July 8, 2013 Day 170 of the Fifth Year - History

July 8, 2013 Day 170 of the Fifth Year - History

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President Barack Obama meets with his Cabinet and senior officials in the Cabinet Room of the White House, July 8, 2013

9:30AM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT receive the Presidential Daily Briefing
10:30AM THE PRESIDENT holds a Cabinet Meeting; THE VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Cabinet Room

11:50AM THE PRESIDENT makes a statement on his Management Agenda
State Dining Room

Goths and Visigoths

The Goths were a nomadic Germanic people who fought against Roman rule in the late 300s and early 400s A.D., helping to bring about the downfall of the Roman Empire, which had controlled much of Europe for centuries. The ascendancy of the Goths is said to have marked the beginning of the medieval period in Europe. Visigoth was the name given to the western tribes of Goths, while those in the east were referred to as Ostrogoths. Ancestors of the Visigoths mounted a successful invasion of the Roman Empire, beginning in 376, and ultimately defeated them in the Battle of Adrianople in 378 A.D.

After forcing the Romans from much of the European continent, the Goths governed a large swath of territory, from present-day Germany to the Danube and Don rivers in Eastern Europe, and from the Black Sea in the south to the Baltic Sea in the north.

Following their sack of Rome in 410 A.D., Visigoth influence extended from the Iberian Peninsula (present-day Portugal and Spain) all the way to Eastern Europe.

London bombings of 2005

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London bombings of 2005, also called 7 July attacks or 7/7 attacks, coordinated suicide bomb attacks on the London transit system on the morning of July 7, 2005. At 8:50 am explosions tore through three trains on the London Underground, killing 39. An hour later 13 people were killed when a bomb detonated on the upper deck of a bus in Tavistock Square. More than 700 people were injured in the four attacks.

The four bombers—characterized as “ordinary British citizens” in the subsequent investigation—carried out the attacks by using inexpensive readily available materials. These factors made advance detection of the plot by authorities extremely unlikely and forced a sea change in British counterterrorism policy, which was previously focused on foreign threats. On the morning of the attack, three of the bombers traveled from Leeds, the site of the suspected bomb-making “factory,” to Luton, where they joined the fourth bomber. The group, now carrying backpacks filled with explosives, boarded a train to London’s King’s Cross station. About 8:30 am the attackers entered King’s Cross station and split up, boarding east- and westbound trains on the Circle Line and a southbound train on the Piccadilly Line. Twenty minutes later, simultaneous explosions struck trains at Russell Square (killing 26 and injuring more than 340), Aldgate (killing 7 and injuring more than 170), and Edgware Road (killing 6 and injuring more than 160). The fourth bomber then exited the Underground station and eventually boarded a crowded bus en route to Hackney. He detonated his device, an estimated 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of high explosive, at Tavistock Square, killing 13 and injuring more than 100.

The response to the attacks was immediate. The entire Underground system in central London was closed, and investigators swept the area for forensic evidence. Additionally, some 6,000 hours of closed-circuit television footage were examined in an effort to construct a timeline of the morning’s events. The day after the bombings, Prime Minister Tony Blair declared, “There is no hope in terrorism nor any future in it worth living. And it is hope that is the alternative to this hatred.” By July 16 police had publicly released the names of the four bombers, all of whom were killed in the attacks, and the investigation shifted to uncovering possible accomplices and motives.

After theories of a “fifth bomber” or a “foreign mastermind” were discounted, the British public was confronted with the harsh reality that four relatively unassuming young men had been radicalized into a “home-grown threat.” In September 2005 al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiri claimed partial responsibility for the bombings, but the extent and nature of al-Qaeda’s true role in the attacks remained murky. In April 2007 three British Muslims were charged with assisting in the planning of the July 7 bombings, but they were cleared two years later.

Meet ‘Mr. Earth Day,’ the Man Who Helped Organize the Annual Observance

N early 50 years after 20 million Americans participated in the first Earth Day on April 22, 1970, more than 190 countries mark the annual day for raising awareness of environmental causes. And the stakes only grow as the years go by.

Though Earth Day has been dogged by rumors that it was founded by a murderer and as communist propaganda, the truth is much more straightforward &mdash but no less fascinating. TIME spoke to Denis Hayes, a real organizer of the first Earth Day, dubbed “Mr. Earth Day” by the magazine in 1999. Hayes is now the president of the Bullitt Foundation, which doles out grants to environmental efforts.

Here, he tells the true story of founding of Earth Day, its proudest accomplishments and the work that still needs to be done.

TIME: Where did the idea for the first Earth Day come from?

