Echo- IX-95 - History

Echo- IX-95 - History

Echo

Former name retained.

(IX-95)

Echo (IX-95), a scow of New Zealand registry, wag built in 1892, transferred to the Navy under reverse lend lease from New Zealand; and commissioned 4 November 1942, Ensign M. C. Riddle in command.

Sailing from Auckland, New Zealand, 11 November 1942, Echo delivered cargo at Noumea en route to Efate in the New Hebrides. Based on this island at Port Vila, she served as a supply ship for the Army in the New Hebrides and adjoining island groups. On 14 February 1944, just prior to her departure for New Zealand, the Army awarded her crew a commendation. She arrived at Wellington 12 March 1944, was decommissioned 3 days later and returned to the New Zealand Government.


Sunday Ship History: Coast Watchers in the South Pacific

It seems that every good movie about the naval war in the Pacific mentions the "Coast Watchers." In Harm's Way, Father Goose and even the The Wackiest Ship in the Army all feature coast watchers in setting out the path to Allied victory.

The Coast Watching Organisation (WW2) commenced in 1939 under the command of the Royal Australian Navy through the Naval Intelligence Division, Navy Office, Melbourne. Lieutenant Commander R.B.M. Long was the Director of Naval Intelligence at that time. Lieutenant Commander Eric Feldt (that''s Feldt later in life to the right), who was on the Emergency List, was personally selected by Commander Long, mobilised and appointed Staff Officer (Intelligence), in Port Moresby. He had operational control of the Coast Watchers in the north eastern area of defence of Australia. This included the Australian Mandated Territories, Papua, and the Solomon Islands. There were about 800 personnel in the Coast Watching Organisation in 1939.

Eric Feldt had resigned from the Navy before the war and was employed by the Government in New Guinea. He knew the Island people, the Government Officials and the Plantation Managers who all placed great trust in Eric Feldt. Because of Eric Feldt, many civilian Coast Watchers opted to stay in New Guinea after war was declared and other civilians were ordered to be evacuated. They volunteered to stay behind Japanese lines and risked being captured as a civilian spy by the Japanese.

In 1942 the remaining Coast Watchers were mobilised into Navy service.
***

The Coastwatchers operated observation posts on the Australian coast, in New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and other locations along potential invasion routes. They were colonial government officials, civil airline pilots. shopkeepers, missionaries and planters who were organized under the control of the intelligence section of the Australian Navy. The Europeans were aided by native residents who volunteered to work for the Allied cause and provided vital manpower and local knowledge to the effort. The Japanese were known for brutality against the natives which certainly aided Allied recruitment.

Coastwatchers defied Japanese efforts to disrupt their operations, brazenly risking torture and death to keep vital intelligence flowing to Allied commanders.
Coastwatchers in the Solomon Islands

In December of 1941, full scale war broke out between Japan and United States and its allies. As Japan rapidly expanded its conquered territories, the system of Coastwatchers and the accompanying intelligence network was expanded to cover an area of 500,000 square miles. At that time, about one hundred Coastwatchers in the Solomon Islands were placed under the control of the Allied Intelligence Bureau (AIB) that coordinated Allied intelligence activities in the southwest Pacific. Lt. Commander A. Eric Feldt, Royal Australian Navy, was in charge. The first mission AIB had for the Coastwatchers was intelligence regarding Japanese movements in the land, sea and air vicinity of Guadalcanal.

In the preparations for the invasion of Guadalcanal by the U.S. Marines and Army units, Coastwatchers were extremely useful, providing reports on the number and movement of Japanese troops, and the location of enemy forces in their objective areas. After the landings, Coastwatchers provided vital reports on approaching Japanese bombing raids. Japanese war planes and ships en route to destroy the beachhead at Guadalcanal had to pass over Bougainville, in the middle of their route from Rabaul. On 8 August 1942, Coastwatcher Jack Reed (note: should be "Read" - see comments) at Buka in the north on Bougainville alerted American forces to an upcoming raid by forty Japanese bombers, which resulted in thirty-six of the enemy planes being destroyed. Paul Mason watched from a post in the south mountains over Buin and radioed, "Twenty-five torpedo bombers headed yours." All but one of those planes was intercepted and shot down. Reed (Read) also reported more than a dozen enemy transports assembling at Buka with Japanese troops for a Guadalcanal counterattack, all lost or beached by the attack of U.S. planes Reed summoned. The Coastwatcher's early warning system was vital to the Marine's success holding Guadalcanal's Henderson Field airstrip.

In addition to intelligence, Coastwatchers rescued and sheltered 118 Allied pilots during the Solomons Campaign, often risking their own lives to do so. Coastwatcher Reed also was responsible for coordinating the evacuation on Bougainville of four nuns and 25 civilians by the U.S. submarine Nautilus. They picked up survivors of sinking ships, including an assist in the rescue of Lt. John F. Kennedy and the crew of PT-109.

The combined activities of the Coastwatchers in the Solomons was so important that Admiral William F. Halsey was quoted as saying:

Guadalcanal saved the Pacific, and the Coastwatchers saved Guadalcanal.

