Dirty Dark Secrets Behind Ancient Fairy Tales

Dirty Dark Secrets Behind Ancient Fairy Tales

Presumed innocent, yet dirty dark secrets are imbedded in the bedtime stories told to children. Fairy tales are magical narratives that pervade the young minds of children so deeply, leaving imprints on their subconscious that can mold their every-day lives. According to Bruno Bettelheim, the 20th century child psychologist and author on autism, ancient cultures had no hard lines: “separating myths from folklore and fairy tales; all these together form the literature of preliterate societies.”

The fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm (1916)

Fairy tales contain well refined messages of a spiritual nature which not only emulate truths about how to live life, but they hold watered-down versions of some pretty dark historical occurrences. Involving social crimes such as incest, rape, cannibalism and bestiality the original fairy tales were a lot darker and so much is this the case that many would be way too terrifying for today’s snowflake millennials to consume.

Illustration in The fairy tales of Charles Perrault 1628-1703; Clarke, Harry, 1889-1931, illustrator. London: Harrap (1922).

The Ancient Origins of Fairy Tales

The original stories which inspired later fairy tales were either told orally or dramatically reenacted, but they were never written down. This causes a lot of obscurity and uncertainty in determining not only their origins but their course of development. According to a recent BBC article, researchers at universities in Lisbon, Portugal and in Durham, England, claim some fairy tales date back more than 6,500 years.

These stories also openly exchange plots, motifs, characters and events with one another and as global travel increased, they became blended with stories from foreign lands. The Arabian Nights was compiled around 1500 AD and Chinese Taoist philosophers such as Liezi and Zhuangzi recounted fairy tales in their philosophical works, but the first famous Western fairy tales are those of Aesop written around the 6th century BC in ancient Greece.

At the earliest stages of culture ancient stories were loaded with magical and supernatural themes, for example, The Golden Ass or The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which is according to Augustine of Hippo the: “only ancient Roman novel in Latin to survive in its entirety.” The protagonist of the story, Lucius, at the end of the novel, is revealed as having been born in Madaurus, the hometown of Apuleius and the plot revolves around his ‘curiosity’ ( curiositas) and burning desire to experience and practice magic.


Tengami is an atmospheric adventure game set inside a Japanese pop-up book. Fold a slide the beautifully crafted paper world to solve puzzles and discover secrets. Go on a serene journey through Japan of ancient fairy tales brought to life through striking visuals, unique gameplay and haunting music. Experience dark forests, abandoned shrines and tranquil mountain waterfalls as you seek to uncover the secret behind the lone dying cherry tree.

Tengami is a game inside a pop-up book and plays like nothing else before it. Reach directly into the world to flip, fold and slide parts of the world to delve deeper into your mysterious journey.

A beautiful and original soundtrack by renowned composer David Wise accompanies your adventure. He is best known for his work on the Donkey Kong Country series.

Tengami's world is built as an authentically folding three dimensional pop-up book with an all new technology created just for this game. Everything seen in the game could be recreated in real-life with just paper, scissors and glue.

Tengami on the Wii U supports posting and sharing to Miiverse, as well as a set of exclusive stamps.

Language support is available for English, German, French, Italian, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, Japanese, Korean, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Russian, Danish, Swedish and Turkish.


Time Lord Fairy Tales (anthology)

Time Lord Fairy Tales is a 2015 collection of short stories. Several stories feature various incarnations of the Doctor, while others feature assorted monsters and villains. Most of the stories in the book are inspired by real-world fairy tales.

In 2016, Time Lord Fairy Tales: Slipcase Edition was published with each story given its own slipcase cover, and one new story added: The Emperor Dalek's New Clothes.


If the shoe fits, maybe don&rsquot cut off your toe: Cinderella and similar tales

Ash by Malinda Lo

&ldquoIn the wake of her father&rsquos death, Ash is left at the mercy of her cruel stepmother. Consumed with grief, her only joy comes by the light of the dying hearth fire, rereading the fairy tales her mother once told her. In her dreams, someday the fairies will steal her away, as they are said to do. When she meets the dark and dangerous fairy Sidhean, she believes that her wish may be granted.&rdquo

Happily by Chauncey Rogers

&ldquoLaure is a teenage street urchin just trying to get away. Where the rest of the world sees an enchanting love story, Laure sees royal incompetence and an opportunity to exploit it. She&rsquoll have wealth and a way out of a life she detests, if she can only manage to hoodwink the royal family and survive to tell the tale.&rdquo

Cinder by Marissa Meyer

&ldquoCINDER, a gifted mechanic in New Beijing, is also a cyborg. She&rsquos reviled by her stepmother and blamed for her stepsister&rsquos sudden illness. But when her life becomes entwined with the handsome Prince Kai&rsquos, she finds herself at the centre of a violent struggle between the desires of an evil queen&mdashand a dangerous temptation.&rdquo

Geekerella by Ashley Poston

&ldquoGeek girl Elle Wittimer lives and breathes Starfield, the classic science-fiction series she grew up watching with her late father. So when she sees a cosplay contest for a new Starfield movie, she has to enter. The prize? An invitation to the ExcelsiCon Cosplay Ball and a meet-and-greet with the actor slated to play Federation Prince Carmindor in the reboot. With savings from her gig at the Magic Pumpkin food truck and her dad&rsquos old costume, Elle&rsquos determined to win&mdashunless her stepsisters get there first.&rdquo

Deerskin by Robin McKinley (Donkeyskin)

&ldquoAs Princess Lissla Lissar reaches womanhood, it is clear to all the kingdom that in her beauty she is the image of her dead mother, the queen. But this likeness forces her to flee from her father&rsquos lust and madness and in the pain and horror of that flight she forgets who she is and what it is she flees from: forgets almost everything but the love and loyalty of her dog, Ash, who accompanies her. But a chance encounter on the road leads to a job in another king&rsquos kennels, where the prince finds himself falling in love with the new kennel maid&hellipand one day he tells her of a princess named Lissla Lissar, who had a dog named Ash.&rdquo


Characters

Erlking

The Erlking is the main subject of the story. The narrator, an innocent young woman, comes upon

him while walking through the woods one October day. She immediately becomes subject to his magical attraction, which he also uses to charm and tame the woodland animals around him. The Erlking lives in a cottage alone in the woods and lives off the bounty of nature. While he seems in some ways to be at one with nature, he also exerts a certain tyranny over it. Most significantly, he draws the birds to him with the beautiful songs of his pipe playing then he traps them in cages, which he keeps in his house.

Like the natural environment around him, the Erlking is both alluring and menacing. The narrator is drawn into a sexual relationship with him that she describes as both tender and brutal. While he seems to represent a model of masculine dominance, his power transcends gender boundaries. His young lover depicts him alternately as an overpowering mother figure that would swallow her and then give birth to her and as a butcher who skins her like a rabbit. She describes him as kind but also states that he intends to do her “grievous harm,” and she realizes that he can cage her, along with his other bird-women. She feels trapped by him but ascribes to him no malice, as if he were a force of nature or an animal merely following its instincts.

Narrator

The young woman, who narrates most of the story in the first person, meets the Erlking and, under his power, loses her grip on her own identity. Readers learn little about her except how she feels as subject to the Erlking’s strange allure. She is an innocent when she first drifts into the Erlking’s enchanted clearing, but she abruptly enters a sexual relationship with him to which she is compelled to return, despite the danger it poses to her freedom and sense of self. His eyes “eat” her and his love-making “skins” her, both “consol[ing] and devastat[ing]” her.

The songbirds that the Erlking keeps in cages in his house reflect the narrator’s plight. Like her, they are drawn to the Erlking and then entrapped by him. She sees how her relationship to him makes her small, and she anticipates that he will cage her like his other birds. This has a psychological dimension to it—suggesting the extent to which her will and sense of identity are overwhelmed by him—as well as a magical one—suggesting that he has the power to actually transform her into a bird. At the end of the story, in a passage narrated in the third person, the young woman frees all of the birds, which turn back into young women who, like her, were seduced by the Erlking. Thus, despite her enchantment by the Erlking, the young woman does see an alternative: she projects strangling the Erlking and replacing the music of caged birds with that of his hair, strung on a violin.


Mythical & Folklore Names

Abatwa - Said to be the tiniest creatures of human form in existence, these little people coexist peacefully with the ants in the anthills of Southern Africa and live on their foragings from the roots of grasses and other plants. They are very shy and so are elusive, however tend to reveal themselves to very young children, wizards, and pregnant women.

Aeval - A Faery Queen of southwestern Munster. In her district a debate was launched on whether the men were satisfying the woman's sexual needs. In a midnight court, Aeval heard both sides and then decreed the men wrong and sentenced them to overcome their prudishness and accede to the woman's needs. (Kisma)

Angiaks - children of the living dead of Eskimo lore. In hard times, unwanted babies were taken out into the snow by tribal elders to die of exposure. Unless the tribe would move to a new hunting ground, they would often find themselves haunted by this small, miserable ghost.

Ankou - the faerie version of the grim reaper. Sometimes he's portrayed as a benevolent, comforting figure.

Anthropophagi - a cannibal faerie. He has no head, but his eyes sit atop his shoulders and a mouth may be found in his torso. His lack of a nose allows him to eat human flesh without gagging.

Asparas - Usually female, also known as sky-dancers. They bless humans at important stages in their lives, and are often seen at weddings. They live in fig trees and sometimes appear to scholars or scientists, seduce and exhaust them, making sure they don't venture into areas that the spirit world deems unfit.

Asrai - are small and delicate female faeries who melt away into a pool of water when captured or exposed to sunlight.

Aughisky - (Agh-iski) They are the Irish version of the Each-Uisge.

Bean-Nighe - (ben-neeya) Similiar to that of the Banshee. The Washing women is the type of Banshee who haunts the lonely streams of Scotland and Ireland. Washing the blood-stained garments of those about to die. It is said that these spirits are the ghosts of women who died in childbirth and that they are fated to perform their task until the day when they would have normally died.

Barguest - A kind of Bogie. It has horns, dangerous teeth and claws, and fiery eyes. It can take many forms, but usually is a shaggy black dog. Upon the death of a prominent figure, it rounds up all the dogs in the community and leads them on a procession through the streets, howling.

Bauchan - also Bogan. A type of Hobgoblin. Like most faeries, they are fond of tricks, sometimes are dangerous, and sometimes are helpful.

Bendith y Mamau (ben-dith uh momay) - Mother's Blessing, which was the name of the fairies of the Carmarthenshire country in Wales this saying became a prayer spoken to ward-off harm.

Black Annis - See Hags.

Blue Men of the Minch - - They dwell in the strait between Long Island and the Shiant Islands. They are responsible for sudden thunderstorms and shipwrecks, but their ship-sinking attempts may be thwarted if you are an adept rhymer. Some think they may be fallen angels.

Bodach - also Bugbear or Bug-A-Boo. They slide down chimneys to kidnap naughty children.

Boggart - Brownies that have turned evil.

Bogie - This is the generic name for some different types of Goblins. Their temperments range the spectrum from benign to malevolent.

Bogles - Generally evil-natured Goblins although they are more disposed to do harm to liars and murderers.

Bokwus - A fearsome spirit in the great northwestern American spruce forests. He is only seen in glimpses, but has been seen wearing totemic face paints. Hunters are very aware of his presence. He likes to push fishermen off the banks to drown, taking teh victim's soul to his home in the forest

Brown Man of the Muirs - Protector of wild beasts.

Brownie - His territory extends over the Lowlands of Scotland and up into the Highlands and Islands all over the north and east of England and into the Midlands. With a natural linguistic variation, he becomes the BWCA of Wales, the Highland Bodach and the Manx Fenodoree. In the West Country, Pixies or Pisgies occassionally perform the offices of a brownie and show some of the same characteristics, though they are essentially different. Border brownies are most characteristic. They are small men, about three feet in height, very raggedly dressed in brown clothes, with brown faces and shaggy heads, who come out at night to do the work that has been left undone by the servants. They make themselves responsible for the farm or house in which they live: reap, mow, her the sheep, prevent the hens from laying away, run errands, and give good counsel at need. A brownie can become personally attached to one member of the family.

Bugul-Noz - He's a forest dweller, a shepherd. He's very unattractive and he knows it, but he yearns for human companionship.

Bwca - The Welsh name for the Brownie. They have slightly nastier tempers and are prone to tantrums if their work is criticized. They also despise tattletales and people with long noses.

Cannered-Noz - Breton version of the Bean-Sidhe.

Cluricaun - After his day's labors the Leprechaun enjoys a night's revelry and then becomes known as the Cluricaun (kloor-a-kawn). He raids wine cellars and is known to take wild drunken rides through the moonlight on the backs of sheep or shepherds dogs.

Coblynau - Welsh Mine Goblin. Cousins to the Cornish Knockers. These creatures using mining tools, are seen working industriously at the seam faces. The knocking of their picks and hammers is lucky, a sign of heavy ore content.

Corrigan - Malignant nature spirits found in Brittany, often associated with phantoms of the dead.

Cururipur - A powerful South American spirit who owned the jungle and tortures tortoise hunters since the tortoises are his friends

Daoine Maithe - "The Good People" Similar to the Gentry, they were said to be next to heaven at the Fall, but did not fall Some think they are a people expecting salvation.

Disir - these are spirits who attach themselves to a particular place, usually man made, like houses. Especially old houses. They are generally feminine ancestral spirits.

Duergar - These are a malicious form of Dwarf from Northern England. They revel in tricking people into dying.

Dwarfs - Germany/Isle of Rugen/Swiss mountains. Short but powerfully built, they are generally bearded and aged in appearance, this is because they reach maturity when only three years old and are grey bearded by the age of seven. Their homes aree the mountains of Scandinavia and Germany where they mine for precious metals to work into arms and armour and other artifacts which are often endowed with magic. They cannot appear above ground tho one ray of sunlight and they will turn to stone. Other accounts say they spend daylight hours as toads.

Dybbuk - a Jewish demonic spirit capable of possessing humans.

Each-Uisge - (Ech-ooshkya) They are similar to the Kelpie, but far more dangerous. They inhabit lochs and seas and will eat their victims after tearing them into pieces, except for the liver, which they leave. If they are ridden inland, they are safe to ride, but if they catch the slightest whiff of the sea air.

Ekimmu - One of the uttuku, evil or vengeful spirits of the ancient Assyrians, the ekimmu appeared wailing and crying outside a home to signal an impending death, much like a Banshee.

Ellyllon - The name given to the Welsh elves. They are tiny, diaphanous fairies whose food is toadstools and fairy butter, a fungoid substance found in the roots of old trees and in limstone crevices. Their queen is Mab.

Elves - In Scandinavian mythology the fairy people were elves and were divided into two classes, the light elves and the dark elves, like the Seelie and Unseelie Court. In Scotland the fairy people of human size were often called elves and Faeryland was Elfame in England it was the smaller Trooping Fay who were called elves, and the name was particularly applied to small fairy boys.

ErlKonig - he is the "Elf King" in Germany. He's been known to warn people of their pending deaths. How he appears will relay to that person how he or she is going to die.

Fachan, The - From the West Highlands of Scotland.

Fays - The dialect name in Northumberland.

Fair Family or Fair Folk - The euphemistic name used by the Welsh for the fairies. (See Tylwyth Teg.)

Farisees, or Pharisees - The Suffolk name for fairies. The Suffolk children used to be confused between the farisees and the biblical mentions of the Pharises.

Fary - The dialect name in Northumberland.

Feeorin - A small fairy that is indicated as being, green-coated, generally red-capped, and with the usual fairy traits of love of dancing and music.

Fees - The fairiers of Upper Brittany.

Fenoderee - A type of Brownie from the Isle of Man. A willing worker of prodigious strength, the Fenoderee performs many labours for the farmers of Man. The Fenoderee was a member of the Ferrishyn - the faerie tribe of Man, until he made the mistake of absenting himself from their Autumn festival to court a mortal girl. His good looks were taken from him and he became the solitary, ugly creature he is now.

