kashgar, Yarkhand and Khothan. Kanishka was the first Indian ruler who established territories outside the Indian subcontinent. The boundaries ofhis empire touched the Kashgar in the North to Sindh in the South and Benaras in the East to Afghanistan in the West.

Question 2.
Describe chief characteristics of the Gandhara School of art?
Answer:

  1. In this school of art, the life statues of Gautama Buddha were carved. Until then, the Buddhist existence was shown in the form of symbols like lotus, umbrella, etc.,
  2. While carving the statues utmost care wa. given to the syrcmet including the muscles and mustaches which were shown in a natural setting.
  3. In the specimens of the craftsmanship of this art- the folds and turns of the clothes were exhibited with minute care and skill.
  4. In this art the ornaments that were carved on the statues received much attention which added ofthe physical beauty of the statue.
  5. Polishing the statues is an important feature of this art.
  6. The specimens were mostly prepared in stone terracotta and clay.
  7. The technique used in making the statues . was Greek but the idea inspiration and personality all were Indian.

2nd PUC History Kushanas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Saka Era?
Answer:
Kanishka was the founder of Saka Era.

Question 2.
Who laid the foundation of kanispura?
Answer:
Kanishka laid the foundation of a town Kanispura. It was also known as Ranishkapura.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
What is Gandhara Art?
Answer:
Kanishka was a great patron of art. His niportant buildings and constructions of art are found mostly at Ghandhara, Mathura, Kanishkapura andTakshshila. The Kushana period is important for the growth of Gandhara art or otherwise known as the Greeko- Buddhist style. With close a new school of art called ‘the Gandhara school of art.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the measures undertaken by Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism?
Answer:
The measures undertaken by Kanishka for the spread of Buddhism were:

  1. Buddhism was given Royal Patronage and it was also extended to the Buddhist monks.
  2. Viharas and Monasteries were built for the use of the monks.
  3. A large number of missionaries were sent to foreign countries like Japan, Tibet and parts of Central Asia for the spread of Buddhism
  4. He conducted the fourth Buddhist council at Kundalavana in Kashmir in 102CE. It was presided over by Vasumithra. The main purpose of this council was to settle the disputes existing in Buddhism at that time.

2nd PUC History Guptas Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty?
Answer:
Srigupta was the founder of Gupta dynasty.

Question 2.
When did the Gupta Era commence?
Answer:
Gupta Era commenced with the accession of Chandra gupta I, who ruled from 320 to 335 CE.

Question 3.
Who composed the Allahabad pillar inscription?
Answer:
Harisena composed the Allahabad pillar inscriptioa

Question 4.
Which inscription of Samudragnpta reveals his expedition?
Answer:
Allahabad pillar inscription.

Question 5.
Who is the author of Kavyamimamse?
Answer:
Rajashekara is the author of Kavyami mamse.

Question 6.
Who was the greatest king of the Gupta dynasty?
Answer:
Samudragupta was the greatest king of the Gupta dynasty.

Question 7.
Which Gupta ruler performed Ashwameda sacrifice?
Answer:
Samudragupta performed Ashwameda sacrifice.

Question 8.
Who had the title Kaviraja?
Answer:
Samudragupta had the title Kaviraja.

Question 9.
Who wrote Shakunthala?
Answer:
Kalidasa wrote Shakunthala.

Question 10.
Who wrote Aruabhatia?
Answer:
Aryabata wrote Aryabhatia.

Question 11.
Who had the title Vikramaditya?
Answer:
Chandragupta II had the title Vikramaditya.

Question 12.
Who wrote Amarakosha?
Answer:
Amarasimha wrote Amarakosha.

Question 13.
Who wrote Brihathsamhite?
Answer:
Vafahamihira wrote Brihathsamhite.

Question 14.
Who wrote Gho-ko-ki?
Answer:
Fa- Hien wrote Gho-ko-ki.

Question 15.
Name the author of Kirataijuniyam?
Answer:
Bharavi the author of Kirataijuniyam.

Question 16.
Who is called the father of Indian medicine?
Answer:
Danwanthri is called the father of Indian medicine.

Question 17.
In which place is the Iron pillar of the Gupta age found?
Answer:
The Iron pillar of the Gupta age is found in Meharauli.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Which were the two capitals of the Guptas?
Answer:
Pataliputra and Ujjain were the two capitals of the Guptas.

Question 2.
Which inscription describes the conquest of Samudragupta? And who composed it?
Answer:
The Allahabad pillar inscription gives us a reliable source to know about Samudragupta’s conquests and great qualities. The composer of this inscription was Harisena.

Question 3.
Name any two poets of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Kalidasa and Varahamihira

Question 4.
Mention any two works of Kalidasa.
Answer:
Malavikagnimithra and Shakunthala

Question 5.
Who was Fa-hien? Why did he come to India?
Answer:
Fa-hein was a Chinese traveller. He visited India during the reign of Chandragupta II. He came to India to study Buddhism. He has recorded his observations in his book Gho-ko-ki. The book throws light on religious, economic and social conditions of those times.

Question 6.
Name any two sources, which help us to know about Gupta History.
Answer:

Question 7.
Name any two North Indian rulers defeated by Samudragupta.
Answer:
The nine kings of Aryavartha defeated by Samudragupta were Nandin, Balavarman, Chandravarman, Nagadatta, Nagasena, Ganapathinaga, Achutha, Mathila and Rudradeva.

Question 8.
Name any two South Indian kings defeated by Samudragupta.
Answer:
Mahendra of Kosala and Mantharaja of Kowrala.

Question 9.
Name any two well known universities of the Gupta period.
Answer:
Takshashila and Nalanda were well known universities of the Gupta period.

Question 10.
Name any two works of Varahamihira.
Answer:
Brihathsamhithe and Panchasiddanthika are the two works ofVarahamihira.

Question 11.
Name any two architectural centers of Gupta period.
Answer:
Mathura and Benaras were the two architectural centers of Gupta period.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the conquests of Samudra Gupta?
Answer:
Conquests:
Samudragupta is known for his military conquests. He had to wage many wars in order to establish avast empire. He followed a policy of expansion and aggression. The Allahabad pillar inscription gives us a reliable source to know about Samudragupta’s conquests and great qualities.

The composer of this inscription was Harisena, the court poet and commander in chief of the army of Samudragupta. The conquest of Samudragupta may be divided into four groups.
1. North Indian Campaign:
The early years of his regime were spent in subduing the provinces of Gangetic plain called “Aryavartha.” According to the Allahabad inscription, he defeated 9 kings in his northern campaign and annexed them into his empire. He called it as Digvijaya. The nine kings of Aiyavartha defeated by Samudragupta were Nandin, Balavarman, Chandravarman, Nagadatta, Nagasena, Ganapathinaga, Achutha, Mathila and Rudradeva.