HAYES: A number of issues basically all came to a head by the late 󈨀s, starting in 1962, with Rachel Carson publishing Silent Spring, about the dangers of pesticides. In 1969, an oil spill in the elite community of Santa Barbara, Calif., brought it home to people in a terribly visual way &mdash they saw animals covered in goo, people trying to get it off, and you watched them die on camera. Then we had the fire on the Cuyahoga River the juxtaposition with water, which puts out fire, made a splash. Then interstate highways were being built. That’s when people who didn&rsquot self-identify as conservationists were out there trying to protect their neighborhoods from horrible air pollution. The stuff coming out of tailpipes was all from leaded gasoline, poisoning their children. At the same time that people were trying to talk about organic produce and the impact of pesticides on the foods that people were eating, those pesticides were being sprayed onto the backs of farm workers, so the Chicano movement saw the environmental issues as a way to mobilize public support for their objectives.

What we did was take all of those myriad strands, including wildlife protection issues, and wove them all together. It sounds strange today, but back then, the folks involved with those various causes didn’t think of themselves as having anything in common with one another. No one was asking that question at the end of the 1970s.

How was the first Earth Day organized?

Senator [Gaylord] Nelson reached out to me to build his staff and organize it. I was the most senior of the paid staff and I was 25 years old. Youthful vitality and passion forms the engine of these things.

One of the secrets of Earth Day is that the head of the United Automobile Workers union gave us a budget for an 800 number so we could communicate directly with organizers. Walter Philip Reuther [the head of the UAW] was a genuinely progressive guy who cared about workplace conditions and supported public transit because his workers were making the buses for GM. He was horrified by the pollution coming out of the tailpipes of cars. He supported legislation like the Clean Air Act to protect the industry from people refusing to buy these cars. We were operating on a shoestring budget, so the ability to make free phone calls made it possible for us to be in instant communication with people in the biggest cities.

Gaylord thought something similar to the youth-dominated anti-war movement could be done in the environmental movement, so I went out and hired a number of superb, experienced organizers who had been in anti-war, Hispanic and civil rights movements. But there was almost no interest in our cause on college campuses because we had a war going on. So I looked back at the mail to the Senator’s office, and it was overwhelmingly from relatively young women, mostly college educated, with one or two kids in a single-wage-earner family, with time on their hands, who had gotten frustrated by not being involved in the social tumult of the era and who were deeply affected by environmental threats to their children. They formed a real nexus we organized around. Once the thing got visibility, and it became clear this was a vehicle for change, then the students climbed on board afterwards.

Why is Earth Day on April 22?

[The rationale] was straight forward. This whole thing was envisioned by Senator Gaylord Nelson as a campus teach-in, so it was all about making sure this would be attractive enough to the largest number of college students. He chose the date before he hired me. He came from Wisconsin, which has cold winters, and he wanted to find a date late enough in the year that a teach-in wouldn’t be snowed in, but early enough that college students wouldn’t be cramming for final exams. And he wanted it to be in the middle of the week so people wouldn’t be away on weekend trips. So, he chose a Wednesday near the end of April, and that Wednesday happened to be April 22. Wednesday, candidly, is a terrible day for something other than an environmental teach-in. I live in Seattle nine out of 10 times there’s a torrential rainstorm at that time of year. It’s a terrible day for organizing stuff outside. After Earth Day was such a spectacular success, it started appearing on calendars. There’s no way to change the date. I&rsquove had people beg me to declare it&rsquos the spring equinox or summer solstice, but we&rsquore stuck with it.

How did Earth Day get its name?

Madison Avenue. A progressive advertising guy stopped by our office asking, ‘Anything I can do to help?’ I said, well, in brand terms, I think this teach-in thing isn’t going anyplace, and it’s not relevant to the folks who are most responsive to environmental issues. Why don’t you think of ways for us to re-brand it? A couple of weeks later he comes back with some print-outs on newsprint of ads with new names. He suggested names like Ecology Day, E-Day, Environment Day, Earth Day and Green Day. We all sat around with pizza and beer one night and tried to figure out which one would resonate, and Earth Day just sounded right. Fortuitously, Earth Day turned out to be something that translated beautifully in every language.

What was the role in Earth Day’s founding of Ira Einhorn, who was convicted of murder in 2002?

I thought that idea had been long buried. He was onstage as an announcer of the Philadelphia Earth Day &mdash a marginal character in one Earth Day in one city. There&rsquos no way you could think of him as the founder, even of the Earth Day in Philadelphia. If you asked me to name 50 people really crucial to that organizing of that first Earth Day, he certainly wouldn&rsquot be on that list.

Holly [Maddux, of whose murder Einhorn was convicted] was a beautiful, wonderful, gracious person.