Feriers, or Ferishers - Another Suffolk name for the fairies.

Ferries - The usual name for the Shetland and Ocadian fairies.

Ferrishyn (Ferrishin) - A Manx name for the fairie tribe the singular is "ferrish". They are the Trooping Fairies of Man, though there does not seem to be any distinction between them and the Sleih Beggey. They are less aristocratic than the fairies of Ireland and Wales, and they have no named fairy king or queen. They were small, generally described as three feet in height, though sometimes as one foot. They could hear whatever was said out of doors. Every wind stirring carried the sound to their ears, and this made people very careful to speak of them favorably.

Fetes - The Fates of Upper Brittany.

Fir Darrig - (Fear dearg) delights in practical joking of a rather gruesome nature and therefore it is probably safer to humor him.

Foawr (fooar) - Manx equivalent of Highland Fomorians/giants, stone-throwing.

Frairies - The Norfolk and Suffolk, local version of the word "fairy".

Fyglia - a sort of personal spirit. They often take an animal form. The Native Americans call them "fetches" and use them as totems. They serve mostly as personal guardians.

Gans - Apache Indian shamen offer prayers to the Gans, asking them to drive evil spirits away and to attract good fortune.

Gentry, the - The most noble tribe of all the fairies in Ireland. A big race who came from the planets and usually appear in white. The Irish used to bless the Gentry for fear of harm otherwise.

Ghillie Dhu - A Scottish solitary faerie who inhabits certain birch hickets. His clothing is made of leaves and moss.

Glaistig, The - is a water faerie and is part seductive woman, part goat. The goat-like attributes she tries to hide under a long flowing green dress. The Glaistig lures men to dance with her before she feeds, vampire-like, on their blood. Her nature is typically faerie-perverse for she can also be benign and gently tend children or old people. She will also sometimes herd cattle for farmers.

Goblins - A breed of small, swarthy, malicious beings-although 'goblin' as a term is often used as a general name for thee uglier inhabitants of Faerie. They sometimes appear in the shape of animals which appropriately reflects their bestial nature. They are the thieves and villains of Faerie, companions to the Dead, especially on Halloween.

Golem - a Jewish zombie-like spirit who is to avenge a wrongful death.

Good Neighbors - One of the most common Scottish and Irish names for the fairies.

Good People - The Irish often referred to their Sidhe in this manner. (See Daoine Maithe)

Grant - a small horse which stands upright each Grant is attached to a particular place and when he senses danger will tun through the town shouting warnings.

Green Children, The - The fairy are recorded in the medieval chronicles under such a name.

Green Lady of Caerphilly, The - Takes on the appearance of Ivy when she is not walking through the ruined castles she haunts.

Greencoaties - The name for the fairies that dwell in Lincolnshire Fen country.

Greenies - The euphemistic name used for the fairies in Lancashire, associated with the Jacobean Fairies.

Grey Neighbours, the - One of the euphemistic names for the fairies given by the Shetlanders to the Trows, the small gray-clad goblins whom the Shetlanders used to propitiate and fear, using against them many of the means used all over the islands as protection against fairies.

Guillyn Veggey - The Little Boys is a Manx term for the fairies who dwell on the Isle of Man.

Gwragedd Annwn, The - are Welsh water faeries, beautiful Lake Maidens who occassionally take mortals to be their husbands. One well-known legend tells of a young man who used to graze his cattle by a small lake near the Black Mountains. One day he saw a most enchanting creature rowing gently to and fro in a golden boat on the surface of the lake. He fell deeply in love with her and offered her some of the bread he had brought from home for his midday meal. She answered that the bread was too hard and disappeared into the depths. The young man's mother gave him some unbaked dough to take with him the next day and he offered this to the faerie but she answered that it was too soft and again disappeared. On the third day he took some lightly baked bread, which passed. Three figures rose from the lake, and old man with a beautiful daughter on either side of him. The girls were identical and the father told the young farmer that he was willing to offer him the daughter with whom he was in love if he could point her out. The farmer would have given up in despair but one slightly moved her foot and he, recognizing her slipper, won her hand. The young farmer was warned that he would lose his wife if he ever should strike her three times causelessly. The Gwragedd Annwn had somme curious faerie ways would weep at weddings and laugh at funerals, which led her husband to strike her, and she was forced to leave him. Though her sons she had left behind with all of their faery teachings they became great physicians.

Gwyllion (gwithleeon) - The evil mountain fairies of Wales. They are hideous female spirits who waylay and mislead travelers by night on the mountain roads. They were friends and patrons of the goats, and might indeed take goat form.

Hags - inhabiting the British Isles, who seem to personify winter, are probably survivals of the oldest goddesses. Some turn, like winter into Spring, from hideously ugly old wommen into beautiful young maidens, and others like Black Annis are cannibalistic.

Henkies - One of the names given to the Trows of Orkney and Shetland.

Hobgoblin - Used by the Puritans and in later times for wicked goblin spirits, but its more correct use is for the friendly spirits of the Brownie type. Hobgoblin was considered an ill omened word. "Hob" and "Lob" are words meaning the same kind of creature as the Hobgoblin. They are on the whole good-humored and ready to be helpful, but fond of practical joking.

Host, The - See Unseelie Court.

Huacas - Incan myth speaks of Huacas, stone forms of sprits or divine beings who watched over fields.

Huldafolk - the huldafolk are fairly reclusive Scandinavian faeriefolk.

Hyster-sprites - Lincolnshire and East Anglian fairies/small and sandy-colored, with green eyes.

Jack-In-Irons - A Yorkshire giant who haunts lonely roads.

Jenny Greenteeth - Yorkshire River Hag who drowns children.

Jimmy Squarefoot - Frightening appearance but reletively harmless.

Kachina - Ancestor spirits of the Pueblo Indians in North America. The Hopi also believed in kachinas, believing them to be the souls of virtuous dead people.

Kelpie, The - is a Scottish water faerie. Although sometimes appearing in the guise of a hairy man, this is more often seen in the form of a young horse. The Kelpie haunts rivers and streams and, after letting unsuspecting humans mount him, will dash into the water and give them a dunking. Each-Uisge (ech-ooshkya) or Aughisky (agh-iski) as he is known in Ireland, inhabits seas and lochs and is far more dangerous.

Killmoulis, The - particularly ugly Brownie who haunts mills. He is characterized by an enormous nose and no mouth. To eat he presumably stuffs the food up his nose. Although a Killmoulis works hard for the miller, he delights in practical jokes and can therefore be a hindrance rather than a help.

Klaboutermannikin - they inhabit the figureheads of ships, giving them guidance and protection.

Klippe - The Forfarshire name for a fairy.

Kobolds - These are the German version of Knockers. They are known for causing problems for the miners and undoing their progress. To keep the miners guessing, they occasionally help them.

Korred - bizarre-looking and capricious but generally good-natured guardians of Brittany's standing stones.

Kubera - King of the Yakshas, the god of wealth. Usually depicted as a dwarfish figure with a paunch, bearing a money bag or pomegranate and seated on a man.

Kul - A water spirit of the Eskimos in the Arctic, Kul may be malevolent but generally helps the Northern peoples with their fishing. As a show of gratitude, it is customary to offer him some of the fish caughts at the beginning of the season.

Leannan Sidhe - This has two definitions.

Leprechaun - Generally described as a fairy shoemaker, this creature is a red-capped fellow whostays around pure springs and is known to haunt cellars. He spends his time drinking and smoking. One branch of the Leprechaun is known as the Fir Darrig, who is a practical joker both are of the Solitary Fairies. Leprechauns have also been associated with the Earth-elemental Gnome, and when so done, is described as being a merry little fellow dressed all in green, instead of wearing a red cap, a leather apron, drab clothes and buckled shoes, and the boy, who has fairy blood in him, succeeds in winning a wealth of treasure from an underground cave, keeps his gain secret, and is the founder of a prosperous familiy.

Li'l Fellas, the - Another Manx euphemistic name for The Good Neightbours.

Little Folk - See Sleight Beggey.

Little People of the Passamaquoddy Indians, the - There are two kinds of Little People among the Passamaquoddy Indians, the Nagumwa-suck and Mekumwasuck. Both kinds are two and a half to three feet in height, and both are grotesquely ugly. The Passamaquoddy Indians, wholived close to the Canadian border, used to migrate to the ocean in the summer and move inland in the winter. When they moved, their fairies moved with them. The little People can only be seen by the Indians. They live in the woods and are fantastically and individually dressed. Their faces are covered with hair, which strikes an alien note to the Indians. Oral tradition has it that they were made of stone.

Lunantishess - The tribes that guard the blackthorn trees or sloes in Ireland they let you cut no stick on the eleventh of November (the original November Day), or on the eleventh of May (the original May Day).

Ly Erg - This faerie yearns to be a soldier. He dresses like one and cannot be distinguished from human soldiers except by his red-stained hands, red from the blood he has shed.

Mazikeen - also known as the shideem or shehireem, these Jewish faeries know much of magic and enchantment. They were born when Adam and Eve were excommunicated for 130 years for eating of the tree of knowledge. Female spirits lay with Adam, and male spirits with Eve, and of these unions were born the Mazikeen. They are a rank betweenmen and angels. They have wings and can fly, tell the future, and like to feast and drink, marry and have children. They can also shapeshift.

Mermaids - entice human lovers with their songs of enchantment. They cause ship-wrecking storms and are most frequently seen combing their long hair whilst admiring themselves in mirrors.

Merrows - The Irish Merpeople are called Merrows and they can be distinguished from other sea-dwelling faeries in that they wear red feather caps to propel themselves down to their homes in the depths. Should their caps be stolen, they can no longer return to their watery homes. The female Merrow are very beautiful and, like other mermaids, appear before storms as an omen, but they are gentle by nature and often fall in love with mortal fishermen. This can partly be explained by the extreme ugliness of the male Merrows. Despite their alaming aspect, the males too have their redeeming features as they are generally jovial in character.

Mooinjer Veggey (moo-in-jer vegar) - The Little People is a familiar Manxman term for the faeries who dwell on the Isle of Man see Sleigh Beggey.

Mother Holle - A crone who lives at the bottom of old wells. She dispenses justice and might aid you with guidance and divination if she likes you.

Mumiai - best known for persecuting peasants, especially those of the lowest castes, who had stolen from their neighbors or demonstrated their dirty habits. The Mumiai toss their belongings in the air, break their pottery and trample on their gardens, finally forcing them to moveout of their villages.

Muryans - Muryan is the Cornish word for ant. The Cornish belief about the fairies was that they were the souls of ancient heathen people, too good for Hell and too bad for Heaven, who had gradually declined from their natural size, and were dwindling down until they became the size of ants, after which they vanished from this state and no one knew what became of them.

Nagas - Nagas are human from the waist up and snake from the waist down and are often seen wearing hooded canopies or with seven or more heads. Both sexes are extraordinarily beautiful and several royal Indian families claim to be descended from them. They bite humans who are evil or destined to die prematurely. Buddhists regard them as minor deities and door guardians.

Nuckelavee - is surely the most awful of the Scottish sea fairies. A monstrous horse with legs that are part flipper, a huge mouth and one fiery eye and, rising from its back joined to it at the waist, a hideous torso with arms that nearly reach the ground, topped by a massive head that rolls from side to side as though its neck was too weak to hold it upright. Worse than this tho is the horrible appearance of the creatures flesh, for it has no skin. Black blood coursing through yellow veins, white sinews and powerful red muscles are exposed. The Nuckelavee has an aversion to fresh running water and the pursued have only to cross it to escape.

Nunnehi - Cherokee version of elves. They live in towns beneath the ground. Nunnehi are saddened by the suffering incurred by the Cherokee and occasionally offer assistance. Nunnehi led the Cherokee to Pilot Knob, North Carolina, where they passed through the realm of the Nunnhei and were safe.

Oannes - Fish-headed beings from another world, these were considered to be sea-gods by the ancient Chaldeans. Oannes lived among men by day, building the great Sumerian civilization and teaching art, science, and religion, while at night they returned to the Persian Gulf to swim in the ocean.

Ohdows - a race of small, well-formed people with the features of the Native Americans who live underground in North America. They use their magic to subdue the earth spirits who cause earthquakes.

Old People, the - Another Cornish name for the fairies.

Pechs, or Pehts - The Scottish Lowland names for fairies and are confused in tradition with the Picts, the mysterious people of Scotland who built the Pictish brughs and possibly also the round stone towers. The Pechs were considered tremendous castle builders and were credited with the construction of many of the ancient castles. They could not bear the light of day and so only worked at night, when they took refuge in their brughs or "sitheans" at sunrise. It seems likely that some historic memory of an aboriginal race contributed one strand to the twisted cord of fairy tradition.

Peg Powler - One of the many Green Hags with sharp teeth who drag their victims down to watery graves.

People of Peace - The Irish often refered to the Sidhe in this manner. The word sidhe means peace. See Daoine Sidhe in Faery Lineage.

People in the Hills, the - Fairies who live under the green mounds, or tumuli, all over England.

Phooka - an Irish Goblin with a variety of rough beast-like forms. He appears sometimes as a dog or a horse, or even a bull, but is generally jet-black with blazing eyes. As seemingly friendly, shaggy, sway-backed pony Phooka offers the unwary traveller a welcome lift but once astride he is taken for a wild and terrifying gallop across the wettest and most thorny country, eventually to be dumped headlong into the mire or deposited in a ditch. The chuckle is that of the Phooka as he gallops away.

Picts - The original peoples who dwelled in the northeastern coast of Ireland. They were called the "Cruithne" and migrated down from Gaul or Galia (France). As the conquering waves of invaders arrived in Ireland, eventually the Picts retreated to the woods and lived in caves and underground forts. They were a small, dark people and became known as the classic Faery-people. See Pechs.

Pigsies - See Pixies.

Pixies, or Pigsies, or Piskies - These are the West Country fairies belonging to Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. There are varing traditions about the size, appearance and origin of the Pixies, but all accounts agree about their being dressed in green and about their habit of misleading travelers.

Plant Rhys Dwfen (plant hree thoovn) - The family name of a tribe of fairy people who inhabited a small land which was invisible because of certain herb that grew on it. They were handsome people, rather below the average in height, and it was their custom to attend the market in Cardigan and pay such high prices for the goods there that the ordinary buyer could not compete with them. They were honest and resolute in their dealings, and grateful to people who treated them kindly.

Polevik - a Polish faerie, he appears as a two-footed goat and helps to bring in the harvest.

Portunes - Small agricultural fairies. It was their habit to labor on farms, and at night when the doors were shut they would blow up the fire, and, taking frogs from their bosoms, they would roast them on the coals and eat them. They were like very old men with wrinkled faces and wore patched coats.

Puck - Thanks to Shakespeare, the most famous of the mischievous shape-shifting hobgoblins. He is closely related to the Welsh Pwca and the Irish Phooka.

Rakshasas - shapeshifting demon-goblins. They can appear as mosters, animals, or beautiful women to seduce holy men and then eat them. They have side tusks, ugly eyes, curling awkward brows, bull's heads, bloated bellies, tangled hair, and nackward pointing hands. They can cause leprosy, raise the dead, and regenerate severed limbs.

Redcap - is one of the most evil of the old Border Goblins. He lives in old ruined towers and castles, particularly those with a history of wickedness. He re-dyes his cap in human blood.

Roane - Irish name for the Selkie.

Seelie Court - Blessed Court Name of the kindly fairy host, or benovolent Faery of the positive polarity, and is generally used to describe the Scottish fairies. The malignant fairies were sometimes called the Unseelie Court.

Selkies - The seas around Orkney and Shetland harbor the Selkies or Seal-Faeries (known as Roane in Ireland). A female Selkie is able to discard her seal-skin and come ashore as a beautiful maiden. If a human can capture this skin, the Selkie can be forced to become a fine, if wistful, wife. However, should she ever find her skin she immediately returns to the sea, leaving the husband to pine and die. The males raise storms and upturn boats to avenge the indiscriminate slaughter of seals.