2. Conquest of forest Kingdoms:
Samudragupta conquered the forest kingdoms of Jabbalpura, Reva, Nagapura and Bhaghelkhand in the Vindhya region.

3. South Indian Campaign:
After firmly consolidating his authority in the north, Samudragupta turned his attention towards the south and he launched an expedition and his army travelled for about 3000 miles. Samudragupta defeated the twelve Kings of South India. But they were reinstated in their respective positions. These Kings became his vassals

4. Conquest on Border states:
The boundary states conquered by Samudragupra were Kamarupa in Assam, Samatata in Bengal, Karthripura in Punjab and Rohikhand. After these conquests Samudragupta performed Ashwamedha sacrifice to commemorate his victory. He took the title Ashwameda parakrama. He issued gold coins with the figure of horse on them. They were one among the eight types of gold coins issued by him.

His empire extended from Kashmir in the North to Tamilnadu in the South and Punjab in the West to Bengal in the East. Samudragupta was not only a conqueror but also a musician, poet, scholar and a patron of literature. He had the title kaviraja. Harisena was a great scholar and his court poet.

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Why is Gupta age called the Golden age in Indian History?
Answer:
Golden age:
Gupta period has a unique position in the history of India. Due to the all-round develoment in this age, the European writers have compared it with the age of Pericles of Greece, Augustus Caesar of Rome and queen Elizabeth of England.

Revival of Hinduism:
Revival of Hinduism is one of the outstanding features of the Gupta age. The Gupta emprerors were the followers of Hinduism. Yet they were tolerant towards other religions like Buddhism and Jainism. The hindu religion received great encouragement. It became the state religion of Guptas. The worship of Vishnu, Shiva and Durga became very popular. The Gupta rulers performed vedic rites and sacrifices.

The vedic rituals like Ashwameda, Vajapeya and Rajasuya yagas were performed with all splendor. Many Vishnu temples were also constructed during the Gupta age. They assumed the title Paramabhagavatha which indicated their devotion to Lord Vishnu. Shaiva and Shakthi cult were also popular.

Education:
Education greatly flourished under the Guptas. The kings themselves were great scholors and educationalists. They paid special attention to education. There were a number of universities during the Gupta age. The universities attracted not only Indians but also foreign students.

Takshashila, Nalanda, Ajantha and Saranatha were well known Gupta universities. Pataliputra and Vallabhi were great centers of education. The important subjects taught were Puranas, Literature, Philosophy, Arithmatic, Astrology and science.

Literature:
Religious literature, including the Vedas which were in the form of hymns were brought into writing during the Gupta period. The Gupta age is called the Golden age of Sanskrit literature. Samudragupta has been described as a king among poets in Allahabad inscription He was also a gifted musician and a great scholar of the Vedas.

There were. Navarathnas in the court of Chandragupta II. among them, Kalidasa was the greatest poet and Dramatist of Ancient India. He wrote famous dramas like Malavikagni mithra, Vikramorvashiyya and Shakunthala and great Epics like Raghuvamsha and Kumarasambhava and lyrical poems like Meghaduta and Rithusamhara.

Science and technology:
Tremendous progress was achieved in the fields of Science, Mathematics, Astronomy, Medicine and Metallurgy. Aryabhatta was the ^ greatest Mathematician and astronomer of this period. He discussed in his book Suryasiddhantha as to how the earth revolves on its axis and as to how lunar and solar eclipse occurs.

Aryabhata was another book. He has described about the decimal system in this work. Brahmagupta was another Mathematician. He showed the importance of zero. Varahamihira was one of the greatest scientists of this age. He wrote Panchasiddanthika, Brihat Jataka and Laghu
Jataka.

He was an authority on Astromomy, Botany, Mathematics and Geography. Brihathsamhithe deals with the movements of heavenly bodies. In the field of medicine, Charaka and Sushrutha wrote Samhithes. Dhanwanthri was regarded as the father of Indian medicine.

Vaghbhata wrote Asthangasangraha. The Meharauli Iron pillar discovered near Delhi is an outstanding example oftheir metallurgical skill. It is a miracle centuries, the iron pillar has not rusted or lost its strength.

Art and architecture:
The basic structural features of Indian temple architecture were developed during the Guptas. Mathura, Benaras, Patna, Udayagiri, Devgarh etc were the centers of their artistic activity. Dashavatara temple of Devagari was the first temple of the Gupta period period.

Shiva temple of Bhumara and Brick temple of Bittirgaon were the other temples of the Guptas. A number of statues ofLord Buddha were also erected. The fine Sulthanganj Buddha statue of 71/2 feet height is now preserved in the museum of Birmingham The Guptas gave special encouragement to painting.

The finest examples of Gupta paintings are on the walls ofBagh near Gwalior. Gupta rulers built many cave temples in Ajantha. The Gupta painters painted the scences from the life of Buddha. The painting of mother and child in cave XVII is quite realistic and beautiful among the Ajantha paintings.

2nd PUC History Guptas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which period is called the ‘Golden age in the history of India?
Answer:
Gupta age is known as the ‘Golden age’.

Question 2.
Which is the capital of Guptas?
Answer:
Pataliputra was the capital of Guptas.

Question 3.
Who had the title kviraja?
Answer:
Samudragupta had the title ‘Kaviraja’.

Question 4.
Who was called Vikramaditya?
Answer:
Chandra Gupta II was called Vikramaditya.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who was Chandragupta II? What was his achievement?
Answer:
Chandra Gupta-II ascended the throne after the death of Samudragupta. The notable acahievement of Chandragupta II was that he defeated the Shaka ruler Rudrasena and annexed his kingdom. He strengthened his empire by matrimonial alliance withNagas and Vakatakas.

He was also known as Vikramaditya. He was a great patron of scholars and poets. Nine great scholors adorned his court. Ujjain became the second capital during his regime.

Question 2.
Name the Navarathnas.
Answer:

  • Kalidas
  • Varahamihira.
  • Ghatakarpara
  • Vararuchi
  • Amarasimha
  • Dhanvanthri
  • Shanku
  • Kshapanaka and
  • Vethalabhatta

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain art and architecture of Gupta age.
Answer:
The basic structural features of Indian temple architecture were developed during the Guptas. Mathura, Benaras, Patna, Udayagiri, Devarh, etc. were the centres of their artistic activity. Dashvatara temple of Devagarh was the first temple of the Gupta period. Shiva Temple of Bhumara and Brick temple of Bittirgaon were the other temples of the Guptas.

A number of statues of Lord Buddha were also erected. The fine sulthanganj Buddha statue of 7 1/2 feet height is now preserved in the museum of Birmingham. The Guptas gave special encouragement to painting. The finest examples of Gupta paintings are on the walls of Bagh near Gwalior.