Were we to seek the most pivotal individual, broadly involved in the Guadalcanal campaign, that man might well be Martin Clemens. He was an Aberdeen born Scot, the son of the choir master of Queen’s Cross Presbyterian Church, who died when Martin was nine years old.
***
He was graduated from Cambridge and sent out to the Solomon Islands in 1938 as a member of the British Colonial Service, where he served a three year probationary period on the island of Malaita. He became a district officer on San Cristobal in November of 1941. With the advent of the Pacific War he volunteered for military status and was told that he was in a reserved occupation. After a brief leave in Australia he returned on the evacuation ship to evacuate the Europeans and Chinese. He became the District Officer and coastwatcher of Guadalcanal on 28 February 1942 responsible for 15,000 native inhabitants, various other white occupants on the island and reporting Japanese activities.

The Japanese juggernaut was rolling across the Pacific largely unopposed. The managers of the coconut plantations had fled Guadalcanal in panic, abandoning the native workers from neighboring islands, who were left to be returned by Clemens. He then established his radio station and coastwatching activities, the latter based upon his native police and helpers. Though commissioned a Captain in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defense Force He had no uniform, nor carried any military credentials. A likely catch for the Japanese, who had in early May occupied Tulagi, and in June had commenced the construction of an airfield on Guadalcanal, further isolating Clemens and his activities and forcing him to conduct them from native enclaves in the mountains. The Japanese move into the southern Solomons was an obvious attempt to establish a base for future disruption of U. S. contact with Australia and New Zealand. Guadalcanal thus became the site of a first and major offensive against the Japanese. Clemens was destined to make a significant contribution to this effort.

The coastwatchers were an integrated network of individuals at strategic locations throughout the Solomons, headed by Lt. Commander Eric A. Feldt RAN, the effort was designated Ferdinand. (John Brown, World War II, May 1998, p. 8) The 1st Marine Division and attached troops under Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift USMC were designated as the, “Cactus”, landing force. Cooperation between Ferdinand and Marine intelligence placed Clemens as the principal operative on Guadalcanal. A bare foot Clemens on his jungle shielded mountain, playing hide and seek with the Japanese, was running low on food, supplies, power for his radio and shoes as his had disintegrated. A delightful episode was the delivery by his islander crew, of a dressed duck to the deprived location and the ingenious approach to cooking it.

Despite this deteriorating status he continued to supply vital intelligence of Japanese activities. He maintained an information gathering network of natives, who reported to island police, this information was evaluated by Clemens and transmitted through Ferdinand operatives to Feldt. A significant addition to his islander force came in June, when Jacob Vouza, a retired Sergeant Major of the Colonial Constabulary, came back to Guadalcanal from Malaita. Clemens was kept uninformed of plans for the invasion, although suspecting that a large move was underway meanwhile, his very life was in the hands of the Solomon Islanders, who were aware of his location. It is a tribute to Clemens and the Solomon Islanders, that they never informed to the Japanese.
***
The assault landings in the Solomons . occurred on 7 August 1942 . Clemens who had retreated deeper and deeper into the bush to avoid the Japanese, could now make his entry into the Henderson Field beachhead, which he did with his loyal native staff on 15 August. Major General Vandegrift, on their first meeting was indeed positive, recognizing Clemens value as an addition to his staff and placed great responsibility upon him, " ---and told me to take complete charge of all matters of native administration and intelligence outside the perimeter. I was to attach myself to Colonel Buckley of D-2. collecting information through my scouts, on the whole Island and supplying guides as required---”. Clemens had moved from the relative security of his mountain retreat to the hazards of the Henderson Field beachhead, with only a Marine Division for protection.

Clemens to his credit quickly integrated into the headquarters group, interpreting local information and his scouts constantly supplied pertinent intelligence from beyond the perimeter. His scouts first detected the, “Ichiki Detachment” A reinforced Japanese battalion which attacked the beachhead from the east, along the Tenaru river on the 20-21 August 1942 and were annihilated by the Marines. Prior to the onset of this action Sergeant Major Vouza was captured by the Japanese, though tortured and repeatedly bayoneted he gave no information to them. Left for dead, he crawled through the battle lines and his life was saved by the US Navy doctors. He made a miraculous recovery.

An important factor in the Guadalcanal Campaign made itself felt at this time-AIB "coast watchers " sent out by General MacArthur's G-2 to operate secret radio stations behind enemy lines and report on Japanese troop, plane and ship movements. Carefully placed at strategic locations in the Solomon Islands, these agents were particularly effective in sending radio spot reports on imminent Japanese aerial attacks.