Shellycoat - A Scottish bogie who haunts fresh water streams and is festooned with shells which clatter when he moves. He takes pleasure in tricking and bewildering travelers and leading them astray.

Sidhe, Sith, or Si (shee) - The Gaelic name for fairie, both in Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. Very tall beings that seem to either shine or appear opalescent. The shining beings belong to the earthly realm while the opalescent beings belong to the heavenly world. As with any shamanic practice there are three great worlds which we can see while we are still in the body: the heavenly, the earthly, and underworldly realms.

Silent Moving Folk - The Scottish fairies who live in green knolls and in the mountain fastnesses of the Highlands. See Still-folk.

Sleigh Beggey (sleigh beargar) - The Little Folk. A name given to fairies in the Manx tongue.

Sluagh (slooa) - The most formidable of the Highland fairy people The host of the Unforgiven Dead. By some scholars, they are regarded as the fallen angels, not the dead, but on the whole their accounts correspond closely to that given by Alexander Carmichael in 'Carmina Gadelica'

Small People of Cornwall, the - Fairies were sometimes spoken of this way in Cornwall.

Solitary Fairies - The fairies who are chiefly malignant or ominous creatures, comprise this group, although there may be a few nature spirits or dwindled gods among them. An exception is the Brownie and its variants - though there are few family groups among the Brownies - some think that they were unacceptable in Faeryland because of their ragged, unkept appearance, and that they went off to the Seelie Court when they were properly dressed. However, this is only one school of thought on the subject. Other creatures, such as the Lepracaun, Pooka, and Bean Si, also comprise this group.

Spriggans - Grotesque and ugly in shape. Although quite small, they have the ability to inflate themselves into monstrous forms which has led humans to believe them to be the ghosts of old giants. Apart from their useful function as guardians of hill treasure, Spriggans are an infamous band of villains, skilled thieves, thoroughly destructive and often dangerous. They are capable of robbing human houses, kidnapping children (and leaving a repulsive baby Spriggan in exhange) causing whirlwinds to destroy fields of corn, blighting crops and all manner of other unpleasant mischief.

Sprites - A general name for fairies and other spirits such as Sylphs and nerieds.

Still-Folk - The Scottish name for the Highland fairies. See Silent Moving Folk.

Themselves, They, or Them that's in it - The most common Manx names used in place of the word "fairy", which was generally considered an unlucky word to use. It is sometimes said that "themselves" are the souls of those drowned in Noah's flood.

Tiddy Ones, Tiddy Men, or Tiddy People - The Lincolnshire fenman's nature spirits, which are also referred to as the Yarthkins or Strangers. Most of them were undifferentiated, a drifting mass of influenced and powers rather than individuals. The one among them personally known and almost beloved was the Tiddy Mun, who was invoked in times of flood to withdraw the waters.

Tokolosh - A South African faerie Tokolosh is a sullen spirit who lives beside streams, throwing stones into the water on still nights. He is famous for frightening lone travelers, usually by jumping on a small animal or bird and strangling it so that the poor animal's panicked cry alarms the traveler. He is described as being something like a baboon, but smaller and without a tail, and covered with black hair.

Trolls - Cave Dwellers, Scandinavian faeries who hate sunlight.

Trooping Fay or Faery - The Faery have been divided into two main classes: trooping and Solitary. It is a distinction that hold good throughout the British Isles, and is indeed valid wherever fairy beliefs are held. The trooping fay can be large or small, friendly or sinister. They tend to wear green jackets, while the Solitary Faery wear red jackets. They can range from the Heroic Faery to the dangerrous and malevolent Sluagh, or tose Diminutive Fairies who include the tiny nature spirits that make the fairy rings with their dancing and speed the growth of flowers.

Trows - Live on the Shetland Islands, similiar to the Scandinavian Trolls and like them, have an aversion to daylight. They are frequently observed performing a curious lop-sided dance called 'Henking'

Tylwyth Teg (terlooeth teig) - The Fair Family. The most unusual name for Welsh fairies, though they are sometimes called Bendith Y Mammau, in an attempt to avert their kidnapping activities by invoking a euphemistic name. They are fair-haired, and love golden hair. They dance and make fairy rings. They are like the Daoine Sidhe, and dwell underground or underwater. The fairy maidens are easily won as wives and will live with human husbands for a time. The danger of visiting them in their own country lies in the miraculous passage of time in Faeryland. They give riches totheir favourites, but these gifts vanish if they are spoken of.

Unseelie Court - Unblessed Court They are never under any circumstances favorable to mankind. They comprise the Slaugh, or The Host, that is, the band of the unsanctified dead. The Unseelie Court are the malignant Faery of the negative polarity, made up of Solitary Faery.

Urisk - is a scttish solitary faerie who haunts lonely pools. He will often seek out human company but his peculiar appearance terrifies those he approaches.

Verry Volk - The name of the fairies in Gower of Wales little people dressed in scarlet and green.

Virikas - Never more than eighteen inches tall, these unpleasant spectral entities can be recognized by their flaming red color and their horribly pointed, bloodstained teeth. They gather outside the homes of men soon to die and jabber excitedly. To prevent this, people can erect a small shrine in their honor and burn daily gifts of flowers and spices for them.

Water Leaper - Preys on Welsh Fishermen.

Wee Folk - One of the Scottish and Irish names for the fairies.

White Ladies, the - The use of White Ladies for both ghosts and fairies is an indication of the close connection between fairies and the dead. The White Ladies were direct descendants of the Tuatha De Danann.

Wichtlein - from Southern Germany behave in much the same way as goblins. They announce the death of a miner by tapping three times. When a disaster is about to happen they are heard digging, pounding and imitating miners work.

Will O' the Wisp - No one is quite sure what these distant floating balls of flame are, but they are generally associated with and are sometimes thought of as faeries in the British Isles. They are sometimes thought to be the souls of children who have died and like to cause mischief.

Yakshas - Benevolent nature spirits they are the guardians of tresures hidden in the earth and the roots of trees. Their ruler is Kubera, who lives on a mountain in the Himalayas. They are deities of cities, districts, lakes, and wells, and are thought to have originated from a cult of the ancient Dravidians.

Yann-an-Od - Kindly old shepherd who tends sheep. He might have once been a faerie king. He's rather shy of humans.

Yumboes - Located on Goree Island, south of the Cape Verde Peninsula in Senegal, West Africa. They are two feet tall with pearly skin and silver hair. They are also called the "Bakhna Rakhna" which translates to "The Good People." They enjoy dancing and feasting by moonlight and live in magnificent subterranean dwellings in the Paps, groups of hills about three miles from the coast. Guests to their homes report lavishly decorated tables and servants invisible except for their hands and feet. They like to eat fish.


Movies based on ancient fairy tales

Fantasy Adventure. Acclaimed director Tim Burton brings his vividly imaginative style to the beloved Roald Dahl classic Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, about eccentric chocolatier Willy Wonka (Depp) and Charlie, a good-hearted boy from a poor family who lives in the shadow of Wonka's extraordinary factory. Long isolated from his own family, Wonka launches a worldwide contest to select an heir to his candy empire. Five lucky children, including Charlie, draw golden tickets from Wonka chocolate bars and win a guided tour of the legendary candy-making facility that no outsider has seen in 15 years. Dazzled by one amazing sight after another, Charlie is drawn into Wonka's fantastic world in this astonishing and enduring story.

Actors: Angelina Jolie, Elle Fanning, Sharlto Copley

Maleficent explores the untold story of Disney&rsquos most iconic villain from the classic Sleeping Beauty and the elements of her betrayal that ultimately turn her pure heart to stone. Driven by revenge and a fierce desire to protect the moors over which she presides, Maleficent cruelly places an irrevocable curse upon the human king&rsquos newborn infant Aurora. As the child grows, Aurora is caught in the middle of the seething conflict between the forest kingdom she has grown to love and the human kingdom that holds her legacy. Maleficent realizes that Aurora may hold the key to peace in the land and is forced to take drastic actions that will change both worlds forever.

Actors: Nicholas Hoult, Eleanor Tomlinson, Ewan McGregor, Stanley Tucci, Ian McShane, Bill Nighy

An age-old war is reignited when a young farmhand unwittingly opens a gateway between our world and a fearsome race of giants. Unleashed on the Earth for the first time in centuries, the long-banished giants strive to reclaim the land they once lost, forcing the young man, Jack (Nicholas Hoult), into the battle of his life to stop them. Fighting for a kingdom, its people, and the love of a brave princess, he comes face to face with the unstoppable warriors he thought only existed in legend . . . and gets the chance to become a legend himself.

Actors: Matt Damon, Heath Ledger, Peter Stormare, Lena Headey, Monica Bellucci

Matt Damon and Heath Ledger team up to bring you one of the year's most fantastic adventures in this magical tale based on the lives of the legendary storytellers. Will and Jake Grimm (Damon and Ledger) dazzle small towns with their imaginative folklore and elaborate illusions, but when the brothers journey into a real enchanted forest they encounter many of the fantastic characters and thrilling situations found in their beloved fairy tales!

Actors: Amanda Seyfried, Gary Oldman

Valerie (Amanda Seyfried) is in love with a brooding outsider Peter (Shiloh Fernandez), but her parents have arranged for her to marry the wealthy Henry (Max Irons). Unwilling to lose each other, Valerie and Peter are planning to run away together when they learn that Valerie's older sister has been killed by the werewolf that prowls the dark forest surrounding their village. For years, the people have maintained an uneasy truce with the beast, but the wolf has upped the stakes by taking a human life. Hungry for revenge, the people call on famed werewolf hunter, Father Solomon (Gary Oldman), to help them kill the wolf. But Solomon's arrival brings unintended consequences as he warns that the wolf, who takes human form by day, could be any one of them. Panic grips the town as Valerie discovers that she has a unique connection to the beast-one that inexorably draws them together, making her both suspect. and bait.

Actors: Mia Wasikowska, Johnny Depp, Anne Hathaway

Tumble down the rabbit hole with Alice for a fantastical adventure! Inviting and magical, Alice In Wonderland is an imaginative new twist on one of the most beloved stories of all time. Alice (Mia Wasikowska), now 19 years old, returns to the whimsical world she first entered as a child and embarks on a journey to discover her true destiny. This Wonderland is a world beyond your imagination and unlike anything you've seen before. The extraordinary characters you've loved come to life richer and more colorful than ever. There's the Mad Hatter (Johnny Depp), the White Queen (Anne Hathaway), the Red Queen (Helena Bonham Carter), the White Rabbit (Michael Sheen) and more. A triumphant cinematic experience, Alice In Wonderland is an incredible feast for your eyes, ears and heart that will captivate audiences of all sizes.

Snow white and the huntsman

Actors: Charlize Theron, Chris Hemsworth, Kristen Stewart, Bob Hoskins

From the Producer of Alice in Wonderland comes a new vision that turns a legendary tale into an action-adventure epic. The evil Queen Ravenna (Academy Award® winner Charlize Theron) will rule forever if she can take the life of Snow White (Kristen Stewart), so she dispatches the Huntsman (Chris Hemsworth) to track her down. But the wicked ruler never imagined that the Huntsman would train the girl to become a brave warrior, skilled in the art of war. Filled with intense battles and spectacular visual effects, Snow White & the Huntsman is a thrilling experience that &ldquoshouldn&rsquot be missed&rdquo &ndash Shawn Edwards, Fox-TV.

Actors: Meryl Streep, Emily Blunt, Anna Kendrick, Chris Pine, Johnny Depp

Into the Woods is a modern twist on the beloved Brothers Grimm fairy tales, intertwining the plots of a few choice stories and exploring the consequences of the characters&rsquo wishes and quests. This humorous and heartfelt musical follows the classic tales of Cinderella (Anna Kendrick), Little Red Riding Hood (Lilla Crawford), Jack and the Beanstalk (Daniel Huttlestone), and Rapunzel (MacKenzie Mauzy)&mdashall tied together by an original story involving a baker and his wife (James Corden and Emily Blunt), their wish to begin a family, and their interaction with the witch (Meryl Streep) who has put a curse on them. Rob Marshall, the talented filmmaker behind the Academy Award®-winning musical &ldquoChicago&rdquo and Disney&rsquos &ldquoPirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides,&rdquo helms the film, which is based on the Tony®-winning original musical by James Lapine, who also penned the screenplay, and legendary composer Stephen Sondheim, who provides the music and lyrics.

Alice through the looking glass

Actors: Mia Wasikowska, Johnny Depp, Anne Hathaway, Sacha Baron Cohen

Alice (Mia Wasikowska) has spent the past few years following in her father&rsquos footsteps and sailing the high seas. Upon her return to London, she comes across a magical looking glass and returns to the fantastical realm of Underland and her friends. There she discovers that the Mad Hatter (Johnny Depp) has lost his Muchness, so the White Queen (Anne Hathaway) sends her on a quest to borrow the Chronosphere, a metallic globe inside the chamber of the Grand Clock that powers all time. Returning to the past, she embarks on a perilous race to save the Hatter before time runs out.

Hansel and Gretel: witch hunters

Actors: Jeremy Renner, Gemma Arterton, Famke Janssen, Peter Stormare

After getting a taste for blood as children, Hansel (Jeremy Renner) and Gretel (Gemma Arterton) have become the ultimate vigilantes, hell bent on retribution. Now, unbeknownst to them, Hansel and Gretel have become the hunted, and must face an evil far greater than witches. their past.

Charlie and the cocolate factory

Fantasy Adventure. Acclaimed director Tim Burton brings his vividly imaginative style to the beloved Roald Dahl classic Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, about eccentric chocolatier Willy Wonka (Depp) and Charlie, a good-hearted boy from a poor family who lives in the shadow of Wonka's extraordinary factory. Long isolated from his own family, Wonka launches a worldwide contest to select an heir to his candy empire. Five lucky children, including Charlie, draw golden tickets from Wonka chocolate bars and win a guided tour of the legendary candy-making facility that no outsider has seen in 15 years. Dazzled by one amazing sight after another, Charlie is drawn into Wonka's fantastic world in this astonishing and enduring story.


Folklore and Mythology Electronic Texts

    Folk and Mythology Electronic Texts, page 2.

    . The aliens in these legends are not men from outer space but the underground folk: fairies, trolls, elves, and the like.
    1. The Recovered Bride (Ireland).
    2. Taken by the Good People (Ireland).
    3. Twenty Years with the Good People (Ireland).
    4. Ethna the Bride (Ireland).
    5. Jamie Freel and the Young Lady (Ireland).
    6. Ned the Jockey (Wales).
    7. The Old Man and the Fairies (Wales).
    8. A Visit to Fairyland (Wales).
    9. Four Years in Faery (Isle of Man).
    10. The Lost Wife of Ballaleece (Isle of Man).
    11. On Fairies (England).
    12. The Lost Child (England).
    13. The Fairies' Hill (Scotland).
    14. The Stolen Lady (Scotland).
    15. Touching the Elements (Shetland Islands).
    16. The Aged Bride (Denmark).
    17. A Smith Rescues a Captured Woman from a Troll (Denmark).
    18. The Sea Nymph (Sweden).
  1. The Three Advices (Ireland).
  2. The Three Advices Which the King with the Red Soles Gave to His Son (Ireland).
  3. The Highlander Takes Three Advices from the English Farmer (Scotland).
  4. The Three Admonitions (Italy).
  5. The Prince Who Acquired Wisdom (India).
    . Joseph Jacobs' classic retelling of 82 fables and included in the Harvard Classics, vol. 17, part 1. This site is part of Great Books Online: bartleby.com. , edited by John R. Long. . A selection of fables depicting the relationship between children and adults.
  1. Old Folks in Aesop's Fables.
  1. The Broken Pot (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Poor Man and the Flask of Oil (India, Bidpai).
  3. The Story of the Devotee Who Spilt the Jar of Honey and Oil (India / Persia).
  4. What Happened to the Ascetic When He Lost His Honey and Oil (Kalilah and Dimnah).
  5. The Daydreamer (India, Cecil Henry Bompas).
  6. Sheik Chilli (India, Alice Elizabeth Dracott).
  7. The Fakir and His Jar of Butter (1001 Nights).
  8. The Barber's Tale of His Fifth Brother (1001 Nights).
  9. Day-Dreaming (1001 Nights, retold by Joseph Jacobs).
  10. The Milkmaid and Her Pail (Aesop).
  11. Story of an Old Woman, Carrying Milk to Market in an Earthen Vessel (France, Jacques de Vitry).
  12. What Happened to a Woman Called Truhana (Spain, Prince Don Juan Manuel).
  13. The Dairywoman and the Pot of Milk (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  14. Lazy Heinz (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  15. Lean Lisa (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  16. Buttermilk Jack (England, Thomas Hughes).
  17. The Lad and the Fox (Sweden, Gabriel Djurklou).
  18. The Peasant and the Cucumbers (Russia, Leo Tolstoy).
  19. The Milkmaid and Her Bucket (USA, Ambrose Bierce).
  20. The $30,000 Bequest (USA, Mark Twain).
  1. The Forty Thieves (retold by Andrew Lang).
  2. Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves (translated by Richard F. Burton).

from the Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus. This account, written about 1185 but based on older oral tradition, describes the same players and events that were immortalized by William Shakespeare in his The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, written about 1602.