Gupta rulers built many cave temples in Ajanmtha. The Gupta painters painted the scences from the life of Buddha. The painting of mother and child in cave XVII is quite realistic and beautiful among the Ajantha paintings.

2nd PUC History Cholas Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What is meant by Sangam?
Answer:
Sangam refers to Tamil ‘Literary Union the three literary unions between 200 BCE to 500 CE’ is called the Sangam age.

Question 2.
Who was the first Chola king of Sangam age?
Answer:
Ilana chola was the first Chola king of Sangam age.

Question 3.
Who built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore?
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola built the Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore.

Question 4.
Which inscription tells about the Chola village administration?
Answer:
Uttarameruru inscription tells about the Chola village administration.

Question 5.
What is meant by Kuduvalai?
Answer:
Villagers assembled in the temple on the day of election. The names of candidates to be elected were written on palm leaves and put in a pot.

Question 6.
What is meant by Varriam?
Answer:
Elected representatives had to work in the annual committee, garden committee and tank bund committee. These committees were called Varriam.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name any two famous works of the Sangam age.
Answer:
Tirukkural and Silapadigaram are the famous works of the Sangam age.

Question 2.
When and between whom did the battle of Takkolam take place?
Answer:
The battle of Takkolam took place in 949 CE between the Cholas and Rastrakutas.

Question 3.
Mention any two titles of Rajendra Chola I.
Answer:
Pandita Chola and Gangaikonda Chola.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Rajendra Chola I.
Answer:
Achievements:
Rajendra Chola I defeated Mahendra V the Ceylonese king in 1018 CE and imprisoned him. He took the royal Emblem and king’s crown of the Pandya king, which was in his possession. After the death of Mahendra V in prison at Tanjore, Ceylon became the part of Chola Empire.

He declared a war on Jayasimha II of Kalyani Chalaukyas in 1021 CE and defeated him in Nasangi vijayaditya of Vengi who came to the support of Jayasimha was defeated and expelled from the empire. Rajendra Chola placed Rajaraja Narendra on the throne of Vengi and gave his daughter Ammangadevi in marriage to him, then he rushed towards Orissa and defeated Mahipala I of Bengal.

The Chola army continued until the Ganga River under the leadership of the commander in chief and brought the holy Ganga water to the empire. In memory of this victory, Rajendra Chola took the title Gangaikonda Chola and built a new capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram He built a tank named Cholagangam and it is learnt that he mixed the holy Ganga water in it.

In 1025, Rajendra Chola took an expedition to Shailendra in South East Asia with his powerful navy and army. Crossing the Bay of Bengal, reconquered Jawa, Sumatra, and defeated Sangrama Vijayottunga Varma, the king of Shailendra. In memory of this victory, he constructed the Gangaikonda Chola Shiva temple at Shailendra.

Rajendra Chola I was an able administrator and a patron of learning. He established a higher education centre at Ennayiram in 1025CE. Free boarding and lodging facility was arranged for 340 students who were studying in this education centre. Rajendra Chola I had many titles like Pandita Chola, Gangaikonda Chola and Kedarakonda Deva etc., He increased his dignity and hounour by sending his ambassadors to China in 1033 CE.

Question 2.
Describe the village administration of the Cholas.
Answer:
Village administration:
An important feature of the Chola administration was village autonomy. People of the village looked after the administration administrative system became famous during the Chola period. Uttarameruru inscription of Paratanka I give us clear information about the village administration.

According to this inscription, Uttarameruru village was divided into thirty parts. One representative from each unit was elected for a period of one year. The members were elected through Kuduvalai system. Villagers assembled in the temple on the day of election. The names of candidate to be elected were written on palm leaves and put in a pot.

Then a small boy was asked to pick leaves one after the other in the presence of everybody and thus the representatives were elected. Elected representatives had to work in the Annual Committee, Garden Committee, and Tank Bund Committee. This Committee were called Variyam. The representatives were called VariyaPerumakkal.

These Committees worked for 360 days. The village committees performed duties like the protection of village property, collection of taxes and the protection of temples, lakes, groves and forests etc. the resolutions ofthe Committee were written. The central administration did not interfere in the village administration unnecessarily.

2nd PUC History Cholas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Which was the capital of Cholas?
Answer:
Tanjore was the capital of Cholas.

Question 2.
Who was the greatest ruler of Cholas?
Answer:
Rajaraja Chola I, the son of Paranthaka II was the greatest ruler of the Cholas.

Question 3.
Who earned the title ‘Gangaikonda Chola’?
Answer:
Rajendra Chola earned the title ‘Gangaikonda Chola’.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Mention any two achievements of Rajendra Chola I?
Answer:
Rajendra Chola I defeated Mahendra V, the Ceylonese king in 1018 CE. and imprisoned him. He took the Royal Emblem and kings crown of the Pandya King which was in his possession.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the military achievement of Rajaraja Chola I?
Answer:
Southern Conquests:
Rajaraja Chola I took an expedition to the south of the Kingdom arid fought with the kings of Pandyas, Cheras and Ceylon. He defeated the Pandya king Amarabhujanga and arrested him. He destroyed the powerful navy of the cheras. He occupied the northern portion of Ceylon. To commemorate this victory, he constructed Shiva temple at Polennaru.

Northern Expedition:
In 1011 CE the conquered the prominent areas of Gangas,‘Gangawadi and Nolambawadi. He named Talakadu as ‘Rajarajapura’. Later he faced Sathyashraya, the Kalyani Chalukyan ruler. But we do not get definite information about his victory.

Victory over the Chalukyas of Vengi Rajaraja Chola interfered in the internal politics of Vengi Chalukyas and made Shaktivarma, the ruler of Vengi and gave his daughter Kundevva in marriage to him This matrimonial alliance strengthemed the relationship between Chalukyas and Cholas. He donated much of the wealth that he got from the vengi Chalukyas to Rajarajeshwara temple at Tanjore.

Later he went on a campaign as far as kalinga and won it. Rajaraja Chola I took an expedition and won Lakshadweep and Maldives islands. He had good relation with the Shailendra empire, of Sumatra. He gave permission to Srimara Vijayottungavarman, the king of Shailendra to build choodamani Buddhist vihara at Nagapattanam.

Thus the credit for expanding the Chola empire goes to Rajaraja Chola. His empire extended.uptd Ceylon in the South, Orissa in the North, Coorg and Konkan in the west and Maldives in the East. He had many titles. They Were Shivapadshekhara, cholendra simhja, Mumkmadi choladeva, Jayagonda, Chola martanda etc.

Question 2.
Write a short note on Chola Administration.
Answer:
Cholas had good administrative system They had a centralized administrative system King was not absolute. The practice of crown price becoming the king was in vogue. A council of Ministers assisted the king. The intimate group of the king was called ‘Udanakootam’. The empire was divided into many divisions.