The main Japanese air bases for operations against Guadalcanal were at Rabaul on New Britain, Buin on Bougainville, and Buka Island, with Kavieng on New Ireland as a supporting base. AIB agents located at the key points of Buin and Buka Passage were ideally situated for observation purposes. (Plate No. 25) They had perfected a network by which they were able to give three successive warning signals of Japanese bombers en route to Tulagi and Guadalcanal. United States forces at Tulagi and at Henderson Field had ample notice of impending air attacks and were able to gain a decided advantage by having their planes aloft and ready to strike at the most opportune time.24

AIB "coast watchers" also reported on Japanese harbor activity in the waters adjacent to the Solomon Islands. One party in the hills overlooking Bougainville Island sent daily reports on enemy harbor activity to the Allied Fleet off Guadalcanal's shore. Another party gave details of sea and air arrivals and departures at Buka Passage, an important anchorage for ships operating against Guadalcanal. Other agents at Gold Ridge near Lunga and in northwest Guadalcanal formed an interlocking and efficient intelligence and radio communication net.25

Let's give credit to the Australians for their prescient establishment of the Coast Watcher early warning network and to the steadfast and brave men who took up the mantle of Coast Watchers. The success of the Allied Solomons campaign and the defeat of the Japanese in the South Pacific owes a great deal to the timely information provided by the hundreds of Coast Watchers (native and imported) along the island chains.

More information of the "sea daddy" of the Coastwatchers, LT Eric Feldt, here. A bit of his writing about the Coast Watchers here.

Walter Lord's book Lonely Vigil: Coastwatchers of the Solomons and A. B. Feuer's work: Coast Watching in World War II: Operations Against the Japanese in the Solomon Islands, 1941-43, pretty much cover the topic, except for books by individuals who served as Coast Watchers, like Clemen's Alone on Guadalcanal.

There a lot of other naval connections with the Coast Watchers - in 1943, Subchaser SC 761 was dispatched to retrieve Coast Watchers who had been gathered by submaine from Bougainville:

SC 761 was now overloaded with its human cargo. Lt. Commander John R. Keenan, RAN was in charge of the group of Coast Watchers. Of the 59 personnel there were about 20 Australian and New Zealand Coast Watchers, some native Police, some loyal natives, 2 or 3 Fijians, a large number of Chinese, plus two survivors of an RAAF Catalina crash.

SC 761 left USS Guardfish at 0540 hrs and headed for Guadalcanal. The 59 passengers were very hungry and tired. The Commander of SC 761, Lt. Ronald B. Balcom, USNR, asked "Frenchie" their cook, to feed their hungry guests. The ship was overstocked with Salmon which they were always required to draw from stores at their Naval supply facility. The crew of SC 761 were sick of Salmon, so "Frenchie" took this opportunity to reduce their stocks. John Keenan offered some of his Chinese to assist in the galley. Using hand signals "Frenchie" to communicate with the Chinese, they served up several cases of Salmon and large helpings of rice. After this hearty meal, the Chinese meticulously cleaned the galley, and all the plates and cooking and eating utensils. They even cleaned the aft crew quarters where many of them had eaten. "Frenchie" would loved to have kept a few of these Chinese in his galley for the rest of the war.

Lt. Comdr. John R. Keenan consumed a pot of hot tea while he relived some of his experiences on Bougainville. The Japanese would constantly track them while they were broadcasting with their teleradios, so they were constantly on the move to avoid capture. The Coast Watchers had their photograph taken on the forecastle of SC 761 after they had showered, shaved and eaten. Lt. Cmdr. Keenan advised that he had lost two men who were captured by the Japanese and thereupon beheaded.

Coast Watchers were also involved in the rescue of John F. Kennedy's PT109 crew.

As a monument to the Coast Watchers, a lighthouse was dedicated as a memorial to their service:

The lighthouse, 90 feet high, stands on a base of red terrazzo tiles, and on this circle, between each set of fins, is a bronze plaque. The plaque between the two front fins is the Honour Plaque with the names of the fallen, on the left side is a plaque which reads:
"In honour and grateful memory of the Coastwatchers and of the loyal natives who assisted them in their heroic service behind enemy lines during the Second World War in providing intelligence vital to the conduct of Allied operations. Not only did they transmit by means of teleradio from their jungle hideouts information which led to the sinking of numerous enemy warships, but they were able to give timely warning of impending enemy air attacks. The contribution towards the Allied victory in the Pacific by the small body of men who constituted the Coastwatchers was out of all proportion to their numbers."

GUY ALLEN
F.A. BARRETT, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
D.N. BEDKOBER, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
L.J. BELL, LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
C.E. BENGOUGH, CAPTAIN, B.S.I.D.F.
G.M. BENHAM, SUB-LIEUT., D.S.C., R.A.N.V.R.
J.I. BUNNING, GUNNER, A.I.F.
W.A.H. BUTTERIS, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
L.T.W. CARLSON, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
J. DAYMOND
T.J. DOUGLAS, WRITER, R.A.N.
T. EBERY
W.F.B. FLORANCE, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
A.E. FRANCIS, SIGNALLER, R.A.N.
P.D. GOOD
G.C. HARRIS, CAPTAIN, A.I.F.
C.C. JERVIS
LEONARD KENTISH
G.T. KNIGHT, YEOMAN OF SIGNALS, R.A.N.
A.F. KYLE, LIEUTENANT, D.S.C., R.A.N.V.R.
S. LAMONT, CHIEF YEOMAN OF SIGS., R.A.N.
D.A. LAWS, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
C.J.T. MASON, FLYING OFFICER, R.A.A.F.
N.B. MARTIN, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
E.F.H. MITCHELL, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
A. OBST, WARRANT OFFICER II, A.I.F.
A.R. OLANDER, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
C.L. PAGE, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
L. PURSEHOUSE, CAPTAIN, A.I.F.
G. SHORTIS, TROOPER, A.I.F.
G. STEVENSON, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
J. TALMAGE
G.H.C. TRAIN, LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
W. TUPLING, PETTY OFFICER, R.A.N.
L.G. VIAL, FLIGHT-LIEUTENANT, R.A.A.F.
J.L. WOODROFFE, LEADING TELEGRAPHIST, R.A.N.