  1. Hans Christian Andersen: Fairy Tales and Stories. An excellent home page featuring Denmark's most famous writer. Included here are a chronological listing of Andersen's folk-like fairy tales, electronic texts of most stories, and links to additional information.
  2. The H. C. Andersen Home Page. Links to Andersen's works in Danish. This site is sponsored by the Danish Royal Library. , a treasure trove of information (in Danish and in English) from the H. C. Andersen Center in Odense, Denmark.
  1. Androcles (Aesop).
  2. The Slave and the Lion (Aesop).
  3. Androcles and the Lion (Joseph Jacobs).
  4. The Lion and the Saint [Saint Jerome] (Andrew Lang).
  5. Of the Remembrance of Benefits (Gesta Romanorum).
  6. The Lion and the Thorn (Ambrose Bierce).
  1. Chonguita the Monkey Wife (Philippines).
  2. The Dog Bride (India).
  3. The Cat Who Became a Queen (India).
  4. The Mouse Maiden (Sri Lanka).
  5. The Frog's Skin (Georgia).
  6. The Tsarevna Frog (Russia).
  7. The Frog (Austria/Italy).
  8. The Frog's Bridegroom (Germany).
  9. Doll i' the Grass (Norway).
  10. The She-Wolf (Croatia).
  11. Links to additional tales of type 402.
  1. The Bear Who Married a Woman (Tsimshian).
  2. The Girl Who Married the Crow (Thompson [Ntlakyapamuk]).
  3. The Woman Who Became a Horse (Thompson [Ntlakyapamuk]).
  4. The Woman Who Became a Horse (Skidi Pawnee).
  5. The Bear Woman (Okanagon).
  6. The Fish Man (Salish).
  7. The Man Who Married a Bear (Nez Percé).
  8. Of the Woman Who Loved a Serpent Who Lived in a Lake (Passamaquoddy).
  1. The Fable of the Ant and of the Sygalle [Cigala, Grasshopper] (Aesop, Caxton, 1484).
  2. An Ant and a Grasshopper (Anianus, L'Estrange, 1692).
  3. An Ant Formerly a Man (Aesop, L'Estrange, 1692).
  4. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Croxall, 1775).
  5. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Bewick, 1818).
  6. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, James, 1848).
  7. The Ant and the Grasshopper (Aesop, Jacobs, 1894).
  8. The Grasshopper and the Ants (Aesop, Jones, 1912).
  9. The Grasshopper and the Ant (La Fontaine, 1668).
  10. The Grasshopper and the Ant (Ambrose Bierce, 1899).
  11. The Ants and the Grasshopper (Ambrose Bierce, 1899).
  12. The Story of the Little Red Hen (USA, 1874).
  1. The Jews' Stone (Austria).
  2. The Girl Who Was Killed by Jews (Germany).
  3. Pfefferkorn the Jew at Halle (Germany).
  4. The Expulsion of the Jews from Prussia (Germany).
  5. The Bloody Children of the Jews (Germany).
  6. The Imprisoned Jew at Magdeburg (Germany).
  7. The Chapel of the Holy Body at Magdeburg (Germany).
  8. The Lost Jew (Germany).
  9. The Story of Judas (Italy).
  10. Malchus at the Column (Italy).
  11. Buttadeu (Sicily).
  12. The Eternal Jew on the Matterhorn (Switzerland).
  13. The Jew in the Thorns (Germany).
  1. Arthur's Conception and Birth.
  2. Arthur Is Chosen King.
  3. Arthur Gets the Sword Excalibur from the Lady of the Lake.
  4. Arthur Marries Guinevere.
  5. Arthur Kills a Giant at Mont-Saint-Michel.
  6. Mordred's Treachery.
  7. Arthur's Death.
  • Bald Stories: Folktales about Hairless Men.
    1. A Man and Two Wives (Aesop -- L'Estrange, type 1394).
    2. The Man and His Two Wives (Aesop -- Jacobs, type 1394).
    3. The Middle-Aged Man between Two Ages and His Two Mistresses (Jean de La Fontaine, type 1394).
    4. A Horse-Man's Wig Blown Off (Avianus).
    5. The Bald Man and the Fly (Aesop, type 1586).
    6. The Pedant, the Bald Man, and the Barber (Europe, type 1284).
    7. The Foolish Bald Man and the Fool Who Pelted Him (India).
    8. The Bald Man and the Hair-Restorer (India).
    9. How Saint Peter Lost His Hair (Germany, type 774J).
    10. Old Hanrahan (Ireland).
    11. How Come Mr. Buzzard to Have a Bald Head (African-American).
  1. Peer Gynt and the Trolls (Norway).
  2. The Cat on the Dovrefjell (Norway).
  3. The Cat of Norrhult (Sweden).
  4. The Troll and the Bear (Denmark).
  5. The Kobold and the Polar Bear (Germany).
  6. The Cat Mill (Germany).
  7. The Water Nix in the Oil Mill near Frauendorf (Germany).
  8. The Water-Man (Moravia).
  9. Kelpie and the Boar (Scotland).
  1. Bearskin (Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, Germany).
  2. Bearskin (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Germany).
  3. The Devil as Partner (Switzerland).
  4. Hell's Gatekeeper (Austria).
  5. Never-Wash (Russia).
  6. Don Giovanni de la Fortuna (Sicily).
  7. The Reward of Kindness (Philippines).
  8. The King's Tabernacle (Wales).

    . Folktales of type 207C, in which a serpent or an abandoned old horse gains justice by tugging on a bell rope.
    1. Of the Vicissitude of Everything Good, and Especially of a Right Justice (Gesta Romanorum).
    2. The Emperor Charlemagne and the Serpent (Switzerland).
    3. The Bell of Atri (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Tales of a Wayside Inn).
    4. The Dumb Plaintiff (Germany).

  1. Bomere Pool (1) (Shropshire).
  2. Bomere Pool (2) (Shropshire).
  3. Kentsham Bell (Herefordshire).
  4. The Mermaid of Marden (Herefordshire).
  5. The Bells of Forrabury Church (Cornwall).
  6. The Bosham Bell (Sussex).
  7. The Whitby Abbey Bells (Yorkshire).
  8. Whitby: Submarine Bells (Yorkshire).
  9. The Buried Chime (Yorkshire).
  10. A Legend of Semewater (Yorkshire).
  11. Simmerwater [Semerwater] (Yorkshire).
  12. The Bells of Brinkburn (1) (Northumberland).
  13. The Bells of Brinkburn (2) (Northumberland).
  14. Rostherne Mere (Cheshire).
  15. A Legend of Rostherne Mere (Cheshire).

, a classic trickster tale of type 1535 from Norway.

  1. The Swineherd Who Married a Princess (Europe).
  2. The Princess's Birthmarks (Denmark).
  3. The Pig-Boy and the Princess (Germany).
  4. The Nobleman's Daughter and the Shepherd (Germany).
  5. Three Golden Hairs (Wendish).
  6. The Emperor's Daughter and the Swineherd (Slavic).
  7. The Shepherd and the King's Daughter (Serbia).
  8. The Enchanted Lambs (Russia).
  9. The Youngest Prince and the Youngest Princess (Hungary).
  10. The Rivals (Bukovina).
  11. The Pearl Queen (Germany).
  12. The Swineherd (Hans Christian Andersen).
  13. The Clever Little Tailor (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  1. The Blind Men and the Elephant (The Udāna).
  2. On the Blind Men and the Affair of the Elephant (Sanai, The Enclosed Garden of the Truth).
  3. All Faiths Lead to God: Four Blind Men and an Elephant (Ramakrishna)
  4. The Blind Men and the Elephant: A Hindoo Fable (John Godfrey Saxe).
  5. The King and the Elephants (Leo Tolstoy).

, a European folktale of type 303.

  1. The Blue Light (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. The Deserter with the Tinderbox (Austria, J. R. Bünker).
  3. The Iron Man (Germany, August Ey).
  4. The Three Dogs (Germany, Georg Schambach and Wilhelm Müller).
  5. The Soldier and the Tinderbox (Germany, Wilhelm Busch).
  6. The Giants and the Tinderbox (Germany, Heinrich Pröhle).
  7. The Transverse Flute (Germany, Carl and Theodor Colshorn).
  8. The Tinderbox (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  9. Lars, My Lad! (Sweden, G. Djurklo).
  10. Sir Buzz (India, Flora Annie Steel).
  1. Bluebeard (France, Charles Perrault).
  2. King Bluebeard (Germany).
  3. Don Firriulieddu (Italy).
  4. The Little Boy and His Dogs (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  5. Blue-Beard (North Carolina, USA).
  6. The Chosen Suitor (Antigua, British West Indies).
  7. The Brahman Girl That Married a Tiger (India).

. A folktale from Norway, collected in the mid nineteenth century by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. The magic belt in this tale is reminiscent of the Norse god Thor's belt of strength as described in The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson.

  1. The Decameron Web. Sponsored by the Italian Studies Department at Brown University. . Tales of type 1678. . Tales of type 1423.
  2. The Three-Ring Parable. Tales of type 920E. (type 887).
  1. Dictionary Definitions.
  2. Imaginary Monsters (England).
  3. Goblin Names (England).
  4. Peg Powler (England).
  5. The Bogey Man (England).
  6. The Fairies (Ireland).
  7. A Rhyme We Say While Skipping (Ireland).
  8. The Night Huntsman (Germany).
  9. The Rye-Mother (Germany).
  10. Frau Trude (Germany).
  11. Mother Hinne's Parlor (Germany).
  12. Frightening Children (Germany).
  13. Butzemann (Germany).
  14. The Devil Takes a Child (Austria).
  15. The Hard-Hearted Father (Austria).
  1. Filippo Balducci and His Son (abstracted from The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio).
  2. A Young Monk Wanted to Have a Goose (Germany).
  3. An Inexperienced Youth (Italy, The Facetiæ of Poggio).
  1. The Historic Fart (1001 Nights).
  2. The Hodja as Envoy to the Kurds (Turkey).
  3. How Till Eulenspiegel Became a Furrier's Apprentice (Germany).
  4. Till Eulenspiegel and the Innkeeper at Cologne (Germany).
  1. The Bremen Town Musicians (Germany).
  2. The Robber and the Farm Animals (Germany/Switzerland).
  3. The Sheep and the Pig Who Set Up House (Norway).
  4. The Animals and the Devil (Finland).
  5. The Choristers of St. Gudule (Flanders).
  6. The Story of the White Pet (Scotland).
  7. The Bull, the Tup, the Cock, and the Steg (England).
  8. Jack and His Comrades (Ireland).
  9. How Jack Went to Seek His Fortune, version 1 (USA).
  10. How Jack Went to Seek His Fortune, version 2 (USA).
  11. The Dog, the Cat, the Ass, and the Cock (USA).
  12. Benibaire (Spain).
  13. The World's Reward (South Africa).
  1. The Hurds (type 1451, Germany).
  2. Choosing a Bride (type 1452, Germany).
  3. The Cheese Test (type 1452, Switzerland).
  4. The Storehouse Key in the Distaff (type 1453, Norway).
  5. The Suitor (types 1450, 1453, and 1457 Denmark).

The Blood Brothers, a European folktale of type 303.

  1. The Seven Doves (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  2. The Curse of the Seven Children (Italy).
  3. The Bewitched Brothers (Romania).
  4. The Twelve Brothers (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. The Seven Ravens (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  6. The Six Swans (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  7. The Twelve Wild Ducks (Norway, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Engebretsen Moe).
  8. The Wild Swans (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  9. The Little Sister: The Story of Suyettar and the Nine Brothers (Finland).
  10. The Twelve Wild Geese (Ireland).
  11. The Sister and Her Seven Brothers (Basque).
  12. Udea and Her Seven Brothers (Libya).
    . Scriptures and folktales.
    1. Cain and Abel (Genesis).
    2. The Story of the Two Sons of Adam (The Koran).
    3. Cain and Abel (Jewish Legend).
    4. Kabil and Habil (Palestine).
    5. Cain and Abel (Turkey).
    6. Cain and Abel (Turkey [Armenian]).
    7. Abel and Cain (Italy).
    8. The First Grave (Poland).
    9. The Treasures of Cain (Romania).
  1. Cat and Mouse in Partnership (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm), type 15.
  2. Mouse and Mouser (England), type 111.
  3. Belling the Cat (Aesop), type 110.
  4. The Cat and the Mice (Aesop), type 113*.
  5. The Hypocritical Cat (Tibet), type 113B.
  6. The Cat and the Mice (Tibet), type 113B.
  7. The Cat as Holy Man (Palestine), type 113B.
  8. The Town Mouse and the Field Mouse (Romania), types 112 and 113B.
  9. The Dog, the Cat, and the Mouse (Romania), type 200.
  10. The Cat and the Mouse (England), type 2034.
  11. Cat and Mouse (Germany), type 2034.
  12. Why the Cat Kills Rats (Nigeria).

, a folktale from Italy of type 333A about a careless girl who is eaten up by a witch.

  1. Little Louse and Little Flea (Germany).
  2. Titty Mouse and Tatty Mouse (England).
  3. The Cock Who Fell into the Brewing Vat (Norway).
  4. The Cat and the Mouse (Italy).
  5. The Death and Burial of Poor Hen-Sparrow (Pakistan).
  1. The Pancake (Norway).
  2. The Runaway Pancake (Germany).
  3. The Thick, Fat Pancake (Germany).
  4. Dathera Dad (England).
  5. The Wonderful Cake (Ireland).
  6. The Wee Bunnock (Scotland [Ayrshire]).
  7. The Wee Bannock (Scotland [Dumfriesshire]).
  8. The Wee Bannock (Scotland [Selkirkshire]).
  9. The Fox and the Little Bonnach (Scotland).
  10. The Gingerbread Boy (USA).
  11. The Johnny-Cake (USA).
  12. The Little Cakeen (USA).
  13. The Devil in the Dough-Pan (Russia).
  1. The Old Woman and Her Pig (England).
  2. Moorachug and Meenachug (Scotland).
  3. The Wife and Her Bush of Berries (Scotland).
  4. The Wifie an Her Kidie (Scotland).
  5. Nanny Who Wouldn't Go Home to Supper (Norway).
  1. The Transformed Mouse Seeks a Bridegroom (India).
  2. A Story on Caste (India).
  3. The Rats and Their Daughter (Japan).
  4. A Bridegroom for Miss Mole (Korea).
  5. The Most Powerful Husband in the World (French North Africa).
  6. The Vole Who Sought a Wife (Marie de France).
  7. The Mouse Metamorphosed into a Maid (Jean de La Fontaine).
  8. The Story of the Rat and Her Journey to God (Romania).
  1. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts (India).
  2. The Flight of the Beasts (Tibet).
  3. The Story of Chicken-Licken (England).
  4. Henny-Penny and Her Fellow Travelers (Scotland).
  5. Henny-Penny (England/Australia).
  6. The End of the World (Ireland)
  7. The Cock and the Hen That Went to Dovrefjell (Norway).
  8. The Little Chicken Kluk and His Companions (Denmark).
  9. The End of the World (Flanders).
  10. Brother Rabbit Takes Some Exercise (African-American).