About Labor Day in Other Countries

Labor Day Observances

YearWeekdayDateNameHoliday Type
2016пнд5 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2017пнд4 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2018пнд3 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2019пнд2 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2020пнд7 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2021пнд6 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2022пнд5 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2023пнд4 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2024пнд2 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2025пнд1 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday
2026пнд7 сенLabor DayFederal Holiday

While we diligently research and update our holiday dates, some of the information in the table above may be preliminary. If you find an error, please let us know.

Other Names and Languages

EnglishLabor Day
Arabicعيد العمال
GermanTag der Arbeit
Hebrewיום מפלגת הלייבור
NorwegianArbeidernes dag
SpanishDía del Trabajo

Other Holidays in сентябрь 2021 in the United States

  • 7 сен , Rosh Hashana
  • 9 сен , California Admission Day
  • 11 сен , First Responders Day
  • 12 сен , National Grandparents Day
  • 16 сен , Yom Kippur
  • 17 сен , Constitution Day and Citizenship Day
  • 18 сен , Air Force Birthday
  • 21 сен , First Day of Sukkot
  • 22 сен , Emancipation Day
  • 24 сен , Native American Day
  • 26 сен , Gold Star Mother's Day
  • 27 сен , Last Day of Sukkot
  • 28 сен , Shmini Atzeret
  • 29 сен , Simchat Torah

Fun Holidays on 6 сентябрь 2021 г.

Fight Procrastination Day

Stop putting off tasks for another day and put an end to your procrastinating ways. More

Read a Book Day

Pick up a book and spend the day reading it. More

Present Status and Future Directions

Since 2007, the Substance-Related Disorders Work Group addressed many issues. The members conducted and published analyses, and they formulated new criteria and presented them widely for input. The DSM-5 Task Force requested a reduction in the number of disorders wherever possible, and the work group accomplished this.

The DSM process requires balancing many competing needs, which is always the case when formulating new nomenclatures. The process also entails extensive, unpaid collaboration among a group of experts with different backgrounds and perspectives. Scientific controversies arose and received responses (see references 2, 47, and 209�). Conflict of interest could undermine confidence in the work group’s recommendations (212), but in fact, as monitored by APA, eight of the 12 members received no pharmaceutical industry income over the 5 years since the work group was convened, two received less than $1,200 and two received less than $10,000 (the APA cap) in any single year. Some individuals assume that financial interests advocated directly to the work group (e.g., pharmaceutical companies, alcohol and tobacco industries, insurers, and providers). Actually, this never happened. While such advocacy could have occurred surreptitiously through unsigned DSM-5 web site comments, few comments stood out as particularly influential since they covered such a wide range of opinions. An exception to this was the web site advocacy of nonprofit groups to include neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (taken into account in forming the disorder recommendation). Ultimately, the work group recommendations attracted considerable interest, and the DSM-5 process stimulated much substance use disorder research that otherwise would not have occurred.

Implementing the 11 DSM-5 substance use disorders criteria in research and clinical assessment should be easier than implementing the 11 DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse and dependence, since now only one disorder is involved instead of two hierarchical disorders. A checklist can aid in covering all criteria. Eventually, reducing the number of criteria to diagnose substance use disorders will further aid implementation, which future studies should address.

The statistical methodology used to examine the structure of abuse and dependence criteria was state of the art, and the data sets analyzed were large and based on standardized diagnostic procedures with good to excellent reliability and validity. However, these data sets, collected several years ago, were not designed to examine the reliability and validity of the DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnosis. Many studies showed that DSM-IV dependence was reliable and valid (5), suggesting that major components of the DSM-5 substance use disorders criteria are reliable as well. However, field trials using standard methodology to minimize information variance (213) are needed to provide information on the reliability of DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnosis that can be directly compared with DSM-IV (214), in addition to studies on the antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validity of DSM-5 substance use disorders relative to DSM-IV dependence.

The amount of data available to address the topics discussed above varied, and new studies will be needed for some of the more specific issues. However, major concerns regarding the combination of abuse and dependence criteria were conclusively addressed because an astonishing amount of data was available and the results were very consistent. The recommendations for DSM-5 substance use disorders represent the results of a lengthy and intensive process aimed at identifying problems in DSM-IV and resolving these through changes in DSM-5. At the same time, the variable amount of evidence on some of the issues points the way toward studies aimed at further clarifications and improvements in future editions of DSM.

Nearly 40% decline in honey bee population last winter 'unsustainable,' experts say

Food prices could rise if the number of bees pollinating crops keeps dwindling.

Honey bee populations are continuing to decline sharply, researchers say

Scientists are researching the potential consequences of the rapid decline of the honey bee population in the U.S. and how to mitigate its effects before it causes dire problems for crop management and production.