During the time of Rajaraja Chola I there were eight Mandalas. Mandalas . were divided into nadus in turn were divided as Olanadus. Village administration was looked after by Grama Sabha.

2nd PUC History Vardhanas and Early Chalukyas-Pallavas Text Book Questions and Answers

Vardhanas and Early Chalukyas-Pallavas

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas?
Answer:
Harshanavardhana was the greatest ruler of the Vardhanas.

Question 2.
Which was the capital of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Thaneshwar was the capital of Harshavardhana.

Question 3.
Who was the sister of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Rajashri was the sister of Harsha vardhana.

Question 4.
Who wrote Harshacharita?
Answer:
Banbhatta wrote Harshacharita.

Question 5.
Who was famous as Uttarapathe shwara?
Answer:
Harshavardhana was famous as Uttarapatheshwara.

Question 6.
Who presided over the religious conference at Kanauj?
Answer:
Hieuntsang presided over the religious conference at Kanauj.

Question 7.
When was the Buddhist Council at Prayag held?
Answer:
643 CE

Question 8.
Who was the founder of Kadambas?
Answer:
Mayuravarma was the founder of Kadambas.

Question 9.
Which is the first Kannada inscription?
Answer:
Halmidi is the first Kannada inscription.

Question 10.
Who was the famous ruler of Gangas?
Answer:
Durvinidha was the famous ruler of Gangas.

Question 11.
Which was the capital of Early Chalukyas?
Answer:
Badami in Bagalkot District was the capital of Early Chalukyas.

Question 12.
Who was the famous ruler of Badami Chalukyas?
Answer:
Pulikeshi II was the famous ruler of Badami Chalukyas.

Question 13.
Which was the Royal Emblem of Badami Chalukyas?
Answer:
Varaha was the Royal Emblem of Badami Chalukyas.

Question 14.
Who was famous as Daksina Patheshwara?
Answer:
Pulikeshi II was famous as Daksina Patheshwara.

Question 15.
Who composed the Aihole inscription?
Answer:
Ravi keerthi, the court poet of Pulukeshi – II composed the Aihole inscription.

Question 16.
Name the work composed by Vijayabhattarike.
Answer:
Vijayamahadevi composed by Vijayabhattarike.

Question 17.
Which was the work of Hieuntsang?
Answer:
Si-yu-ki was the work of Hieuntsang.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who were the parents of Harshavardhana?
Answer:
Prabhakara Vardhana and Yashomathi were the parents of Harshavardhana.

Question 2.
Name any two literary works Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Ratnavali and Priyadarshika are the two works of Harshavardhana.

Question 3.
Who erected the Gommateshwara statue and where?
Answer:
The colossal monolithic statue of Gommateswara at Shravanabelagola in Hassan district is the most beautiful sculpture and has immortalized their name in the art history. It was erected by Chavundaraya, the famous Ganga minister.

Question 4.
Name any two title of Pulikeshi II.
Answer:
Dakshinapatheswara and Maharaja dhiraja.

Question 5.
Name any two temples at Aihole.
Answer:
Ladhkhan temple and Durga temple.

Question 6.
Name any two temples of Pattadakallu.
Answer:
Kasi Vishwanatha temple and Papanatha temple.

Question 7.
Name any two important architectural centres of pallavas.
Answer:
Kanchi and Mahabalipuram.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Harshavardhana.
Answer:
Achievements of Harshavardhana:
Rajashri escaped from prison and went towards Vindhya mountains. Harshavardhana who came to know of this, searched her with great difficulty and prevented her from jumping into the pyre. Then he added Kanauj to his empire and made it his second capital. Harshavardhana, with the help of Bhaskara Varma of Kamarupa attacked Shashanka of Guadadesha Bengal and took revenge.

But as long as Shashanka was alive, he couldn’t defeat him completely. Then he defeated Devagupta of Malwa and annexed it to his kingdom. By 612 CE, he achieved complete control over Pancha Sindhus of Punjab. Kanauj, Bihar, Bihar, Orissa, and other places were added to his kingdom. He defeated Dhruvasena II of Vallabhi.

Later he gave his daughter in marriage to him and established a good relationship with him Then he defeated the King of Nepal and received tributes from him. He won the North Indian states and established his supremacy. He got the title Uttarapathe shwara as a mark of these achievements. After the death of Shashank of Gaudadesha, Harshavardana won Orissa, Magadha, Vodra, Kongonda and Bengal.

Question 2.
Explain the Chalukya Pallava conflict.
Answer:
Chalukya Pallava conflict:
The Chalukya Pallava conflict went on from 6th century CE to 8th century CE. Pandyas played an important role in this conflict. A long drawn conflict went on between the two to establish control over the Krishna Tungabhadra Doab region. The conflict which began during Pulikeshi II’s period went on till the period of the last Chalukyan ruler.

In the first stage, Pulikeshi II defeated Mahendravarman I. but later, he lost to Narasimhavarman I, son of Mahendravarman. Therefore Badami went into the hands of Pallavas for a few years. Vikramaditya I, the son of Pulikeshi II conquered Badami, which was under the Pallavas for 12 years.

He defeated the Pallavas rulers Narasimhavarman I, Mahendravarman II and Parameshavar man I later, his son Vinayaditya defeated Mahendravarma II and conquered Kanchi. His grandson Vijayaditya who came to power later defeated Parameshavarman V. since he had peace with Narasimhavarman II many temples were built at Kanchi.

Pallava- Chalukya conflict started again during the time of Vikramaditya II, the son of Vijayaditya. He invaded Kanchi thrice. He defeated the Pallava ruler Paramesha Varman II at Vilanda in 731 CE. He invaded Kanchi again in 735 CE and conquered it by defeating Nandivarman. He donated immensely to the Rajasimha temple at Kanchi and got an inscription composed about his victory. By 740 CE Pallavas lost completely. After the

Rashtrakutas reduced the influence of the Chalukyas, the continuous conflict between the Chalukyas and Pallavas ended. This Chalukya – Pallava conflict, which went on for nearly 100 years, led to the downfall of both the empires.

Question 3.
Write about the contributions of Badami to art and architecture.
Answer:
Art and Architecture:
The Chalukayas of Badami have given marvelous contributions to Indian art and architecture. Building of Sthambha Mantapa and Sukhanasi along with the Garbhagruha was a unique contribution of the Chalukyas. They built many temples following theNagara or North Indian Style and Dravida or South Indian Style. They built their temples using red sandstone.

They experimented many things in temple building. They built small models of temples and based on that, built the main temples. The Chalukayan art took its birth at Aihole and developed in Badami and Pattadakallu. In this background. Percy Brown has called their architecture as cradle of Indian temple architecture. Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal were the centers of their art.