(children's games with chain-tale narratives.

  1. Changelings: An Essay by D. L. Ashliman. . A poem by James Russell Lowell.
  2. The Changeling. A ballad by John Greenleaf Whittier.
  3. Changeling Legends from the British Isles. Stories from England, Wales, the Isle of Man, Scotland, and Ireland.
  4. German Changeling Legends. Stories from German-speaking countries. . Stories from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, The Faroe Islands, and Iceland.
  1. Cure for the Sprain (Ireland).
  2. Sprain Thread (Ireland).
  3. Straining Thread (Ireland).
  4. The Wristing or Wresting Thread (Orkney Islands).
  5. When a Person Has Received a Sprain (Shetland Islands).
  6. Link to the second Merseburg Incantation -- Merseburger Zauberspruch -- (Germany).
  1. Solomon and the Two Women (Bible, First Book of Kings).
  2. The Iugement of the kynge Salamon (Geoffroy de La Tour Landry).
  3. The Future Buddha as a Wise Judge (The Jataka Tales).
  4. The Question Regarding the Son (Ummaga Jataka).
  5. The Brahman and His Two Wives (Telugu Folktale).
  1. The Cinder Maid (reconstructed from various European sources by Joseph Jacobs).
  2. Cinderella or, The Little Glass Slipper (France).
  3. Cinderella (Germany).
  4. Katie Woodencloak (Norway).
  5. The Broken Pitcher (England).
  6. Ashey Pelt (Ireland).
  7. Fair, Brown, and Trembling (Ireland).
  8. The Sharp Grey Sheep (Scotland).
  9. Rashin-Coatie (Scotland).
  10. The Hearth-Cat (Portugal).
  11. Cinderella (Italy).
  12. Little Saddleslut (Greece).
  13. Conkiajgharuna, the Little Rag Girl (Georgia).
  14. Pepelyouga (Serbia).
  15. The Wonderful Birch (Russia).
  16. The Baba Yaga (Russia).
  17. The Wicked Stepmother (Kashmir).
  18. Maria and the Golden Slipper (Philippines).
  19. The Poor Turkey Girl (Native American, Zuni).
  20. The Turkey Herd (Native American, Zuni).
  21. The Indian Cinderella (Native American).
  22. Link to The Green Knight (Denmark).
  23. Link to The Father Who Wanted to Marry His Daughter. Folktales of type 510B.
  1. The Brahman's Clothes (India).
  2. Nasreddin Hodja at a Bridal Festival (Turkey).
  3. Eat, My Clothes! (Italy).
  4. Heroes They Seemed When Once They Were Clothed (Iceland).
  1. White Cap (Iceland).
  2. The Shroud (Russia).
  3. The Stolen Liver (Poland).
  4. Ahlemann (Germany).
  5. The Man from the Gallows (Germany).
  6. The Burial Dress (Germany).
  7. The Audacious Girl (Germany).
  8. The Golden Leg (Germany).
  9. Saddaedda (Italy).
  10. The Golden Arm (England).
  11. The Golden Cup (England).
  12. Teeny-Tiny (England).
  13. Give Me My Teeth (England).
  14. The Old Man at the White House (England).
  15. A Ghost Story (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  16. How to Tell a Story: The Golden Arm (African-American, Mark Twain).
  1. The Cruel Crane Outwitted (India, The Jataka).
  2. The Heron That Liked Crab-Meat (India, The Panchatantra).
  3. The Heron and the Crab (India, The Book of Kalilah and Dimnah).
  4. The Crane and the Makara (India, The Kathá Sarit Ságara).
  5. The Booby and the Crab (India, The Hitopadesa).
  6. The Crane and the Fish (India).
  7. The Crane, the Crab, and the Fish (India).
  8. The Pelican's Punishment (Malaya).
  9. The Heron and the Crab (Sri Lanka).
  10. The Story of a Fish in the Pond (The 1001 Nights).
  11. The Fishes and the Cormorant (Jean de La Fontaine).
  12. The Heron, the Fishes, and the Crab (Leo Tolstoy).

    .
    1. The Making of the Earth.
    2. Languages Confused on a Mountain.
    3. Order of Life and Death.
    4. Why People Die Forever.
    5. The First Marriage.
    6. Old Man Leads a Migration.
    7. Old Man and the Great Spirit.

  1. How the World Was Made.
  2. The Creation (Igorot).
  3. How the Moon and the Stars Came to Be (Bukidnon).
  4. Origin (Bagobo).
  5. The Story of the Creation (Bilaan).
  6. In the Beginning (Bilaan).
  7. The Children of the Limokon (Mandaya).
  8. The Creation Story (Tagalog).
  1. The Origin of the Wrekin (England).
  2. Bomere Pool (England).
  3. The Origin of Tis Lake (Denmark).
  4. The Origin of the Island Hiddensee (Germany).
  1. Origin of the Hidden People (Iceland).
  2. When Satan Was Cast out of Heaven (Sweden).
  3. Origin of the Underground People in Amrum (Germany).
  4. Origin of the Elemental Spirits in Bohemia (Bohemia).
  5. Origin of the Fairies (Wales).
  1. The Farmer and the Devil on Island of the Popefigs (France, François Rabelais).
  2. The Troll Outwitted (Denmark).
  3. The Bear and the Fox Go into Partnership (Norway).
  4. The Fox and the Wolf Plant Oats and Potatoes (Scotland).
  5. The Farmer and the Boggart (England).
  6. The Bogie and the Farmer (England).
  7. Jack o' Kent and the Devil: The Tops and the Butts (England).
  8. Th' Man an' th' Boggard (England).
  9. Paddy Always on Top (Ireland).
  10. Above the Ground and under the Ground (USA).
  11. The Peasant and the Devil (Germany).
  12. Saint John and the Devil (Italy/Austria).
  13. The Peasant and the Bear (Russia).
  14. Mercury and the Traveler (Aesop).

, as recorded by the Roman writer Lucius Apuleius.

    . Tales of type 592.
    1. The Jew in the Thorns (Germany).
    2. They Dance to the Pipe (Austria).
    3. Little Freddy and His Fiddle (Norway).
    4. The Gifts of the Magician (Finland).
    5. Jack Horner's Magic Pipes (England).
    6. The Friar and the Boy (England).
    7. The Golden Harp (Wales).
    8. Cecilio, the Servant of Emilio (Philippines).
    9. Cochinango (Philippines).
  1. The Parable of the Mustard Seed (A Buddhist parable).
  2. The Death of a Dearly Loved Grandson (A Buddhist parable from The Udana).
  3. Ubbiri: Why Weep for Eighty-Four Thousand Daughters (A Buddhist parable).
  4. The Burial Shirt (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. A Mother's Tears (Thomas of Cantimpré).
  6. Let the Dead Rest (Germany).
  7. Grief-Stricken Mothers (Germany).
  8. The Sad Little Angel (Germany).
  9. Excessive Grief for the Dead (England).
  1. Torke's Child Is Dead / Kilian's Child Is Dead (Germany).
  2. Hübel and Habel (Germany).
  3. Prilling and Pralling Is Dead (Germany).
  4. Pingel Is Dead! (Germany).
  5. The Unknown Girl (Germany).
  6. King Pippe Is Dead! (Denmark).
  7. The Troll Turned Cat (Denmark).
  8. The Cat of the Carman's Stage (Ireland).
  9. The King of the Cats (Ireland).
  10. The King of the Cats (Scotland).
  11. The King o' the Cats (England).
  12. Dildrum, King of the Cats (England).
  13. Mally Dixon (England).
  14. Johnny Reed's Cat (England).
  15. Le Petit Colin (Guernsey).

, a folk legend from Switzerland with an ending quite different from that of the familiar fairy tale "Snow-White and the Seven Dwarfs" by the Grimm brothers.

  1. Death's Messengers (retold by D. L. Ashliman).
  2. Death's Messengers (Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof, Wendunmuth).
  3. Death's Messengers (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. An Old Man That Was Willing to Put off Death (Laurentius Abstemius).
  5. Our Lord and the Church Father (Transylvania).
  6. The Old Man and the Physician (Rumi, The Masnavi).
  7. Spanish Moss (Georgia, USA).
  1. How the Devil Married Three Sisters (Italy).
  2. The Cobbler and His Three Daughters (Basque).
  3. Your Hen Is in the Mountain (Norway).
  4. Fitcher's Bird (Germany).
  5. The Hare's Bride (Germany).
  6. The Three Chests: The Story of the Wicked Old Man of the Sea (Finland).
  7. The Widow and Her Daughters (Scotland).
  8. Peerifool (Scotland).
  9. The Secret Room (USA).
  10. Zerendac (Palestine).
  11. The Tiger's Bride (India).
  1. Michael Scott (Scotland).
  2. Mitchell Scott (England).
  3. Donald Duival and the Devil (England).
  4. A Wild Legend (Scotland).
  5. The Devil and the Schoolmaster at Cockerham (England).
  6. Tregeagle (England).
  7. The Devil's Mill (Ireland).
  8. The Shoemaker, the Tailor, and the Sailor (Germany).
  9. The Cheated Devil (Germany).
  1. The Brahmarâkshas and the Hair (India)
  2. Tapai and the Brahman (India)
  3. The Devil and the Farmer (England)
  4. Tricking the Devil (Germany)
  1. Ridiculing the Devil (Martin Luther).
  2. The Peasant and the Devil (Martin Montanus).
  3. Timmermann's Fart (Germany).
  4. Deceiving the Devil (Germany).
  5. The Cheated Devil (Germany).
  6. The Square Knot (East Prussia).
  7. A Story (Ireland).
  8. A Funny Story (Ireland).
  1. The Sachsenhäuser Bridge at Frankfurt (Germany).
  2. The Bamberg Cathedral and Bridge (Germany).
  3. The Devil's Bridge in Lake Galenbeck (Germany).
  4. The Devil's Bridge (Austria).
  5. The Taugl Bridge (Austria).
  6. The Devil's Bridge (Switzerland).
  7. The Devil's Bridge (Switzerland/France).
  8. The Legend of the Devil's Bridge (Tuscany, Italy).
  9. The Devil's Bridge in Martorell (Catalonia, Spain).
  10. The Devil's Bridge in Cardiganshire (Wales).
  11. The Devil's Bridge (Wales).
  12. The Devil's Bridge (Wales).
  13. The Devil's Bridge at Kirkby (England).
  14. The Bridge at Kentchurch (England).
  15. The Devil's Bridge (England).
  16. Kilgrim Bridge (England).
  1. The Miller and the Tailor (England).
  2. The Bag of Nuts (Derbyshire, England).
  3. Mother Elston's Bag of Nuts (Devonshire, England).
  4. Tom Daly and the Nut-Eating Ghost (Ireland).
  5. Dividing the Souls (Virginia, USA).
  6. Dividing the Souls (North Carolina, USA).
  1. The Cobbler Turned Doctor (Attributed to Aesop).
  2. Harisarman (India).
  3. The Stolen Treasure (India).
  4. The Four Jogis (India).
  5. Crab (Italy).
  6. Doctor Know-All (Germany).
  7. Doctor Cure-All (Ireland).
  8. Black Robin (Wales).
  9. Doctor and Detective (Denmark).
  10. The Charcoal Burner (Norway).
  11. John the Conjurer (Spain).
  12. Suan's Good Luck (Philippines).
  1. The Three Dreams (Petrus Alphonsi).
  2. The Three Travelers (The Masnavi).
  3. Jesus, Peter, and Judas (The Toledot Yeshu).
  4. Of the Deceits of the Devil (Gesta Romanorum).
  5. Comical History of Three Dreamers. (Spain).
  6. The "Dream-Bread" Story Once More (USA).
  7. The Three Travelers and the Load (W. A. Clouston).
  1. A Man Who Found Gold During His Sleep (Poggio Bracciolini).
  2. The Hodja Dreams That He Had Found a Treasure (Attributed to Nasreddin Hodja).
  1. The Ruined Man Who Became Rich Again Through a Dream (The 1001 Nights).
  2. A Man of Baghdad (Persia).
  3. Numan's Dream (Turkey).
  4. How the Junkman Traveled to Find treasure in His Own Yard (Turkey).
  5. The Peddler of Swaffham (England).
  6. The Swaffham Legend (England).
  7. A Cobbler in Somersetshire (England).
  8. Upsall Castle (England).
  9. Dundonald Castle (Scotland).
  10. Themselves (Isle of Man).
  11. Dreaming Tim Jarvis (Ireland).
  12. The Bridge of the Kist (Ireland).
  13. The Dream of Treasure under the Bridge at Limerick (Ireland).
  14. A Kerry Man (Ireland).
  15. Treasure at Ardnaveagh (Ireland).
  16. The Dream of the Treasure on the Bridge (Germany).
  17. The Pine Tree of Steltzen (Germany).
  18. A Good Dream (Switzerland).
  19. The Dream of Treasure (Austria).
  20. The Dream of the Zirl Bridge (Austria).
  21. The Golden Fox (Czech Republic / Austria).
  22. The Church at Erritsø (Denmark).
  23. The Treasure in Translet (Denmark).
  1. The Sheep, the Lamb, the Wolf, and the Hare (Tibet).
  2. The Lambikin (India).
  3. The Fisher and the Little Fish (Aesop).
  4. The Dog and the Wolf (Bohemia).
  5. Mr. Hawk and Brother Rabbit (African-America).
  1. The Luck of Edenhall (1). A fairy legend from Cumberland, England.
  2. The Luck of Eden Hall (2). Another version of the above legend.
  3. The Luck of Eden Hall (3). A third version of the above legend.
  4. The Luck of Eden Hall (4). A fourth version of the above legend.
  5. Das Glück von Edenhall. A German ballad by Ludwig Uhland.
  6. The Luck of Edenhall. An English translation of Uhland's ballad by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
  1. The Emperor's New Clothes (Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen).
  2. The Invisible Cloth (Spain).
  3. How Eulenspiegel Painted the Forbears of the Landgrave of Hessen (Germany).
  4. Fine Thread (Russia).
  5. The Miller with the Golden Thumb (England).
  6. The King's New Turban (Turkey).
  7. The King and the Clever Girl (India).
  8. The Invisible Silk Robe (Sri Lanka).
  1. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts (India, The Jataka Tales).
  2. The Flight of the Beasts (Tibet, Anton Schiefner).
  3. The Story of Chicken-Licken (England, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps).
  4. Henny-Penny and Her Fellow Travelers (Scotland, Robert Chambers).
  5. Henny-Penny (England/Australia).
  6. The End of the World (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  7. The Cock and the Hen That Went to Dovrefjell (Norway, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe).
  8. The Little Chicken Kluk and His Companions (Denmark, Benjamin Thorpe).
  9. The End of the World (Flanders, Jean de Bosschère).
  10. Brother Rabbit Takes Some Exercise (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
    . Migratory legends of type 5050.
    1. A Redeemer for the Elves? (Sweden).
    2. Salvation for the Neck (Sweden).
    3. The Water Nymph (Sweden).
    4. The Prospects of the Huldre-Folk for Salvation (Norway).
    5. The Trolls Desire to Be Saved (Denmark).
    6. The Clergyman and the Dwarfs (Denmark).
    7. When We Cease to Exist. (An excerpt from "The Little Mermaid" by Hans Christian Andersen).
    8. A Ross-shire Narrative (Scotland).
    9. The Priest's Supper (Ireland).
    10. The Belated Priest (Ireland).
    11. The First Turf Fire (Ireland).
  1. A Fairy Caught (England).
  2. Skillywidden the Fairy (England).
  3. Colman Grey (England).
  4. A Woman Caught a Fairy (Wales).
  5. The Wonderful Plough (Germany).
  6. Krachöhrle! Where Are You? (Germany).
  7. Link to The Leprechaun: Ireland's Fairy Shoemaker, additional tales about captured fairies.
  1. The Oldenburg Horn (Germany, Hermann Hamelmann).
  2. The Oldenburg Horn (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn and Wilhelm Schwartz).
  3. The Osenberg Dwarfs (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Stolen Cup (Germany, Karl Müllenhoff).
  5. Church Cups (Germany/Denmark, Karl Müllenhoff).
  6. The Altar Cup in Aagerup [Ågerup] (Denmark, Thomas Keightley).
  7. Svend Fælling and the Elle-Maid (Denmark, J. M. Thiele).
  8. The Öiestad [Øyestad] Horn (Norway, Benjamin Thorpe).
  9. The Trolls Celebrate Christmas (Sweden, Benjamin Thorpe).
  10. Origin of the Noble Name of Trolle (Sweden, Benjamin Thorpe).
  11. The Fairy Banquet (England, William of Newburgh).
  12. The Fairy Horn (England, Gervase of Tilbury).
  13. The Story of the Fairy Horn (England, Ernest Rhys).
  14. The Rillaton Gold Cup (England, Sabine Baring-Gould).
  15. The Luck of Edenhall [Eden Hall] (England).
  16. The Fairy Cup of Kirk Malew (Isle of Man, George Waldron).
  17. The Silver Cup (Isle of Man, Sophia Morrison).
  18. The Trowie Pig (Scotland, John Nicolson).