“They waited and warned and died that we might live”.


For all shipments during this unusual time, if the consignee or driver feels that it is safer to refrain from signing any shipping documents, the driver can print the name of the receiving person on the shipping document. Alternatively, some carriers are now using an electronic logging system to input the name of the receiving person or driver. In either case, these options will act as the official signature of receipt or pickup, as the case may be.

Similarly, if a shipment is damaged in any way or has a shortage of cargo, damage should be noted at the time of delivery, but it may not be on the bill of lading or delivery receipt. Using these alternative approaches absolves Echo from the liability of not having a driver, shipper, or receiver’s signature on shipping documents in accordance with previous practices and will be sufficient to confirm delivery for payment purposes.

Shippers, receivers, and carriers should document all pickup, delivery, and damage to the best of their ability in real time. We encourage all parties to take pictures of the shipment to confirm pickup, delivery, and the condition of the product at every step.

This post amends Echo’s standard terms and conditions until further notice.


The Dynamite Cruiser

USS Vesuvius in 1891. US Navy Photo

Commissioned in 1890, USS Vesuvius was the first and only U.S. ship to be outfitted with dynamite guns.

Vesuvius’ three pneumatic guns could fire 550-lbs high explosive shells at targets up to a mile away and were used during the Spanish-American War in 1898 to bombard enemy emplacements in Cuba.

Since the guns quietly propelled shells with compressed air, it was reported that the enemy became unnerved because of their inability to hear any boom preceding incoming fire. Their success as a terror weapon aside, dynamite guns quickly fell out of favor due to their lack of accuracy and high maintenance needs.

Vesuvius’ dynamite guns were removed and replaced with torpedo tubes. The ship later suffered the indignity of almost sinking itself when one it its torpedoes circled back and slammed into the hull.


Design – Like the new Echo only the Amazon Echo Dot (4th Generation) is smaller

  • Spherical design looks beautiful
  • Lights now shine downwards, so they’re not as distracting
  • New controls are easier to reach

Amazon has gone spherical this year, with its new Echo smart speakers all following the same pattern. So, the Amazon Echo Dot (4th Generation) is just a smaller version of the full-size Echo (4th Generation): that’s to say, that the new model is a little bigger than a baseball (100 x 100 x 89mm).

At this size, the new Echo Dot doesn’t take up a lot more desk space than the old one, although the new model is considerably higher. This new model is available in three colours (Charcoal, Glacier White or Twilight Blue), losing the Plum option of the old Echo Dot: a move that I think we can all live with.

Amazon has also moved the light ring, pushing it to the bottom of the speaker, so that it shines down, rather than up. It’s a subtle change, but means that the Echo Dot no longer lights up the room when its light ring comes on.

The big change is that the new Echo Dot looks properly designed: it’s interesting enough to catch your attention, yet subtle enough that it blends into a room. I think it’s a genuine step up from the previous designs.

I should also point out that the fabric covering is made from 100% recycled materials, 100% of the aluminium used is recycled and 50% of the plastic parts are reused.

Although Amazon has the same controls on top as it’s always had (Action button, microphone mute and volume controls), this time around the buttons are towards the back of the speaker, gently blending in with the material covering. They’re slightly raised, making them easier to feel for, too, particularly as each button is a different shape.

Around the back, you get the 3.5mm audio output and the power input. To be honest, if you’re going to use the 3.5mm audio output for connecting to an external speaker, you might as well buy a cheaper speaker, such as the Echo Flex.


Pricing and availability

The 3rd generation Echo Dot originally retailed for $50, but you might be able to find the device on sale for around $40. You’ll see a $60 asking price for the Echo Dot 3rd Gen with Clock.

The 4th generation Echo Dot premiered on October 22, 2020 at a retail price of $50. The Echo Dot 4th Gen with Clock sells for $60, and it was released on November 5, 2020. On shopping holidays like Prime Day, you can often find sales on both the 3rd- and 4th-gen Dots. The design on the 4th-gen Dot is worth paying a few extra bucks for, but it’s not worth paying too much more, especially if you can get a much better deal on the older-gen model. If you can find a 3rd-gen Dot on sale for a low price, it’s still an excellent option.