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

1. Describe the achievements of Pulikeshi II.
Answer:
Achievements of Pulikeshi II:
Pulikeshi II was the greatest of the rulers of Chalukayas of Badami. The son of Keerthivarma, he was a minor when he came to power. Even after Pulikeshi II came to proper age, lisunde Mangalesha did not-transfer power to him, but tried to bring his own son to power. Enraged by this, Pulikeshi killed Mangalesha in the Ellwattsimbige war and came to the throne in 609 CE.

When Pulikeshi II was in a civil war with Mangalesha, Rastrakuta chiefs Appayika and Govinda attacked the Chalukyan areas. Pulikeshi defeated them on the banks of river Bhima. Frightened Appayika ran away from the battlefield and Govinda surrendered to Pulikeshi II.

Then he won Banavasi, the capital of Kadambas. He defeated Mauryas of Konkana, Alupas of South Canara and Gangas of Talakadu. After winning over smaller kingdoms in the South, he went towards the North and defeated the rulers ofLata, Malwa and Gujaras. He appointed his brother jayasimha as the head of the Gujarath Branch.

War with Harshavarthana (634 CE):
Harshavardhana along with his army started from Kanauj and camped on the banks of the river Narmada. Pulikeshi II prepared to face Harshavardhana who was famous as Uttarapatheshwara. A fierce battle was fought between the two in 634 CE. Harshavardhana was defeated in this battle.

Pulikeshi who won, took the title Parameshwara. Then a friendly relation developed between the two and Narmada River became the border of their respective empires. Pulikeshi II proceed, voids the East where the rulers of South Rosaia and Kahnga surrendered to him. Later he won Pistapura and conquered Vengimandala.

He appointed another brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the king of Vengi province. This laid the foundation for the Vengi Chalukya dynasty. Pulikeshi invaded Kanchi and defeated the Pallava ruler Mahendra Varman I at Pulliluru. He camped at Kanchi for a few days and performed pooja in the temples.

This invasion of Pulikeshi II was the beginning of Pallava-Chalukya conflicts. Then he defeated Chola and Chera rulers, received tributes from them, and returned to his capital During the last days of Pullikeshi II, he invaded Kanchi to conquer it, but Narasimhavarman I defeated Pulikeshi in the battles at Pariyala, Manimangala and Suramara in 642 CE.

It is believed that Pulikeshi II died in this battle. After this, Narasimhavarman conquered Badami and took the title Vatapikondar, Badami was looted by the Pallavas. Chalukyas were under the control of the Pallavas for the next few years. Pulikeshi II was one of the greatest rulers of Ancient India.

Hieuntsang has called Pulikeshi II as a very valiant Emperor. His empire extended upto the Narmada in the North, Mysore in South, Bay ofBengal in the East and Arabian sea in the West. Persian king Khusru II and Pulikeshi – II exchanged ambassadors.

The painting of the ambassador giving gift to Pulikeshi II can be seen in cave No. I at Ajantha. He had titles like Dakshinapatheswara, Maharaja dhiraja, Parameshwara Pruthvivallabha, Satyashraya etc.,

2nd PUC History Vardhanas and Early Chalukyas-Pallavas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who got the title ‘Uttarapatheswara’?
Answer:
Harshavardhana got the title ‘Uttarapatheswara’.

Question 2.
Which is the most famous university of anicient India?
Answer:
Nalanda University was the most famous university of ancient India.

Question 3.
What are the other names of Kanchi?
Answer:
Kanchi is called Shivakanchi, Vishnukanchi and Jaina Kanchi.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Write a short note on Aihole?
Answer:
Another centre of Badami Chalukyan art, Aihole was once a famous trading centre. We can see a number of temples of Chalukyan art here.

Question 2.
Write a note on Pallava art and architecture.
Answer:
Pallavas occupy a prominent place in the history of South Indian art and architecture. Dravida style of art blossomed during their period. Pallava kings loved and patronized art. We can see the proficiency of their art in Kanchi and mahabalipuram

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Why is Mahabalipuram art important.
Answer:
It is on the banks of the river Parla. it was the capital of NarasimhaVarman I. many temples, mansions and places here attract the lovers of art. Ten rock cut mantapas and chariots, carved in rockill are world famous for their beauty and artistic talent. The mythological sculptures carved on the walls of the mandapas, attract attention.

Varaha mandapa, mahishasuramardhini mantapa sculpture are very attractive. The sculptural bunch carved on the big stone boulders is the special contribution of Pallava art. It was at first called the stone bunch of Arjuna’s penance. But is was called the scene, of Devagange, coming down to earth.

Question 2.
Write a shot note on Meguthi jain temple.
Answer:
It is situated on small hill near Aihole was built by Ravikeerthi. On the eastern wall of this temple is written the aihole inscription. This temple which has a Mukhamantapa, Mahhyarangamantapa and Garbhagruha is built in the Dravid style, It is called melagudi as it is built on the hill. According to scholars, gradually Megudi became meguthi.

Shivalinga, Varaha, Kali and Nataraja bas-reliefs in the Ravalgudi cave at aihole attract our attention. The other important temples of Aihole are Jyothirlinga, Mallikarjuna and Siddheshwara etc., The Ramalinga temple, half a mile away from aihole hais three Garbhagrihas.

2nd PUC History Rashtrakutas Text Book Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What was the royal emblem of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Garuda was the royal emblem of the Rashtrakutas.

Question 2.
Which was the capital of the Rashtra kutas?
Answer:
Manyakheta in Gulbarga district was their capital.

Question 3.
Who was the first king of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Dantidurga was the first king of the Rashtrakutas.

Question 4.
Who was the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
Amoghavarsha was the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakutas.

Question 5.
Who was the foreign traveller who visited the court of Amoghavarsha?
Answer:
Sulaiman was the foreign traveller who visited the court of Amoghavarsha.

Question 6.
Which was the first literary work in Kannada?
Answer:
Kavirajamarga was the first literary work in Kannada.

Question 7.
Who was called Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi?
Answer:
Ponna was called Ubhaya Kavichakravarthi.

Question 8.
Who patronized Ponna?
Answer:
Krishna III patronized Ponna.

Question 9.
Who is called Adikavi of Kannada?
Answer:
Pampa is called Adikavi of Kannada.

Question 10.
Who patronized Pampa?
Answer:
Arikesari II patronized Pampa.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who built the Kailasanatha temple? Where was it built?
Answer:
Krishna I built the Kailasanatha temple. It was built in Maharastra.

Question 2.
Name any two titles of Dhruva.
Answer:
Dharavarsha and Srivallabha.

Question 3.
Write any two titles of Govinda III.
Answer:
Jagattunga and Prabhuthavarasha.