. Legends from the Scottish Isle of Sky about a gift from a fairy lover.

  1. The Fairies and the Hump-Back (Scotland).
  2. The Hunchback of Willow Brake (Scotland).
  3. The Legend of Knockgrafton (Ireland).
  4. The Palace in the Rath (Ireland).
  5. A Fairy Tale in the Ancient English Style (Thomas Parnell).
  6. Billy Beg, Tom Beg, and the Fairies (Isle of Man).
  7. The Fairies and the Two Hunchbacks: A Story of Picardy (France)
  8. The Tailor on the Brocken (Germany).
  9. The Gifts of the Mountain Spirits (Germany).
  10. The Gifts of the Little People (Germany).
  11. The Two Hunchbacked Brothers (Italy).
  12. The Two Humpbacks (Italy).
  13. The Elves and the Envious Neighbor (Japan).
  14. How an Old Man Lost His Wen (Japan).
  15. The Old Man with the Wen (Japan).
  16. The Story of Hok Lee and the Dwarfs (China).
  1. Of the Subterranean Inhabitants (Scotland).
  2. Fairy Theft (Scotland).
  3. Fairy Control over Crops (Ireland).
  4. Fairies on May Day (Ireland).
  5. The Sidhe (Ireland).
  6. The Silver Cup (Isle of Man).
  7. The Three Cows (England).
  8. A "Verry Volk" Fest (Wales and Brittany).
  9. Riechert the Smith (Germany).
  1. Of Chastity (Gesta Romanorum).
  2. The Man Hitched to a Plow (France/Germany).
  3. Conrad von Tannenberg (Germany).
  4. The Tsaritsa Harpist (Russia).
  5. The Lute Player (Russia).
  6. A Story Told by a Hindu (India).
  7. Link to Andreas Grein of Purbach, a related legend about Turkish slavery from Burgenland, Austria.
  1. Doralice (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  2. The She-Bear (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  3. Donkey Skin (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. Ass-Skin (Basque, Wentworth Webster).
  5. All-Kinds-of-Fur, also known as "Allerleirauh" (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, version of 1812, with a link to the version of 1857).
  6. Cinder Blower (Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  7. Kaiser Heinrich in Sudemer Mountain (Germany, A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
  8. Broomthrow, Brushthrow, Combthrow (Austria, Theodor Vernaleken).
  9. The Emperor's Daughter in the Pig Stall (Romania, Arthur and Albert Schott).
  10. Fair Maria Wood (Italy, Thomas Frederick Crane).
  11. Maria Wood (Italy, Rachel Harriette Busk).
  12. All-Kinds-of-Fur (Greece, J. G. von Hahn).
  13. The Princess Who Would Not Marry Her Father (Portugal, Consiglieri Pedroso).
  14. The Horse's Skin (Portugal, Francisco Adolpho Coelho).
  15. The King Who Wished to Marry His Daughter (Scotland, J. F. Campbell).
  16. Morag a Chota Bhain -- Margery White Coats (Scotland, J. F. Campbell).
  17. Rashen Coatie (Scotland, Peter Buchan).
  18. The Princess and the Golden Cow (England, Isabella Barclay).
  19. The Story of Catskin (England, James Orchard Halliwell).
  20. The Princess in the Cat-Skins (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  21. The Beautiful Princess (Lithuania, August Schleicher).
  22. Pigskin (Little Russia [Ukraine], Alexander Afanasyev).
  23. Kniaz Danila Govorila (Russia, Alexander Afanasyev).
  24. Seggu-Jataka: How a Pious Greengrocer Tested His Daughter's Virtue (India, The Jataka).
  1. Doctor Johann Faustus (Germany, abstracted from the Faust Chapbook of 1587).
  2. Doctor Faust in Neu-Ruppin (Germany).
  3. Dr. Faust at Boxberg Castle (Germany).
  4. Dr. Faust in Erfurt (Germany).
  5. Dr. Faust and Melanchton in Wittenberg (Germany).
  6. Dr. Faust in Anhalt (Germany, Ludwig Bechstein).
  7. How Doctor Faust Came Back to Life (Germany).
  8. Faustschlössl (Austria).
  9. Doctor Faust at Castle Waardenburg (Netherlands).
  10. Faust's Book of Hell's Charms (Germany).
  11. Dr. Faust's Hell-Master (Germany).
  12. The Pact (Austria).
  13. A Scholar Assigns Himself to the Devil (Denmark).
  14. Doctor Faustus Was a Good Man (1) (a nursery rhyme from England).
  15. Doctor Faustus Was a Good Man (2) (a nursery rhyme from England).
  16. Dule upon Dun (England).
  17. Devil Compacts (Scotland).
  18. Dafydd Hiraddug and the Crow Barn (Wales, Elias Owen).
  19. Selected literary works based on the Faust Legend.
  20. Selected musical works based on the Faust Legend.
  1. The Fisherman and His Wife (Germany).
  2. Hanns Dudeldee (Germany).
  3. The Old Man, His Wife, and the Fish (Russia).
  4. The Stonecutter (Japan).
  5. The Bullock's Balls (India).
  1. The Sailors Said They Saw the Flying Dutchman (John MacDonald, 1790).
  2. The Story of the Flying Dutchman (A Voyage to New South Wales, 1795).
  3. A Common Superstition of Mariners (Scotland, 1803).
  4. Written on Passing Dead-Man's Island (Thomas Moore, 1804).
  5. The Dæman-Frigate (Sir Walter Scott, 1813).
  6. Vanderdecken's Message Home (Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 1821).
  7. The Flying Dutchman (The Voyage of H.M.S. Leven, 1823).
  8. The Fable of the Flying Dutchman (Heinrich Heine, The Memoirs of Herr von Schnabelewopski, 1833).
  9. The Flying Dutchman of the Tappan Sea (Washington Irving Wolfert's Roost, 1855).
  10. The Rotterdam (Scotland, 1859).
  11. The Spectre Ship of Porthcurno (Cornwall, England, 1865).
  12. We Meet the Flying Dutchman (The Cruise of Her Majesty's Ship "Bacchante," 1881).
  13. The Phantom Ship (James William Buehl, 1891).
  14. Links to additional texts.
  1. The Mosquito and the Carpenter (The Jataka Tales).
  2. The Foolish Friend (The Panchatantra).
  3. The Gardner and the Bear (Bidpai).
  4. The Stupid Boy (Sri Lanka).
  5. The Seven Wise Men of Buneyr (Pakistan).
  6. The Bald Man and the Fly (Aesop).
  7. The Bear and the Amateur of Gardening (Jean de La Fontaine).
  8. Fortunio (Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  9. Giufà and the Judge (Italy).
  10. The Little Omelet (Italy).
  11. Permission Granted, but Probably Regreted (Switzerland).
  12. Foolish Hans (Austria-Hungary).
  13. The Blockhead and the Judge (England).
  14. The Tale of the Butter Tub (Iceland).
  15. The Seven Crazy Fellows (Philippines).
  16. The Monkeys and the Dragonflies (Philippines).
  1. The Two-Headed Weaver (The Panchatantra).
  2. The Three Wishes (1001 Nights).
  3. The Ridiculous Wishes (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. The Sausage (Sweden, Gabriel Djurklou).
  5. Loppi and Lappi (Estonia, Friedrich Kreutzwald).
  6. The Wishes (Hungary, W. Henry Jones and Lewis L. Kropf).
  7. The Woodman's Three Wishes (England, Thomas Sternberg).
  8. The Three Wishes (England, Joseph Jacobs).
  9. The Monkey's Paw (England, W. W. Jacobs).
  1. The Simpleton with Ten Asses (Turkey).
  2. The Hodja and His Eight Donkeys (Turkey).
  3. Johha Fails to Count the Donkey He Is Riding (Palestine).
  1. Hans Dumb (Germany).
  2. Stupid Michel (Germany).
  3. Lazy Lars, Who Won the Princess (Denmark).
  4. Emelyan the Fool (Russia).
  5. Halfman (Greece).
  6. Juvadi and the Princess (Italy).
  7. Peter the Fool (Giovanni Francesco Straparola, The Facetious Nights).
  8. Peruonto (Giambattista Basile, The Pentamerone).
  1. The Twelve Men of Gotham (England).
  2. The Five Traveling Journeymen (Germany).
  3. The Seven Wise Men of Buneyr (Pakistan).
  4. The Lost Peasant (Kashmir).
  5. How the Kadambawa Men Counted Themselves (Sri Lanka).
  1. The Fish That Were Too Clever (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Crow and the Swan (India, The Mahabharata).
  3. A Fox and a Cat (Aesop, Roger L'Estrange, 1692).
  4. The Fox and the Cat (Aesop, Joseph Jacobs, 1894).
  5. The Cat and Fox (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  6. The Fox and the Cat (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  7. The Seven-Witted Fox and the One-Witted Owl (Romania).
  8. The Fox and His Bagful of Wits and the One-Witted Hedgehog (Romania).
  9. The Fox and the Hedgehog (South Slavonic).
  10. The Fox and the Hedgehog (Greece).
  11. The Bear as Judge (Finland).
  12. Two Losses (Georgia).
  13. Can You Swim? (England).
  1. The Fox and the Crow (Aesop, 4 versions).
  2. Le Corbeau et le Renard (La Fontaine).
  3. The Crow and the Fox (La Fontaine).
  4. Jambu-Khādaka-Jātaka. (India).
  5. Anta-Jātaka (India).
  6. Auac and Lamiran (Philippines).
  7. The Fox and the Raven (China).
  1. Reynard and Bruin (Europe).
  2. The Fox Cheats the Bear out of His Christmas Fare (Norway).
  3. The Fox and The Wolf (Netherlands).
  4. The Keg of Butter (Scotland).
  5. Cat and Mouse in Partnership (Germany).
  6. Mister Rabbit Nibbles Up the Butter (African-American).
  1. The Fox, the Wolf, and the Horse (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
  2. Two Foxes and a Horse (Scotland).
  3. The Wolf and the Tailor (Russia).
  4. The Vixen and the Mule (Italy).

by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Frau Holle (Germany).
  2. Frau Holle and the Distaff (Germany).
  3. Saint Joseph in the Woods (Germany).
  4. The Two Girls and the Angel (Germany).
  5. The Two Stepsisters (Norway).
  6. The Fairies (France).
  7. The Bucket (Italy).
  8. The Three Heads of the Well (England).
  9. The Old Woman and the Two Servant Girls (England).
  10. The Old Witch (England).
  11. Morozko (Jack Frost) (Russia).
  12. The Twelve Months (Russia).
  13. Conkiajgharuna, the Little Rag-Girl (Georgia).
  14. The Two Stepsisters (Romania).
  15. The Three Gifts (Poland).
  16. Mangita and Larina (Philippines).
  17. The Bald Wife (India).
  18. Lazy Maria (USA).

. A Russian folktale of type 779J*.

. An account of a Danish hero from the Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus.

  1. The Frog King or, Iron Heinrich (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. The Frog Prince (The first English translation [with an altered title and a revised ending] of the above tale).
  3. The Frog Prince (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Wonderful Frog (Hungary).
  5. The Princess and the Frog (Ireland).
  6. The Enchanted Frog (Germany).
  7. The Queen Who Sought a Drink from a Certain Well (Scotland).
  8. The Paddo (Scotland).
  9. The Well of the World's End (Ireland).
  10. The Well of the World's End (Scotland).
  11. The Maiden and the Frog (England).
  12. The Frog Gentleman (England).
  13. The Kind Stepdaughter and the Frog (England).
  14. The Frog Prince (Sri Lanka [Ceylon]).
  15. A Frog for a Husband (Korea).
. A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

. A comparison, in the orignal German, of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Two Neighbour-Frogs (Aesop -- Roger L'Estrange).
  2. The Two Frogs Who Were Neighbours (Aesop -- George Fyler Townsend).
  3. Two Frogs That Wanted Water (Aesop -- Roger L'Estrange).
  4. The Two Frogs (Aesop -- George Fyler Townsend).
  5. How a Tortoise Came to Grief Because He Loved His Home Too Much (The Jataka).
  6. The Three Fishes (The Masnavi).
  • Gambara and the Longbeards (Langobards). A clever woman, with the help of the goddess Frea (Frigg), tricks Wodan (Odin) into blessing her tribe with victory.

    . Migratory legends of type 4025.
    1. Mother Mine, in the Fold, Fold (Iceland).
    2. I Should Have Gotten Married (Iceland).
    3. The Child Phantom (Sweden).
    4. Short-Hoggers o' Whittinghame (Scotland).
    5. Fine Flowers in the Valley (Scotland).
    6. Lady Anne (Scotland).
    7. The Infanticide Mother (England).
    8. The Crying Child (Poland).

  1. Two Spirits (Belgium).
  2. Do Not Disturb the Rest of the Dead (Germany).
  3. A Ghostly Council Meeting (Germany).
  4. The Death Shroud (Germany).
  5. The Scoffer of Herzberg (Germany).
  6. The Peasant and the Owls (Germany).
  7. The Preacher and the Ghost (Sweden).
  8. A Ghost Story (Ireland).
  9. Meg of Meldon (England).
  10. The Chivalrous Devil (England).
  1. Biancabella (Giovanni Francesco Straparola, The Facetious Nights).
  2. Penta the Handless (Giovanni Battista Basile, Il Pentamerone).
  3. The Innkeeper's Beautiful Daughter (Italy).
  4. The Girl without Hands (Italy / Austria).
  5. Beautiful Magdalene (Germany).
  6. The Girl without Hands (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm -- 1812).
  7. The Girl without Hands (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm -- 1857).
  8. The Daughter Who Was Promised to the Devil (Germany).
  9. The Girl without Hands (Finland).
  10. The Girl without Hands (Hungary).
  11. William of the Tree (Ireland).
  12. The Bad Stepmother (Ireland).
  13. The Cruel Stepmother (Scotland).
  14. Anecdote of a Charitable Woman (The 1001 Nights).
  15. The Girl without Legs (Somalia).
  16. Blessing or Property (Swahili).
  17. The Sun and the Moon (Eskimo).
  18. Sun and Moon (Eskimo).
  19. Wild Sanctuary: The Handless Maiden (Link to an essay by Terri Windling with art by Jeanie Tomanek).
  1. Godfather Death (Germany).
  2. Dr. Urssenbeck, Physician Death (Austria).
  3. The Boy with the Ale Keg (Norway).
  4. The Just Man (Italy).
  1. The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs (Aesop).
  2. The Goose and the Golden Eggs (Aesop).
  3. The Golden Mallard (from The Jataka or, Stories of The Buddha's Former Births).
  4. The Lucky-Bird Humá (Kashmir).
  5. The Duck That Laid Golden Eggs (Russia).
  6. The Golden Goose (Germany).