Honey bees are essential for the pollination of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and support about $20 billion worth of crop production in the U.S. annually, Matthew Mulica, senior project manager at the Keystone Policy Center, a consulting company that works with the Honey Bee Health Coalition, told ABC News.

Worldwide, honey bees and other pollinators help to produce about $170 billion in crops, Scott McArt, assistant professor of pollinator health at Cornell University, told ABC News.

"Honey bees are one of the most important agricultural commodities in the country," Geoff Williams, an assistant professor of entomology at Auburn University who also serves on the board of directors for the Bee Informed Partnership, told ABC News.

Over the past 15 years, bee colonies have been disappearing in what is known as the "colony collapse disorder," according to National Geographic. Some regions have seen losses of up to 90%, the publication reported.

Data shows bee populations dwindling more and more each year

Between Oct. 1, 2018, and April 1, 2019, 37.7% of the managed honey bee population -- colonies kept by commercial beekeepers -- declined, which is 7 percentage points more than the same time frame during the 2017-2018 winter, according to preliminary data from the Bee Informed Partnership, a nonprofit associated with the University of Maryland.

This past winter season represents the highest level of winter losses reported since the survey began in 2006, according to the report.

For the entire year -- April 1, 2018, to April 1, 2019 -- the managed bee population decreased by 40.7%, according to the report. The overall loss rate is around the average of what researchers and beekeepers have seen since 2006, McArt said.

"The main take-home from this is these are unsustainably high losses," McArt said, adding that researchers are not necessarily alarmed at the numbers because they've become "a little bit accustomed to these large loss rates."

The number of hives that survive the winter months is an overall indicator of bee health, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Worker bees tend to live longest during the winter -- up to six months -- and just four weeks in the spring and summer, according to the American Bee Journal.

Managed colonies are shipped around the country to pollinate our food

Much of the produce seen in grocery stores -- watermelon, apples, peppers, cucumbers -- and nuts are pollinated by millions of European honey bees, or Apis mellifera, that travel across the country and are managed by commercial beekeepers, Mulica said.

These U.S. crops are produced with the help of 2.6 million colonies transported by 18-wheelers from place to place during peak flowering, McArt said. Of the $20 billion worth of U.S. crop production supported by pollinators, commercial honey bees are responsible for about half. Wild bees and other pollinators take care of the rest.

In February, about 60% of managed colonies head to California to begin almond production, McArt said.

The bees then travel to Florida to pollinate citrus crops before making their way up through the Southeast for the production of blueberries, cherries and other specialty fruits and vegetables, McArt said.

Apple pollination begins on the Northeast in June, and the last pollination event typically occurs in Maine in late June and early July for lowbush blueberries, McArt said.

The bees then go to a set location for several months, where they gather nectar and produce honey, McArt said.

Soldiers of the 4th Indian Division relax in a tent in the desert

A canteen group comprising Gurkhas, Rajputanas, Jats, Sikhs and men of the Essex Regiment, 1943, by Anthony Gross. He had requested that he travel to the Middle East to record the 4th Indian Division, who had distinguished themselves in the Battle of Alamein the previous year.

Commonwealth troops became famous as a result of their role in North Africa.

The 9th Australian Division’s defence of Tobruk, a port city in Libya, under the command of Major-General Morshead, gave them the ironic nickname the 'Rats of Tobruk'. 1st South African Division and 18th Indian Infantry Brigade defended the Alamein Line on 1 July 1942. The ensuing counterattack by 5th Indian Division and the New Zealand Division finally halted German General Erwin Rommel’s advance.

In the later Tunisian campaign, 4th Indian Division, commanded by Major-General Tuker, were present at the Eighth Amy’s last battle at Wadi Akarit, when the formation undertook a successful night attack.

The Eighth Army depended upon the manual labour of the Royal Pioneer Corps, which included units such as the Auxiliary African Pioneer Corps. Commonwealth forces also contributed to Special Forces with the New Zealanders, Indians and Rhodesians serving in the Long Range Desert Group.

Free 2-Month Weather Forecast

June 2021 Long Range Weather Forecast for Atlantic Corridor
DatesWeather Conditions
Jun 1-6 Sunny hot, then cool
Jun 7-13 Scattered showers, warm
Jun 14-19 Isolated t-storms, hot
Jun 20-30 Scattered t-storms, turning cool
June temperature 75° (4° above avg.)
precipitation 2" (1.5" below avg.)

July 2021 Long Range Weather Forecast for Atlantic Corridor
DatesWeather Conditions
Jul 1-9 Scattered t-storms, cool
Jul 10-13 Sunny, hot
Jul 14-19 Scattered t-storms, cool
Jul 20-25 A few t-storms, turning cool
Jul 26-31 Sunny, cool
July temperature 75° (1° below avg.)
precipitation 3.5" (0.5" below avg.)

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