Question 4.
Write any two titles of Amogha varsha.
Answer:
Athishayadhavala and Nrupatunga

Question 5.
Name any two works of Ponna.
Answer:
Shantinathapurana and Bhuvanaikya Ramabhayudaya.

Question 6.
Name any two works of Pampa.
Answer:
Pampa wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya and Adipurana.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Describe the achievements of Govinda III.
Answer:
Achievements of Govinda III:
Govinda III started his conquest of North India in 800 CE. Nagabhatta II, who feared Govinda III ran away from the battle field. Chakrayudha surrendered to Govinda Dharmapala walked away from the battle and paid tributes. The army of Govindha III marched upto Himalayas.

The inscriptions tell that Govida’s horses drank the water flowing at the foothills of Himalayas and his elephants bathed in the Ganges. The Gangas along with Pandyas and Kerala rulers attacked the Rashtrakutas in 803-04 CE. Govinda III defeated them and captured their Royal Emblems.

Govinda III defeated Pallava ruler Dhantivarma and secured tributes from him. At the same time, the Simhalan ruler surrendered to Govinda III by sending his statue. During the time of Govinda III, the Rastrakuta empire extended from Himalayas in the North to Kanyakumari in the South and Saurashtra in the West to Bengal in the East.

The whole of India came under the influence of the Rashtrakutas. He had titled like Jagattunga, Prabhuthavarasha, Sri Vallabha and Tribhuvanadhavala.

Question 2.
Describe the achievements of Amoghavarsha.
Answer:
Achievements of Amoghavarsha:
Amoghavarsha defeated the Vengi Chalukayan ruler Gunaga Vijayaditya III at Lingavalli in 830 CE and forced him to retreat. The Northern parts of Ganga Empire were under the control of Bankesha the commander of Amoghavarsha. Though the Ganga king Rachamalla tried to conquer thse places, he was not successful.

Bankesha had his influence till Kaidala. Neethimarga Ereyanga, who came to power after Rachamalla defeated Amoghavarsha in the Rajaramudi battle in 856 CE. Amoghavarsha gave up conflicts with the Ganga and other kings and developed matrimonial alliances.

During his last days, Amoghavarsha had to face the rebellion ofYuvaraja Krishna. His commander Bankesha freed this rebellion ably and made Krishna to repent and change. In memory of this victory, Amoghavarsha called Bankesha and made him the governor of Banavasi.

Amoghavarsha was tolerant to all religions, peace loving, and a scholar himself. Sanjan inscription says that he cut off his left thumb as a sacrifice to Kolhapur Mahalakshmi to protect his subjects from famine. Himself a poet, he wrote Prashnottara Ratnamala in Sanskrit. He patronized scholars like Jinasenacharya, Mahaveeracharya, Shaktayana, Srivijaya and others.

Kavirajamarga if the first known Kannada work written by Srivijaya. Manyakheta, the capital became very famous during his period. Sulaiman, the Arab traveller visited his capital in 851 CE. He says that the Rashtrakuta Empire is one of the four great empires of the world.

IV. Answer the following in 30 to 40 sentences.

Question 1.
Describe the cultural contributions of Rashtrakutas.
Answer:
Literature:
Rashtrakuta kings were patrons of literature. Some kings were writer themselves. A number of Kannada works were composed by Sri Vijaya. Kavirajamarga informs us that kannadanadu extended from Cauvery to Godavari. Literature developed immensely during their period.

Ponna who lived in the court of Krishna III wrote Shantinathapurana and Bhuvanaikya Ramabhayudaya. He had the title Ubhayakavi Chakravarthi. Pampa, who was in the court of Arikesari II the feudatory of Rashtrakutas at Vemulavada, wrote Vikramarjuna Vijaya and Adipurana. He is called Adikavi of Kannada. Shivakotya charya wrote Vaddaradhane, it is called the first prose work of old Kannada. Sanskrit literature also developed well.

Art and architecture:
Rashtrakuta rulers have given wonder fill contribution to art and architecture. They built structural temples, cave temples and Basadis. Ellora, Ajantha and Elephanta are the centers of their art.

Ellora – Kailasanatha temple:
There are 16 cave temples at Ellora in Maharastra and five of them belong to Hinduism. The monolithic stone temple of Kailasanatha is world famous. This temple was built by Krishna I in 770 CE. The temple which has a Mahadwara, quadrangle shikara and Linga is in Dravida style.

The sculpture of Shivaleela in this temple attracted the attention of the tourists. Two pillars and two huge elephants gave been carved near the temple. There is Nandi mantapa in front. There are five temples of subordinate deities round the Garbhagruhia. Sculptures of Asthadikpalakas, Ganga-yamuna, Saraswati have been carved Ravana holding the Kailasa mountain is attractive and hence the temple gets the name Kailasanatha.

Dr. V.A. Smith has called this temple as one of the greatest artistic works of the world. The other Hindu temples at Ellora are Ravana’s cave Dasavathara, Rameshwara, Dumarlena caves etc., Apart from them, Neelakantha Sabha cave temples are also here.

Elephant:
Elephant, which is an island 6 miles from Mumbai has 7 caves. Its ancient name was Goravapuri. The Portugese called the huge elephant here as Elephanta and hence the name. The trimurthy sculpture in the central cave is related to the three incarnations of God. The idol which is J 8 ft high is carved between two half pillars.

Dwarapalaka, Ardhanareeshwara, Shiva Parvathi and other bas reliefs have been beautifully carved. The paintings in the cave temples of Ellora are a witness to the fact that they patronized painting.

2nd PUC History Rashtrakutas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What does mean Rashtrakutas?
Answer:
The word ‘Rashtrakuta’ denotes power. ‘Rashtra’ denotes country and ‘kuta’ means head.

Question 2.
Who is the son of Govinda III?
Answer:
Amoghavarsha is the son of Govinda III.

Question 3.
Who wrote Prashnottara Ratnamala in Sanskrit?
Answer:
Amoghavarsha Wrote ‘Prashnottara Ratnamala’ in Sanskrit.

Question 4.
Which is the first known kannada work written by Srivijaya?
Answer:
‘Kavirajamarga’ the first known kannada work written by Srivijaya.

Question 5.
Who is called Adikavi of Kannada?
Answer:
Vemulavada is called ‘Adikavi’ of kannada.

Question 6.
Which is the first prose wrok of old kannada?
Answer:
Vaddaradhana is the first prose work of old kannada.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Name the important Sanskrit literary work and its authors of old kannada.
Answer:

  1. Shaktayana – Shabdanushasana.
  2. Mahaveeracharya-Ganithasarasangraha.
  3. Amoghavarsha-Prashnottaratnamala.
  4. Trivikrama-Madalasachampu.
  5. Jinsenacharya – Adipurana, Parshvabhyudaya.
  6. Asaga – Vardhamana Purana
  7. Halayudha – Mruta Sanjeeviji and Kavirahasya etc. were the important Sanskrit works.