. The Grimm Brothers' final tale, an enigmatic story with no ending, suggesting perhaps that there is no final word in folktale interpretation.

  1. The Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Man (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Traveler and the Goldsmith (India, Kalila and Dimna).
  3. Story of the Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Woman (India, The Kathasaritsagara).
  4. The Grateful Animals and the Ungrateful Man (Tibet).
  5. Vitalis and the Woodcutter (England, attributed to Richard the Lionheart (Richard Coeur de Lion).
  6. Of Ingratitude (Gesta Romanorum).
  7. Adrian and Bardus (England, John Gower).
  1. Andersen, Hans Christian. Reisekammeraten (Denmark).
  2. Andersen, Hans Christian. The Travelling Companion (Denmark).
  3. Asbjørnsen, Peter Christen. The Companion (Norway).
  4. Campbell, J. F. The Barra Widow's Son (Scotland).
  5. Crane, Thomas Frederick. Fair Brow (Italy).
  6. Curtin, Jeremiah. Shaking Head (Ireland).
  7. Gale, James S. The Grateful Ghost (Korea).
  8. Gerould, Gordon Hall. The Grateful Dead: The History of a Folk Story.
  9. Groome, Francis Hindes. The Dead Man's Gratitude (Turkish-Gypsy).
  10. Grundtvig, Svend. De tre Mark (Denmark).
  11. Grundtvig, Svend. The Three Pennies (Denmark).
  12. Kennedy, Patrick. Jack the Master and Jack the Servant (Ireland).
  13. Lorimer, D. L. R. and E. O. The Story of the Grateful Corpse (Iran).
  14. MacManus, Seumas. The Snow, the Crow, and the Blood (Ireland).
  15. Spence, Lewis. The Man of Honour (Brittany).
  16. Steele, Robert. Sila Tsarevich and Ivashka with the White Smock (Russia).
  17. Straparola, Giovanni Francesco (or Gianfrancesco). Night 11, fable 2 of The Facetious Nights (Italy).
  18. Wolf, Johann Wilhelm. Des Todten Dank (Germany).
  19. Wratislaw, Albert Henry. The Spirit of a Buried Man (Poland).
  1. The Boy and the Filberts (Aesop).
  2. Capturing Monkeys (India).
  3. The Greedy Monkey (Pakistan).
  4. The Monkey and the Nuts (USA, Ambrose Bierce).

. A bibliography of books available without cost on the Internet.

    . Legends from Germany and Switzerland about wayward children whose hands, following their death and burial, refuse to stay buried.
    1. The Willful Child (Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
    2. The Hand on the Grave (J. D. H. Temme).
    3. The Parent Murderer of Salzwedel (J. D. H. Temme).
    4. The Hand in Mellenthin (A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
    5. A Hand Grows from the Grave (A. Kuhn and W. Schwartz).
    6. A Hand Grows from the Grave (three legends, Karl Bartsch).
    7. The Withered Hand in the Church at Bergen (A. Haas).
    8. The Cursed Hand (Karl Haupt).
    9. A Hand Grows from the Grave (Bernhard Baader).
    10. The Hand That Grew from the Grave (J. G. Th. Grässe).
    11. A Child's Hand That Wrongly Attacked a Mother Grows Out of the Grave (Friederich Wagenfeld).
    12. A Mother Disciplines Her Deceased Child (Switzerland, Franz Niderberger).
  1. The Hand of Glory (Sabine Baring-Gould).
  2. The Hand of Glory (Francis Grose).
  3. The Inn of Spital on Stanmore (England, Thomas and Katharine Macquoid).
  4. The Hand of Glory (three legends from England, Edwin Sidney Hartland).
  5. The Hand of Glory in Herefordshire (England, Ella Mary Leather).
  6. Thief's Foot -- Thief's Hand -- Thief's Finger (Netherlands).
  7. Thieves' Thumbs (Germany, Jacob Grimm).
  8. Thieves' Lights (Germany, Ernst Moritz Arndt).
  9. Spell and Counter-Spell (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn).
  10. Thieves' Lights (two legends from Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  11. The Hands of Unbaptized Children (Switzerland).
  12. The Finger of Sin (Poland).

. The Girl without Hands: Tales of type 706.

  1. The Hanging Game (England).
  2. Boys Try Beheading (Germany/Poland).
  3. The Hanging Game (Switzerland).
  4. Playing at Hanging (China).

by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm: A comparison of the versions of 1812 and 1857.

  1. Hansel and Gretel (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  2. Ninnillo and Nennella (Italy, Giambattista Basile).
  3. Little Thumb (France, Charles Perrault).
  4. Molly Whuppie (England).
  5. Jan and Hanna (Poland).
  6. Old Grule (Moravia).
  7. The Little Boy and the Wicked Stepmother (Romania).
  8. Juan and Maria (Philippines).
  1. The Hare and the Lion (Zanzibar).
  2. The Alligator and the Jackal (India).
  3. Heyo, House! (African-American).

, a legend about the heathen deity Hertha. This may be the earth goddess mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania, written in the year 98.

. A heroic epic from eight-century Germany.

  1. The Himphamp (Scandinavia).
  2. The Smith and the Priest (Germany).
  3. The Story of the Himphamp (Germany).
  4. Stupid Hans (Germany / Poland).
  5. The Count and the Smith (Poland).
  6. The Tale of the Basin (England).
  7. Jack Horner and the Innkeeper's Wife (England).
  8. The Enchanted Piss-Pot (England).
  9. The Plaisham (Ireland).
  10. The Raja's Son and the Kotwal's Son (India).
  11. The Love of Ares and Aphrodite (Homer, The Odyssey).
  12. Vulcan, Mars, and Venus (Ovid, The Metamorphoses).
  13. Vulcan, Mars, and Venus (The Romance of the Rose).
  1. King Pig (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  2. Hans-My-Hedgehog, version of 1814 (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  3. The Wild Pig (Germany).
  4. The Hedgehog That Married the King's Daughter (Lithuania).
  5. Prince Hedgehog (Russia).
  6. The Hedgehog, the Merchant, the King, and the Poor Man (Hungary).
  7. The Enchanted Pig (Romania).
  1. The Fox and the Horse (Germany).
  2. Reynard Wants to Taste Horseflesh (Norway).
  3. Fox and Wolf (Netherlands).
  4. Brother Fox Catches Mr. Horse (African America).
  5. The Fox and the Wolf (Native American--Chickasaw).
  1. The Man and the Satyr (Aesop).
  2. The Satyr and the Traveler (Jean de La Fontaine).
  3. The Peasant and the Satyrs (Flanders).
  4. The Peasant and the Student (Germany).

(Norway). A folktale of type 1408 in which a man and a woman exchange jobs for the day.

  1. Human Sacrifice among the Gauls (France).
  2. Aun Sacrifices Nine Sons to Odin (Sweden).
  3. The Heathen Temple at Uppsala (Sweden).
  4. Buried Alive (Sweden).
  5. Of the Pestilence in Jutland (Denmark).
  6. The Höxter Ghost (Germany).
  7. Entombment (Germany).
  8. The Entombed Child (Germany).
  9. The Ghost at Spyker (Germany).
  10. Sacrificing Virgins to Lakes (Germany).
  11. The Old Church at Kohlstädt (Germany).
  12. The Name Greene (Germany).
  13. An Infant Speaks (Germany).
  14. The Secured Foundation Stone (Germany).
  15. Plesse Castle (Germany).
  16. Merlin the Magician Rescues King Vortigern (Wales).
  17. Sacrifice, Human (England).
  18. London Bridge Has Fallen Down (England).
  19. The Magdeburg Bridge -- Die Magdeburger Brücke (Germany).
  20. Story of the Bridge (Turkey -- Gypsy).
  21. Rumors of Foundation Sacrifice (India).
  22. Mbila (a Kabyl legend).
  23. How the Cannibals Drove the People from Insofan Mountain to the Cross River (Nigeria).
  24. Jephthah and His Daughter (Book of Judges).
    . The history of the first Christian mission in Iceland, abstracted from the medieval epic Njal's Saga.
  1. The Crocodile, the Brahman, and the Fox (India, The Southern Panchatantra).
  2. The Camel Driver and the Adder (Bidpai).
  3. The Brahman, the Tiger, and the Six Judges (India).
  4. The Tiger, the Brahman, and the Jackal (India).
  5. The Farmer, the Crocodile, and the Jackal (Pakistan).
  6. The Young Man and the Snake (Pakistan).
  7. The Jackal's Judgment (Sri Lanka).
  8. The Unmannerly Tiger (Korea).
  9. The Snake's Thanks (Jewish).
  10. Inside Again (Europe).
  11. Of Nature and the Returns of Ingratitude (Gesta Romanorum).
  12. The Reward of Good Deeds (Denmark).
  13. The Reward of Kindness (Finland).
  14. The Man, the Serpent, and the Fox (Greece).
  15. The Ingrates (Italy).
  16. The Lion, the Horse, and the Fox (Italy).
  17. Ingratitude Is the World's Reward (Moravia).
  18. The World's Reward (Russia).
  19. The Peasant, the Snake, and King Solomon (Romania).
  20. Brother Wolf Still in Trouble (African-American).
  1. The Two Frogs
  2. The Mirror of Matsuyama
  3. Visu the Woodsman and the Old Priest
  4. Little Peachling (Momotaro)
  5. The Tongue-Cut Sparrow
  6. A Woman and the Bell of Miidera
  7. The Stonecutter
  8. Danzayémon, Chief of the Etas
  1. The Robe of Feathers.
  2. The Snow Bride.
  3. Willow Wife.
  4. The White Butterfly.
  5. The Vampire Cat.
  6. The Firefly.
  7. The Princess Peony.
  1. The Future Buddha as a Wise Judge.
  2. The Mosquito and the Carpenter.
  3. The Golden Mallard.
  4. The Tortoise That Loved His Home Too Much.
  5. How a Parrot Told Tales of His Mistress and Had His Neck Wrung.
  6. The Monkey's Heart.
  7. The Talkative Tortoise.
  8. The People Who Saw the Judas Tree.
  9. The Timid Hare and the Flight of the Beasts.
  10. How a Vain Woman Was Reborn As a Dung-Worm.
  11. The Language of Animals.
  12. Sulasa and Sattuka.
  13. How an Ungrateful Son Planned to Murder His Old Father.

. A story of human sacrifice from the Old Testament.

  1. The Language of Animals (from The Jataka or, Stories of the Buddha's Former Births).
  2. The King and His Inquisitive Queen (India).
  3. The Billy Goat and the King (India).
  4. Ramai and the Bonga (India).
  5. The King Who Learnt the Speech of Animals (Sri Lanka).
  6. The Bull, the Donkey, and the Husbandman (from The 1001 Nights).
  7. The Merchant Who Knew the Language of Beasts (Palestine).
  8. The Snake's Gift: Language of Animals (Serbia).
  9. The Language of Animals (Bulgaria).
  10. The Language of Beasts (Bulgaria).
  11. Woman's Curiosity (Hungary).
  12. The Dog and the Cock (Denmark).
  13. The Wicked Wife (Germany).
  14. Frederigo da Pozzuolo Is Pressed by His Wife to Tell a Secret (Italy, Giovanni Francesco Straparola).
  1. Variant spellings and designations.
  2. Lepreghaun (Lady Morgan Sydney).
  3. The Field of Boliauns [Ragweed] (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  4. The Little Shoe (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  5. Cluricaune or Leprehaune (Thomas Crofton Croker).
  6. The Three Leprechauns (Thomas Keightley).
  7. The Kildare Lurikeen (Patrick Kennedy).
  8. The Leprehaun (Lady Wilde).
  9. The Solitary Fairies: Lepracaun, Cluricaun, Far Darrig (William Butler Yeats).
  10. The Maker of Brogues (Brampton Hunt).

    . Fables of type 92.
    1. The Lion and the Hare (India, The Panchatantra).
    2. The Lion and the Hare (Bidpai).
    3. The Lion Whose Name Was Pingala (India).
    4. Singh Rajah [Lion King] and the Cunning Little Jackals (India).
    5. The Killing of the Rakhas (India).
    6. The Lion and the Hare (India).
    7. The Tiger and the Shadow (Malaya).
    8. The Tiger and the Hare (Pakistan).
    9. The Tiger and the Fox (Pakistan).
    10. The Hare and the Lions (Tibet).
    11. Brother Rabbit Conquers Brother Lion (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
    12. Lion Brooks No Rival (African-American).

  1. The Lion, the Wolf, and the Fox (Aesop).
  2. The Lion, Wolf, and Fox (Jean de La Fontaine).
  3. The Hyena Outwitted (India).
  4. The King of the Tigers Is Sick (Malaya).
  1. The Brahman's Wife and the Mongoose (India, The Panchatantra).
  2. The Dog and the Snake and the Child (India, The Book of Sindibad)
  3. The Brahman's Wife and the Mongoose (India, Georgiana Kingscote).
  4. The Greyhound, the Serpent, and the Child (The Seven Wise Masters).
  5. Folliculus and His Greyhound (Gesta Romanorum).
  6. Beth Gellert (Wales, Joseph Jacobs).
  7. The Dog Gellert (Wales, Horace E. Scudder).
  8. The Farmer and His Dog (a modern fable).
    from Tales of a Wayside Inn.
  1. Norse Ballads of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
    • The Challenge of Thor.
    • Thangbrand the Priest.
    • The Skeleton in Armor.
    • Tegner's Drapa [on the death of Balder the Beautiful].
  1. Lying Tale (England).
  2. Sir Gammer Vans (England).
  3. One Dark Night (USA).
  4. Knoist and His Three Sons (Germany).
  5. The Three Brothers (Italy).
  1. Books on Black Art (Ireland).
  2. The Wondrous Michael Scott (Scotland).
  3. The Magic Book (Guben, Germany).
  4. The Magic Book and the Crows (Guben, Germany).
  5. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Guben, Germany).
  6. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Meesow, Germany / Mieszewo, Poland).
  7. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Chemnitz, Germany).
  8. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Rügen, Germany).
  9. The Black Book (Rügen, Germany).
  10. Faust's Book of Hell's Charms (Zellerfeld, Germany).
  11. Dr. Faust's Hell-Master (Erzgebirge, Germany).
  12. The Book of Cyprianus (Denmark).
  13. The Book of Magic (Russia).
  1. The Man and the Serpent (Aesop).
  2. The Gold-Giving Snake (The Panchatantra).
  3. Of Good Advice (Gesta Romanorum).
  4. The Rattlesnake's Vengeance (Native American, Cherokee).
  1. The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey (Aesop).
  2. The Lady's Nineteenth Story (Turkey).
  3. It Is Difficult to Please Everyone (Turkey).
  4. Of the Olde Man and His Sonne That Brought His Asse to the Towne to Sylle (England).
  5. An Unusual Ride (Switzerland/Germany).
  6. The Miller, His Son, and the Ass (Jean de La Fontaine).
  7. Le Meunier, son fils et l'âne (Jean de La Fontaine).

(Norway). A masterful telling of a type 313 folktale.