History

A twin-masted scow (flat-bottomed schooner) of New Zealand registry, Echo was built in New Zealand in 1905 by William Brown, of Kauri timber. She was originally topsail rigged. Twin diesel engines were installed in 1920.

She was transferred to the US Navy under reverse Lend-Lease from New Zealand and commissioned on 4 November 1942 with Ensign M. C. Riddle in command.

Sailing from Auckland on 11 November 1942, Echo delivered cargo at Noumea en route to Efate in the New Hebrides. Based on this island at Port Vila, she served as a supply ship for the United States Army in the New Hebrides and adjoining island groups. On 14 February 1944, just prior to her departure for New Zealand, the Army awarded her crew a commendation. She arrived at Wellington on 12 March 1944, was decommissioned three days later, and returned to the New Zealand Government.


Racing boats: the inland lake scows

In the early 20th century, smaller sloop and cat rigged scows became popular sailboats on inland lakes throughout the midwestern United States. First popularized by Johnson Boat Works in Minnesota, these boats were distinguished by their larger sail plans, retractable bilgeboards, and (in some classes) twin rudders. There are many active racing classes throughout the Midwest, Western New York, the New Jersey Shore and parts of the South. These boats are traditionally identified by their class letters:

  • A: The largest inland lake scow at 38 feet long, the A normally requires a crew of six or seven. The sail plan includes a mainsail, a jib, and a large Asymmetrical spinnaker. It has twin rudders. A new A scow (with sails and a trailer) cost $125,000 in 2005. Once the fastest monohull sailboat in the world, has been clocked in at 33 knots (38 mph). It is possible to waterski behind these sailboats, as demonstrated by Buddy Melges.
  • E: This is essentially a smaller version of the A scow. Only 28 feet long, it requires a crew of three or four. In 2007, the class association (NCESA) voted to make the asymmetrical spinnaker the class legal standard.
  • M-16: This 16-foot scow crews two, and has a mainsail and jib but no spinnaker. It has tiny dual rudders like the A and the E.
  • M-20: A 20-foot version of the M-16, with the addition of a backstay, a tunnel hull, twin bilgeboards and rudders, and a spinnaker. Modern boats are built with both the symmetrical spinnaker, or the I-20 version with an asymmetrical spinnaker. Because of the hull configuration, at a substantial angle of heel, it is similar to having a catamaran on one hull: the ratio of water line length to breadth increases dramatically, along with a geometric increase in speed.
  • C: This is a 20-foot catboat with one large sail set far forward on the hull. It requires a crew of two or three. Unlike the A and E, the C-scow has a large, efficient single rudder. It has no permanent backstay, so jibing the boat requires the quick use of running backstays.
  • MC: The MC is a "mini-C" of sorts, a 16-foot cat-rigged boat with a higher and narrower sailplan. It also has a large efficient single rudder. It can be sailed competitively by 1 person. This is a growing class, especially popular in the midwest and southern USA.
  • 17: Introduced in 2005 by Melges Performance Sailboats, the 17 is a departure from traditional scow design. It has an asymmetrical spinnaker and retractable bowsprit, a high-roach full-battened mainsail, and unusually long and thin rudder and bilgeboards.
  • Butterfly: This small scow is meant to be sailed by one person. It features a cat rig, and unlike the other boats above, it has a daggerboard.

Contrary to the connotations of the old definition of "scow" (large and slow), the inland lake scows are extremely fast—the wide, flat bottom hull allows them to plane easily. As a consequence of this, the A scow is the highest rated centerboard boat according to the US Portsmouth yardstick numbers.


Racing boats: the inland lake scows

In the early 20th century, smaller sloop and cat rigged scows became popular sailboats on inland lakes throughout the midwestern United States. First popularized by Johnson Boat Works in Minnesota, these boats were distinguished by their larger sail plans, retractable bilgeboards, and (in some classes) twin rudders. There are many active racing classes throughout the Midwest, Western New York, the New Jersey Shore and parts of the South. These boats are traditionally identified by their class letters:

  • A: The largest inland lake scow at 38 feet long, the A normally requires a crew of six or seven. The sail plan includes a mainsail, a jib, and a large asymmetricalspinnaker. It has twin rudders. A new A scow (with sails and a trailer) cost $125,000 in 2005. Once the fastest monohull sailboat in the world, has been clocked in at 33 knots (38 mph). It is possible to waterski behind these sailboats, as demonstrated by Buddy Melges.
  • E: This is essentially a smaller version of the A scow. Only 28 feet long, it requires a crew of three or four. In 2007, the class association (NCESA) voted to make the asymmetrical spinnaker the class legal standard.
  • M-16: This 16-foot scow crews two, and has a mainsail and jib but no spinnaker. It has tiny dual rudders like the A and the E.
  • M-20: A 20-foot version of the M-16, with the addition of a backstay, a tunnel hull, twin bilgeboards and rudders, and a spinnaker. Modern boats are built with both the symmetrical spinnaker, or the I-20 version with an asymmetrical spinnaker. Because of the hull configuration, at a substantial angle of heel, it is similar to having a catamaran on one hull: the ratio of water line length to breath increases dramatically, along with a geometric increase in speed.
  • C: This is a 20-foot catboat with one large sail set far forward on the hull. It requires a crew of two or three. Unlike the A and E, the C-scow has a large, efficient single rudder. It has no permanent backstay, so jibing the boat requires the quick use of running backstays.
  • MC: The MC is a "mini-C" of sorts, a 16-foot cat-rigged boat with a higher and narrower sailplan. It also has a large efficient single rudder. It can be sailed competitively by 1 person. This is a growing class, especially popular in the midwest and southern USA.
  • 17: Introduced in 2005 by Melges Performance Sailboats, the 17 is a departure from traditional scow design. It has an asymmetrical spinnaker and retractable bowsprit, a high-roach full-battened mainsail, and unusually long and thin rudder and bilgeboards.
  • Butterfly: This small scow is meant to be sailed by one person. It features a cat rig, and unlike the other boats above, it has a daggerboard.

Contrary to the connotations of the old definition of "scow" (large and slow), the inland lake scows are extremely fast--the wide, flat bottom hull allows them to plane easily. As a consequence of this, the A scow is the highest rated centerboard boat according to the US Portsmouth yardstick numbers.


Sunday Ship History: Coast Watchers in the South Pacific

It seems that every good movie about the naval war in the Pacific mentions the "Coast Watchers." In Harm's Way, Father Goose and even the The Wackiest Ship in the Army all feature coast watchers in setting out the path to Allied victory.

The Coast Watching Organisation (WW2) commenced in 1939 under the command of the Royal Australian Navy through the Naval Intelligence Division, Navy Office, Melbourne. Lieutenant Commander R.B.M. Long was the Director of Naval Intelligence at that time. Lieutenant Commander Eric Feldt (that''s Feldt later in life to the right), who was on the Emergency List, was personally selected by Commander Long, mobilised and appointed Staff Officer (Intelligence), in Port Moresby. He had operational control of the Coast Watchers in the north eastern area of defence of Australia. This included the Australian Mandated Territories, Papua, and the Solomon Islands. There were about 800 personnel in the Coast Watching Organisation in 1939.

Eric Feldt had resigned from the Navy before the war and was employed by the Government in New Guinea. He knew the Island people, the Government Officials and the Plantation Managers who all placed great trust in Eric Feldt. Because of Eric Feldt, many civilian Coast Watchers opted to stay in New Guinea after war was declared and other civilians were ordered to be evacuated. They volunteered to stay behind Japanese lines and risked being captured as a civilian spy by the Japanese.

In 1942 the remaining Coast Watchers were mobilised into Navy service.
***

The Coastwatchers operated observation posts on the Australian coast, in New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and other locations along potential invasion routes. They were colonial government officials, civil airline pilots. shopkeepers, missionaries and planters who were organized under the control of the intelligence section of the Australian Navy. The Europeans were aided by native residents who volunteered to work for the Allied cause and provided vital manpower and local knowledge to the effort. The Japanese were known for brutality against the natives which certainly aided Allied recruitment.

Coastwatchers defied Japanese efforts to disrupt their operations, brazenly risking torture and death to keep vital intelligence flowing to Allied commanders.
Coastwatchers in the Solomon Islands

In December of 1941, full scale war broke out between Japan and United States and its allies. As Japan rapidly expanded its conquered territories, the system of Coastwatchers and the accompanying intelligence network was expanded to cover an area of 500,000 square miles. At that time, about one hundred Coastwatchers in the Solomon Islands were placed under the control of the Allied Intelligence Bureau (AIB) that coordinated Allied intelligence activities in the southwest Pacific. Lt. Commander A. Eric Feldt, Royal Australian Navy, was in charge. The first mission AIB had for the Coastwatchers was intelligence regarding Japanese movements in the land, sea and air vicinity of Guadalcanal.

In the preparations for the invasion of Guadalcanal by the U.S. Marines and Army units, Coastwatchers were extremely useful, providing reports on the number and movement of Japanese troops, and the location of enemy forces in their objective areas. After the landings, Coastwatchers provided vital reports on approaching Japanese bombing raids. Japanese war planes and ships en route to destroy the beachhead at Guadalcanal had to pass over Bougainville, in the middle of their route from Rabaul. On 8 August 1942, Coastwatcher Jack Reed (note: should be "Read" - see comments) at Buka in the north on Bougainville alerted American forces to an upcoming raid by forty Japanese bombers, which resulted in thirty-six of the enemy planes being destroyed. Paul Mason watched from a post in the south mountains over Buin and radioed, "Twenty-five torpedo bombers headed yours." All but one of those planes was intercepted and shot down. Reed (Read) also reported more than a dozen enemy transports assembling at Buka with Japanese troops for a Guadalcanal counterattack, all lost or beached by the attack of U.S. planes Reed summoned. The Coastwatcher's early warning system was vital to the Marine's success holding Guadalcanal's Henderson Field airstrip.