2nd PUC History Later Chalukyas and Hoysalas Text Book Questions and Answers

Later Chalukyas and Hoysalas

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
Who was the founder of Chalukyas of Kalyana?
Answer:
Tailapa II was the founder of Chalukyas of Kalyana.

Question 2.
Which was the first capital of Chalukyas of Kalyana?
Answer:
Manyakheta was the first capital of Chalukyas of Kalyana.

Question 3.
Who was the patron of Ranna?
Answer:
Sathyashraya was the patron of Ranna.

Question 4.
Who had the title ‘Kavichakra varthi’?
Answer:
Ranna had the title ‘Kavichakravarthi’.

Question 5.
Which work is considered as ‘The First Encyclopedia’ of Sanskrit?
Answer:
Someshwara III wrote Abhilashithartha Chintamani or Manasollasa, which is considered as the first encyclopedia in Sanskrit.

Question 6.
Who was the founder of Hoysala Kingdom?
Answer:
Sala was the founder of Hoysala Kingdom.

Question 7.
What was the Royal Emblem of Hoysalas?
Answer:
Sala, killing a tiger is the emblem of the Hoysala dynasty.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Who started ‘Vikrama Era’ and when?
Answer:
Vikramaditya VI started a new era called Vikram Era in 1076 CE.

Question 2.
Mention any two titles of Vikramaditya VI.
Answer:
Permadideva and Tribhuvanamalla are the two titles of Vikramaditya VI.

Question 3.
Name any two works of Ranna.
Answer:
His famous works are Ajithanatha Purana and Sahasa Bhima Vijaya.

Question 4.
Who was the court poet of Vikramaditya VI? Name his work.
Answer:
A Kashmir poet Bilhana was the court poet of Vikramaditya VI. He wrote Vikramankadeva Charitham.

Question 5.
Name any two capitals of Hoysalas.
Answer:
Dwarasamudra ans Shashakapura were the capitals of Hoysalas.

Question 6.
Mention any two titles of Vishnuvardhana.
Answer:
Mahamandaleshwara and Chalukya mani – Mandalika Chudamani were the two titles of Vishnuvardhana.

Question 7.
Name any two famous temples of Hoysalas.
Answer:
Charmakeshava at Behir, Hoysala shwarma at Halebeedu.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
Explain the cultural contributions of Chalukyas of Kalyana.
Answer:
Cultural contributions of Chalukyas of Kalyana:
The Chalukyas of Kalyana followed the great tradition of the Chalukyas ofBadami and made rich contributions to the culture of Karnataka, especially in Literature, Art and Architecture.

Literature:
Kannada and Sanskrit literature developed during this period. Jain writers composed scholarly literature in Kannada. The famous Kannada poet Ranna was patronized by Sathayashraya. His famous works n Ajithanatha Purana and Sahasa Bhima Vija He was honoured as Kavichakravarthi by li patron.

The other important authors and works of this period were,

  1. Chavundaraya II -lokopakara deals with astronomy, astrology sculpture and medicine.
  2. Sreedharacharya – Jaatakatilaka. This is the first authentic astrological work in kannada.
  3. Bilhana – a Kashmir poet was the court poet of Vikramaditya VI. He wrote Vikramankadeva Charitham.
  4. Someshwara III wrote Abhilashithartha Chintamani or Manasollasa, which is considered as the first encyclopedia in Sanskrit.

Art and architecture:
Chalukyas ofKalyana were great patrons of art and architecture. They continued the architectural styles of the Chalukyas of Badami. The important temples of their period are,

  • Kukkanur – Kalleshwara
  • Abbaluru – Brahmeshwara
  • Kuruvatti – Mallikaijuna
  • Lkkundi-Bramha – Jinaiaya, Kashi Visheshwara
  • Laxmeshwara – Shankhabasadi, Someshwara
  • Dambala – Doddabasaveshwara
  • Hirehadagali – Kalleshwara.
  • Haveri – Siddeshwara
  • Hanagal – Tharakeshwara, Ganapati
  • Balligavi – Kedareshwara, thripurambaka
  • Itagi – Mahadeva.

Chandralekha, the Queen of Vikramaditya VI was an expert in dance, music and other fine arts. Hence, she had the title Nartya Vidyadari and Abhinaya Saraswathi.

Question 2.
Describe the achievements of Vishnuvardhana.
Answer:
Vishnuvardhana was the greatest among the Hoysala kings. He had taken part in many wars during his brother Ballala’s regime. He gained a lot of experience in administrations as the Governor of Nanjangud province. By his ability and might he became the most powerful king in south India. He had many titles. They throw light on his victories.

He completely routed the Cholas from Gangavadi in the battle of Talakadu in 1114 CE and took the title Talakadugonda. In commemoration of this victory the built the Kirtinarayana temple at Talakadu and the Channakeshava temple at Belur. The coins issued by him after this victory contain the title Sri Talakadugonda.

Later he conquered Kongu, Nangali, Naolamnbavadi and Hanagallu. The Malavalli inscription tells us that he uprooted the Cholas from Kolar. Later he drove the Cholas upto Kanchi and earned the title Kanchigonda. He invaded Madurai and defeated Pandyas. He also defeated Pandyas of Uchchangi and marched upto Rameshwaram In all these campaigns of Vishnuvadhana his commander Gangaraja played an important role.

Vishnuvardhana attained feme by driving away Cholas out of Karnataka. He later defeated Kongalvas and the Cholas who were ruling at Nidugal. The Kongalva King gave his daughter Chandaladevi in marriage of Vishnuvardhana. He also defeated the Alupas of Alwakheda. Vishnuvardhana tried to over throw the governorship of the Chalukyas of Kaiyana.

But he was defeated by Vikramaditya VI in 1118 CE in the battle of Kannegala. The Chalukyan sovereignity continued till the death of Vikramaditya VI. Vishnuvardhana invaded upto River Tungabhadra in the North. In 1140 CE he won over Hanagal, Uchchanga, Bankapura and Banavasi. In 1142 CE he won over Lakkundi. He died in 1153 CE.

Question 3.
Illustrate Hoysala contributions to Religion and Literature.
Answer:
Religion:
Hoysalas patronized Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism. Mandy kings followed Jainism Bittideva was a Jain. He was influenced by Shri Ramanujacharya and converted to Shrivaishnavism. He changed his name from Bittideva to Vishnuvardhana. His queen Shantala devi and many.ofhis generals were jains. This shows the religious tolerance of Vishnu vardhana.