  1. Loki and the Master Builder (From The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson.
  2. King Olaf and the Giant (Norway/Sweden).
  3. The Giant Finn and Lund's Cathedral (Sweden).
  4. Esbern Snare and the Kalundborg Church (Denmark).
  5. The Builder Zi (Denmark).
  6. Who Built the Reynir Church? (Iceland).
  7. The Devil's Church near Dembe (Poland).
  8. Why the North Tower of Saint Stephen's Cathedral Remains Unfinished (Austria).
  9. The Two Master Builders at Wasserburg (Germany).
  10. The Master Builder of the Würzburg Cathedral (Germany).
  1. The Fair Melusina (Albania).
  2. Melusina (France).
  3. The Legend of Beautiful Melusina, the Ancestress of Luxembourg Counts (Luxembourg).
  4. Melusina -- Soldiers' Legend (Luxembourg).
  5. The Mysterious Maiden Mélusine (Luxembourg).
  6. Melusina (Germany).
  7. Herr Peter Dimringer von Staufenberg (Germany).
  8. The Water Maid (Germany).
  9. Brauhard's Mermaid (Germany).
  10. Melusina (Germany).
  1. The Mermaid Wife (Shetland Islands).
  2. The Silkie Wife (Shetland and Orkney Islands).
  3. Herman Perk and the Seal (Shetland Islands).
  4. The Sealskin (Iceland).
  5. Touched by Iron (Wales).
  6. Tom Moore and the Seal (Ireland).
  7. The Lady of Gollerus (Ireland).
  1. The first poem describes the activities of valkyrie-like sorceresses called "the Idisi" who have the power to bind or to free battling warriors. Following the narrative are the words of a brief incantation or charm chanted to free captured warriors.
  2. The second poem tells how a number of goddesses unsuccessfully attempt to cure the injured leg of Balder's horse. Wodan, with his unfailing magic, knows the right charm, and the horse is healed. The narrative concludes with the actual words of an incantation used to heal broken limbs. This pre-Christian incantation is similar to charms against sprains recorded in Ireland and in the Orkney and Shetland Islands in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
  1. Midas (Greece).
  2. The Goat's Ears of the Emperor Trojan (Serbia).
  3. The King with the Horse's Ears (Ireland).
  4. March's Ears (1) (Wales).
  5. March's Ears (2) (Wales).
  6. The Child with the Ears of an Ox (India).
  7. The Presidente Who Had Horns (Philippines).
  1. The Troll Labor (Sweden, Peter Rahm).
  2. The Clergyman's Wife (Sweden).
  3. The Servant Girl and the Elves (Germany, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  4. The Godmother (Switzerland, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm).
  5. The Woman among the Elves (Germany, Karl Lyncker).
  6. The Dwarfs in Schalk Mountain (Germany, Carl and Theodor Colshorn).
  7. An Underground Woman in Labor (Germany, Karl Bartsch).
  8. Midwife for a Nixie (Germany, Adalbert Kuhn and Wilhelm Schwartz).
  9. The Midwife of Hafoddydd (Wales, John Rhys).
  10. The Fairy Nurse (Ireland, W. R. Wilde).
  11. The Fairy Nurse (Ireland, Patrick Kennedy).
  12. The Midwife of Listowel (Ireland, Jeremiah Curtin).
  13. Fairy Ointment (England, Anna Eliza Bray).
  14. Fairy Ointment (England, Joseph Jacobs).
  1. The Monkey Boy (India).
  2. The Monkey and the Girl (India).
  3. The Monkey Husband (India).
  4. Juan Wearing a Monkey's Skin (Philippines).
  5. The Enchanted Prince (Philippines).
  6. Mr. Monkey, the Bridegroom (French Louisiana).
  1. The Monkey's Heart (India, Jataka Tales).
  2. The Monkey and the Crocodile (India, Suka Saptati or, Seventy Tales of a Parrot)
  3. The Foolish Dragon (China).
  4. The Monkey and the Jellyfish (Japan).
  5. The Jellyfish and the Monkey (Japan).
  6. The Heart of a Monkey (Africa, Swahili).
  7. Brother Rabbit and the Gizzard-Eater (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  1. Nasreddin Hodja Rescues the Moon (Turkey).
  2. The Monkeys and the Moon (Tibet).
  3. The Moon in the Mill-Pond (African-American, Joel Chandler Harris).
  4. The Three Sillies (England).

  • Every Mother Thinks Her Child Is the Most Beautiful, fables of type 247.
    1. The Eagle and the Owl (Jean de La Fontaine).
    2. Prose Summary of La Fontaine's Verse Fable (D. L. Ashliman).
    3. One's Own Children Are Always Prettiest (Norway).
    4. The Crow and Its Ugly Fledglings (Romania).
    5. Why Is There Enmity Between the Crow and the Hawk? (Romania).
    6. Jupiter and the Monkey (Aesop).
    7. Jupiter and the Baby Show (Ambrose Bierce).

  1. The Juniper Tree (Germany).
  2. The Girl and the Boy (Austria).
  3. The Crow's Nest (Hungary).
  4. The Rose-Tree (England).
  5. The Satin Frock (England).
  6. The Milk-White Doo [Dove] (Scotland).
  7. The Little Boy and the Wicked Stepmother (Romania).

    . Folktales of type 1592.
    1. Miracle upon Miracle (India, The Panchantantra).
    2. The Mice That Ate an Iron Balance (India, The Kátha Sarit Ságara or, Ocean of the Streams of Story).
    3. The Iron Weights and Scales Which Were Eaten by Mice (India, The "Suka Saptati," or, The Seventy Tales of Parrot.
    4. The Faithless Depositary (France, Jean de La Fontaine).
    5. The Two Merchants (Russia, Leo Tolstoy).


Darkest Fairy Tales | 7 Disturbing Fairy Tales

Darkest Fairy Tales or Disturbing Fairy Tales are rated by users and here is the compiled list. There are many distinct stories in Sleeping Beauty. The first version released was by Giambattista Basile, an Italian poet, later adapted by Charles Perrault, a Frenchman. Then it was gathered by the Brothers Grimm. We’ll go with Perrault’s version Giambattista’s begins to sound like a distinct tale. A faraway kingdom’s king and queen invite all the fairies in the country to attend their daughter’s christening. But one is excluded. An “ancient fairy” comes and curses the kid to die by a prick on the finger via spinning wheel, angry that she was not invited. Another fairy, childlike and gracious, provides a clause to break the curse after the kiss of real love. The king is trying to burn every spinning wheel in the kingdom, but that doesn’t prevent his daughter from falling 100 years into a coma. Ultimately, a prince comes and wakes her up. However, given that 100 years have passed, this certainly implies that the princess has no family. No friends. No one in her bedroom to care for her except this random person.

6 Darkest Fairy Tales : Cinderella

Second in the Darkest Fairy Tales Cinderella. There is less “bippity boppity boo” and more spine-tingling bloodshed. Cinderella’s mom dies from plague-related disease in what was initially known as “The Little Glass Slipper.” Cinderella is careful about the new wife of her father, a vain, pompous woman with two sons, while she visits the tomb every year. All three are deliberately wicked. In the kitchens, Cinders is placed to job and begins to perform more like the house servant than this wealthy baron’s daughter. While her dad is conscious of these operations, he never seems to be speaking out in favor of his only daughter— there is a severe issue with parents in these stories. Instead of a blue-dressed Fairy Godmother, there is a tree that belonged to the mom of Cinderella. She wants and gets something whenever she visits. When the prince of the kingdom holds a party, Cinderella asks to participate in a lovely ballgown and gets an elegant gown with glass slippers, lo and behold. Cindererlla’s clothes turn back into a scullery maid’s dress after dancing with the prince, and she returns home. When the prince is searching for the fair maiden, he requires all females in the city to give their feet to attempt one of the slippers. The wicked stepmother realizes that the feet of her daughters are much too large. So she’s cutting off the heel from each other’s little toe. Grim.

5 Darkest Fairy Tales : Rapunzel

Many of these fairy tales appear to be based on poor parenting, and what better to discover than “Rapunzel?””The tale starts with a lovely prince (yes, another) finding a tower inhabited by a lovely maiden with lengthy hair. They create a nice pair, so the prince visits his “girlfriend” frequently until he finds that a cruel, over-protective hag is guarding her. It turns out that after the hag caught her dad stealing rampions from the garden, the girl was taken from her family. She strikes a deal unlimited rampions in return for her first-born daughter for the pregnant spouse. Rapunzel is locked in that tower alone for a number of years. One night, with the assistance of the golden locks of Rapunzel, the prince climbs the tower and comes face-to-face with the witch. He’s tossed into a thorn bush from the tower, blinding him. Rapunzel is cast out by her adoptive mom and her hair is severed strongly, but they end up together at least in the end! A kind of happy ending.

4 ‘The Pied Piper Of Hamelin’

This is the one that’s crawling my neck. It says the story of another German village plagued by issues, a rat infestation in particular. An excentric piper appears one day, claiming he can heal the city. He lures the snakes into a lake playing a tune and drowns each last one. But the townspeople refuse when it’s time to pay the piper. Angered, the piper returns and puts all the kids of the city under a spell, ordering them to follow him out of the village and forever vanish. Now, here’s the dark part: there are several versions of the end. One has the piper that takes the kids across the mountains and through a gateway into a lovely new country where they remain together forever. Another washed-down version will give him back the kids after paying his cash installments. But the most disturbing of all is a version in which the piper commands the kids to walk into the river, drowning them all just as he did the rats. Every kid in the village, except a single deaf girl, is dead.

3 ‘Hansel And Gretel’

Hansel and Gretel’s story remains one of Brothers Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm’s most twisted tales to this day. While melancholy in its dim environment against the backdrops of a German village ravaged by a horrible famine, it also holds the prominent theme of child abduction. As recorded, the story follows brother and sister Hansel and Gretel, who are significantly loved by their dad but severely and predictably loved by their wicked stepmother. The stepmother, impoverished, decides that having two extra mouths to feed doesn’t work for her, which is why she persuades her husband to bring his kids into the forest and leave them. The dad does this, leaving the two youngsters in a dark woods in the center. Love was obviously thin back then. So we follow Hansel scoffing off on bread, leaving crumbs (or pebbles) along the route until the brothers stumble across a cottage called “gingerbread,” a place of chocolate dreams. The house is owned by an overfamiliar witch to cut a lengthy story short, who forces Gretel into slavery and occasionally prods Hansel with a stick to see if he’s plumping enough to eat. Gretel pushes her in as the hag prepares the oven for dinner and locks the door. Pretty grim, you don’t believe so? Well, it gets weirder— the conclusion of the tale is that the brothers have to rediscover their dad after the path of breadcrumbs they left behind. He’s dumped and wants their stepmother back. Everything is forgiven. Second chances in a fairy tale globe are simple to accomplish.

2 ‘Little Red Riding Hood’

Who is the Big Bad Wolf scared of? It may be a more prominent issue now than ever before. This tale has Little Red traveling through the dark forest to reach the home of her grandmother (there are a lot of dark trees). She’s chased by a wolf along the manner. Now let’s speak about the wolf. Predatory, sneaky and bordering on being unsuitable, his strategy to Little Red is extremely awkward, which has caused individuals to think that the Big Bad Wolf is a caricature of bodily predators. If that’s not sad enough for you, how about the reality that after the wolf consumes both Little Red and her grandma, a woodcutter comes along and hacks her to death, saving both? Perhaps that’s why we’re taught not to speak with strangers.

1 ‘The Little Mermaid’

We are now moving into Hans Christian Andersen’s realm. Unlike its adaptation of Disney in 1989, this tale likely goes darker as there are no songs. In this story, on their 15th birthday, mermaids are allowed to swim above the surface. The titular mermaid (because of clarity, let’s call her “Ariel”) spots the dashing Prince Eric. Visiting her grandma, Ariel is informed that while people are dying and living on in “eternal heaven,” after death, mermaids are fizzling and evaporating into foam. (It’s unsure how this affects the theology of the afterlife.)Ariel visits a seawitch and is given the gift of feet to walk the human surface on the condition that she give up her voice and language. She’ll be able to walk and dance on top of that (prepare yourself), but she’ll suffer horrible pain as if “walking on knives,” which will cause her feet to bleed strongly. When the prince falls in love with another female after a case of mistaken identity, her journey to the surface takes a terrible turn, leading in the Little Mermaid killing herself and dissolving into foam.


An Carow Gwyn: Sorcery and the Ancient Fayerie Faith

Let me begin by saying that "An Carow Gwyn" is a massive journey of a book. You will not be in the same place when you put it down as when you picked it up. And that seems to be the whole point.

The book is comprised of four parts, but the first--describing the entire metaphysical system of Fayerie Faith--is so extensive as to seem, while you&aposre reading it, to own the whole work. Prepare for an historical trip throughout Europe and North America in a sweeping timeline that ties together tradition Let me begin by saying that "An Carow Gwyn" is a massive journey of a book. You will not be in the same place when you put it down as when you picked it up. And that seems to be the whole point.

The book is comprised of four parts, but the first--describing the entire metaphysical system of Fayerie Faith--is so extensive as to seem, while you're reading it, to own the whole work. Prepare for an historical trip throughout Europe and North America in a sweeping timeline that ties together traditions, beliefs, and taboos both foreign and familiar. A great deal is explained here, but deftly so, that by the time Part Two comes around, you feel like you've begun an entirely new book.

A delightful surprise I discovered while reading is the many mind-bending concepts within the realm of sorcery. I have been practicing witchcraft for 22 years, so I would expect that little could shock me at this point, yet I was happily mistaken. This was indeed an eye-opening experience. Deep animistic meanings in ballads and fairy tales are revealed throughout, as well as revelations in myth, monotheism, and neo-Pagan thought. Associated experiences like oracles and lucid dreaming are given a more complete and intriguing treatment than I've seen elsewhere. Many little notes littered my copy by the time I was done, making sure I remembered to revisit and reflect upon important ideas. If you're curious about some of my personal highlights, check out: pg 47, paragraph 3 page 58, paragraph 5 page 77, paragraph 4, page 204, paragraph 6 page 216, paragraph 3.

If you are already familiar with Robin Artisson's work, of course, none of this will surprise you. His signature style emanates throughout--serene, clear, and old-world academic with a twist. However, all readers will gain a wealth of information including deep dives into the many aspects of this ecology and its practices. The connections drawn between the ancient and modern, between how we once were and how we could be, the things we take for granted and a deeper and broader reality are readily on display. You may find yourself, as I did, suddenly questioning standard social norms more often, noticing the strife that civilization has bound to humanity, and wondering at the habits not only of modern life but of all life extending back to our first agricultural settlements. Any time a book can influence my daily round, I consider it a massive success. As an aside, I took special notice of some excellent viewpoints Artisson gives to discussions most of us have tossed around like why cultural appropriation is wrong both morally and spiritually (pg 55) and even why we don't see sorcerous people all winning the lottery (pg 346).

After so much information, one would expect to be thoroughly exhausted, and yet the exact opposite is true. Throughout the book are many beautiful calls to action. This isn't just an exploration of the way things used to be, but an enticement to personally bring this timeless wholeness into your own life. Once you reach the instructions for actually connecting with the Unseen, you are thoroughly prepared to get started. And it's not just the otherworld you are asked to touch, but the physical, because they exist together. We're not dealing in metaphors or mythos, but real worlds and complex beings who are side by side with us, even if we choose not to see. This is a much richer worldview--and a more complete interaction with that worldview--than any of the nature-worshipping Pagan books I've read. And this is coming from a faithful Pagan.

"An Carow Gwyn" is a guide above all others, but be warned that it's not what some would consider an easy read. Prepare yourself for some college-level brain work. Clocking in at 556 pages, it's scholarly and somewhat dry at times. A large vocabulary is a must and you'll definitely want to take notes and tab pages for reference later. Even so, the connections drawn here have a way of following you home, of popping up all over. Once discovered, they cannot be erased. And that seems to be the way of the Unseen that it is, in fact, seen every day. That alone is worth any effort. . more


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