In addition to intelligence, Coastwatchers rescued and sheltered 118 Allied pilots during the Solomons Campaign, often risking their own lives to do so. Coastwatcher Reed also was responsible for coordinating the evacuation on Bougainville of four nuns and 25 civilians by the U.S. submarine Nautilus. They picked up survivors of sinking ships, including an assist in the rescue of Lt. John F. Kennedy and the crew of PT-109.

The combined activities of the Coastwatchers in the Solomons was so important that Admiral William F. Halsey was quoted as saying:

Guadalcanal saved the Pacific, and the Coastwatchers saved Guadalcanal.

Were we to seek the most pivotal individual, broadly involved in the Guadalcanal campaign, that man might well be Martin Clemens. He was an Aberdeen born Scot, the son of the choir master of Queen’s Cross Presbyterian Church, who died when Martin was nine years old.
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He was graduated from Cambridge and sent out to the Solomon Islands in 1938 as a member of the British Colonial Service, where he served a three year probationary period on the island of Malaita. He became a district officer on San Cristobal in November of 1941. With the advent of the Pacific War he volunteered for military status and was told that he was in a reserved occupation. After a brief leave in Australia he returned on the evacuation ship to evacuate the Europeans and Chinese. He became the District Officer and coastwatcher of Guadalcanal on 28 February 1942 responsible for 15,000 native inhabitants, various other white occupants on the island and reporting Japanese activities.

The Japanese juggernaut was rolling across the Pacific largely unopposed. The managers of the coconut plantations had fled Guadalcanal in panic, abandoning the native workers from neighboring islands, who were left to be returned by Clemens. He then established his radio station and coastwatching activities, the latter based upon his native police and helpers. Though commissioned a Captain in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defense Force He had no uniform, nor carried any military credentials. A likely catch for the Japanese, who had in early May occupied Tulagi, and in June had commenced the construction of an airfield on Guadalcanal, further isolating Clemens and his activities and forcing him to conduct them from native enclaves in the mountains. The Japanese move into the southern Solomons was an obvious attempt to establish a base for future disruption of U. S. contact with Australia and New Zealand. Guadalcanal thus became the site of a first and major offensive against the Japanese. Clemens was destined to make a significant contribution to this effort.

The coastwatchers were an integrated network of individuals at strategic locations throughout the Solomons, headed by Lt. Commander Eric A. Feldt RAN, the effort was designated Ferdinand. (John Brown, World War II, May 1998, p. 8) The 1st Marine Division and attached troops under Major General Alexander A. Vandegrift USMC were designated as the, “Cactus”, landing force. Cooperation between Ferdinand and Marine intelligence placed Clemens as the principal operative on Guadalcanal. A bare foot Clemens on his jungle shielded mountain, playing hide and seek with the Japanese, was running low on food, supplies, power for his radio and shoes as his had disintegrated. A delightful episode was the delivery by his islander crew, of a dressed duck to the deprived location and the ingenious approach to cooking it.

Despite this deteriorating status he continued to supply vital intelligence of Japanese activities. He maintained an information gathering network of natives, who reported to island police, this information was evaluated by Clemens and transmitted through Ferdinand operatives to Feldt. A significant addition to his islander force came in June, when Jacob Vouza, a retired Sergeant Major of the Colonial Constabulary, came back to Guadalcanal from Malaita. Clemens was kept uninformed of plans for the invasion, although suspecting that a large move was underway meanwhile, his very life was in the hands of the Solomon Islanders, who were aware of his location. It is a tribute to Clemens and the Solomon Islanders, that they never informed to the Japanese.
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The assault landings in the Solomons . occurred on 7 August 1942 . Clemens who had retreated deeper and deeper into the bush to avoid the Japanese, could now make his entry into the Henderson Field beachhead, which he did with his loyal native staff on 15 August. Major General Vandegrift, on their first meeting was indeed positive, recognizing Clemens value as an addition to his staff and placed great responsibility upon him, " ---and told me to take complete charge of all matters of native administration and intelligence outside the perimeter. I was to attach myself to Colonel Buckley of D-2. collecting information through my scouts, on the whole Island and supplying guides as required---”. Clemens had moved from the relative security of his mountain retreat to the hazards of the Henderson Field beachhead, with only a Marine Division for protection.

Clemens to his credit quickly integrated into the headquarters group, interpreting local information and his scouts constantly supplied pertinent intelligence from beyond the perimeter. His scouts first detected the, “Ichiki Detachment” A reinforced Japanese battalion which attacked the beachhead from the east, along the Tenaru river on the 20-21 August 1942 and were annihilated by the Marines. Prior to the onset of this action Sergeant Major Vouza was captured by the Japanese, though tortured and repeatedly bayoneted he gave no information to them. Left for dead, he crawled through the battle lines and his life was saved by the US Navy doctors. He made a miraculous recovery.