Literature:
Kannada and Sanskrit literature developed during this period. Important literary works of the Hoysala period were

  • Nagachandra: Mallinathapirana, Ramachandra Charitha Purana and Pampa Ramayana.
  • Rajaditya: Kshethra Ganitha, Vyavahara Ganitha and Leelavathi
  • Nayasena: Dharmammtha
  • Raghavanka: Harichandrakavya, Siddaramapurana
  • Harihara: Girikalyana, Pampash ataka and Shivakshara maale
  • Janna: Yashodracharitre and Ananthanatha Purana.
  • Keshiraja: Shabdamanidarpana.
  • Thrivikrmapanditha: Ushaharana
  • Narauanapanditha: Mandhana vijaya and Manimanjari Sakala Vidyachkr
  • Avarthi III: Rukminikalyana.

Question 4.
Explain the main features of Hoysala Architecture.
Answer:
Hoysala Architecture:
Hoysala combined Vesara and Dravida styles and developed a new style of Architecture called Hoysala style. The main features of this style are,

  1. Star shaped base.
  2. A star plat form of about 4 feet high.
  3. The Jagati around the temple is the open, Paradakshinapatha.
  4. Polished po liars with variety of designs.
  5. Elaborate carvings and beautifully carved Madanika figures
  6. Spacious Navaranga
  7. The Bhuvaneshwari
  8. The Vimana in a pyramidical shape.
  9. Garbhagruhas ranging from one to five (Ekakuta, Dwikuta, Thrikuta, Chathus kuta and Panchakuta).

They have built more than 100 temples. Important among them are Channakeshava at Belur, Hoysaleshwaraat Halebeedu. Keshava at Somanathapura, Lakshmi at Doddagaddavalli. Panchalingeswara at Govindanahalli, Keerthinarayana at Talakadu, Harihareshwara at Harihara, shiva at Bankapura, Amrutheshwara at Amrutha pura, Veeraballala temple at Arasikere etc. they renovated many Jain Basadie and built new ones.

Vishnuvardhana’s queen built the Savathi Gandhavarne Basadis at Shravanabelagola. Both instrumental and vocal music along with dance developed during the Hoysala period. Many Queens were dancers. Shantala, the Queen of Vishnuvardhana was famous as Natya Saraswathi.

2nd PUC History Later Chalukyas and Hoysalas Additional Questions and Answers

I. Answer the following in a word or a sentence each.

Question 1.
What are the title names of Vikramaditya?
Answer:
Vikramaditya had the titles like Permadideva, and Tribbhuvanamalla.

Question 2.
Which period is known as the golden age of temple architecture in Indian history?
Answer:
Hoysala period is known as the golden age of temple architecture in Indian history.

Question 3.
Who built the Savathi Gandhavame Basadis at Shravanabelagola?
Answer:
Vishnuvardhana’s queen built the Savathi Gandhavarne Basadis at Shravanabelagola.

II. Answer the following in two words or two sentences each.

Question 1.
Write t about the Hoysala religion.
Answer:
Hoysalas patronized Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Jainism. Mandy kings followed Jainism. Bittideva was Jain. He was influenced by Shri Ramanujacharya and converted to Shrivaishnavism. He changed his name from Bittideva to Vishnuvardhana. His queen Shantala devi and-pjany of his generals wefejains. This showsithe religious tolerance of Vishnuvardhana.

III. Answer the following in 15 to 20 sentences each.

Question 1.
What are the kannada works of Hoysala period?
Answer:
Kannada works:


The Lakshmi Devi Temple is one of the earliest known temples built in the Hoysala style. The building material is Chloritic schist, more commonly known as soapstone. [1] The temple does not stand on a jagati (platform), a feature which became popular in later Hoysala temples. [2] The temple was commissioned by a merchant called Kullahana Rahuta and his wife Sahaja Devi. The temple is a unique chatuskuta construction (four shrines and towers) [3] built inside a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) stone wall enclosure with the entrance through a porch whose roof is supported by circular lathe-turned pillars. [4] Three of the vimanas (shrines) have a common square mantapa (hall) with nine "bays" or compartments. [5] The fourth vimana is connected to the mantapa via an oblong extension consisting of two "bays". The extension has two lateral entrances into the temple. All the vimanas have their original tower (superstructure) intact. The towers are in Kadamba nagara style. [6] Each vimana has a vestibule connecting it to the central mantapa. On top of the vestibule is its own tower called sukanasi (or "nose" because it looks like low extension of the main tower over the shrine). The sukanasi is a tier lower than the main tower over the shrine. All the four sukanasi are intact and so are the kalasha (decorative water pot like structure) on top of the main towers. [7] The Hoysala emblem (the sculpture of a legendary warrior "Sala" fighting a lion) is mounted atop one of the Sukanasi. Of the four towers, three are undecorated and they look stepped pyramidal with a pile of dented horizontal mouldings with the kalasa on top. The fourth tower is very well decorated (which is typical of Hoysala designs) and this is the tower of the main shrine that houses the Lakshmi Devi image. [7]

The mantapa is open and square. The reason for the square plan is the presence of shrines on all four sides of the mantapa with no side open for "staggering". [8] There is a separate fifth shrine of Bhairava, an avatar of the Hindu god Shiva. The shrine is complete with its own vimana and tower with a kalasa on top, a sukanasi with a Hoysala emblem on it. Another unusual feature of the temple is the existence of four more minor shrines at each corner of the temple complex with two sides of each shrine attached to the courtyard wall. Each of these minor shrines has its own tower, kalasa and Hoysala emblem. [9] In all, the temple complex has nine towers which is unusual for a Hoysala temple.

According to art critic Gerard Foekema, overall the temple has the "older style", where there is only one eaves running round the temple where the main towers meet the wall of the shrine. [10] At the base of the wall of the shrines are five moldings, a standard in the "old style" of Hoysala architecture between the moldings and the eaves, the usual panels of Hoysala sculptures depicting Hindu gods, goddesses and their attendants is however missing. Instead, the entire space is taken up by decorative miniature towers on pilasters (called Aedicula). The ceiling of the main hall is supported by eighteen lathe-turned pillars. Inside the main hall, there are two sculptures of large demonic living corpses called betala. The main shrine facing east has a 3-foot-tall (0.91 m) image of the goddess Lakshmi with an attendant on either side. The image holds a conch in the upper right hand, a chakra (discuss) in the upper left, a rosary in the lower right and a mace in the lower left. In the shrines facing north, south and west respectively are the images of Kali (a form of Durga), the god Vishnu, and Boothanatha Linga (the universal symbol of the god Shiva). A sculpture of Tandaveswara (dancing Shiva) exists in the circular panel at the center of the ceiling of the mantapa. Other important sculptures are those of Gajalakshmi (form of Lakshmi with elephants on either side), Tandaveshwara and Yoganarasimha (form of Vishnu) found on the doorway of the temple. [10] [11]


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