An important factor in the Guadalcanal Campaign made itself felt at this time-AIB "coast watchers " sent out by General MacArthur's G-2 to operate secret radio stations behind enemy lines and report on Japanese troop, plane and ship movements. Carefully placed at strategic locations in the Solomon Islands, these agents were particularly effective in sending radio spot reports on imminent Japanese aerial attacks.

The main Japanese air bases for operations against Guadalcanal were at Rabaul on New Britain, Buin on Bougainville, and Buka Island, with Kavieng on New Ireland as a supporting base. AIB agents located at the key points of Buin and Buka Passage were ideally situated for observation purposes. (Plate No. 25) They had perfected a network by which they were able to give three successive warning signals of Japanese bombers en route to Tulagi and Guadalcanal. United States forces at Tulagi and at Henderson Field had ample notice of impending air attacks and were able to gain a decided advantage by having their planes aloft and ready to strike at the most opportune time.24

AIB "coast watchers" also reported on Japanese harbor activity in the waters adjacent to the Solomon Islands. One party in the hills overlooking Bougainville Island sent daily reports on enemy harbor activity to the Allied Fleet off Guadalcanal's shore. Another party gave details of sea and air arrivals and departures at Buka Passage, an important anchorage for ships operating against Guadalcanal. Other agents at Gold Ridge near Lunga and in northwest Guadalcanal formed an interlocking and efficient intelligence and radio communication net.25

Let's give credit to the Australians for their prescient establishment of the Coast Watcher early warning network and to the steadfast and brave men who took up the mantle of Coast Watchers. The success of the Allied Solomons campaign and the defeat of the Japanese in the South Pacific owes a great deal to the timely information provided by the hundreds of Coast Watchers (native and imported) along the island chains.

More information of the "sea daddy" of the Coastwatchers, LT Eric Feldt, here. A bit of his writing about the Coast Watchers here.

Walter Lord's book Lonely Vigil: Coastwatchers of the Solomons and A. B. Feuer's work: Coast Watching in World War II: Operations Against the Japanese in the Solomon Islands, 1941-43, pretty much cover the topic, except for books by individuals who served as Coast Watchers, like Clemen's Alone on Guadalcanal.

There a lot of other naval connections with the Coast Watchers - in 1943, Subchaser SC 761 was dispatched to retrieve Coast Watchers who had been gathered by submaine from Bougainville:

SC 761 was now overloaded with its human cargo. Lt. Commander John R. Keenan, RAN was in charge of the group of Coast Watchers. Of the 59 personnel there were about 20 Australian and New Zealand Coast Watchers, some native Police, some loyal natives, 2 or 3 Fijians, a large number of Chinese, plus two survivors of an RAAF Catalina crash.

SC 761 left USS Guardfish at 0540 hrs and headed for Guadalcanal. The 59 passengers were very hungry and tired. The Commander of SC 761, Lt. Ronald B. Balcom, USNR, asked "Frenchie" their cook, to feed their hungry guests. The ship was overstocked with Salmon which they were always required to draw from stores at their Naval supply facility. The crew of SC 761 were sick of Salmon, so "Frenchie" took this opportunity to reduce their stocks. John Keenan offered some of his Chinese to assist in the galley. Using hand signals "Frenchie" to communicate with the Chinese, they served up several cases of Salmon and large helpings of rice. After this hearty meal, the Chinese meticulously cleaned the galley, and all the plates and cooking and eating utensils. They even cleaned the aft crew quarters where many of them had eaten. "Frenchie" would loved to have kept a few of these Chinese in his galley for the rest of the war.

Lt. Comdr. John R. Keenan consumed a pot of hot tea while he relived some of his experiences on Bougainville. The Japanese would constantly track them while they were broadcasting with their teleradios, so they were constantly on the move to avoid capture. The Coast Watchers had their photograph taken on the forecastle of SC 761 after they had showered, shaved and eaten. Lt. Cmdr. Keenan advised that he had lost two men who were captured by the Japanese and thereupon beheaded.

Coast Watchers were also involved in the rescue of John F. Kennedy's PT109 crew.

As a monument to the Coast Watchers, a lighthouse was dedicated as a memorial to their service:

The lighthouse, 90 feet high, stands on a base of red terrazzo tiles, and on this circle, between each set of fins, is a bronze plaque. The plaque between the two front fins is the Honour Plaque with the names of the fallen, on the left side is a plaque which reads:
"In honour and grateful memory of the Coastwatchers and of the loyal natives who assisted them in their heroic service behind enemy lines during the Second World War in providing intelligence vital to the conduct of Allied operations. Not only did they transmit by means of teleradio from their jungle hideouts information which led to the sinking of numerous enemy warships, but they were able to give timely warning of impending enemy air attacks. The contribution towards the Allied victory in the Pacific by the small body of men who constituted the Coastwatchers was out of all proportion to their numbers."

GUY ALLEN
F.A. BARRETT, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
D.N. BEDKOBER, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
L.J. BELL, LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
C.E. BENGOUGH, CAPTAIN, B.S.I.D.F.
G.M. BENHAM, SUB-LIEUT., D.S.C., R.A.N.V.R.
J.I. BUNNING, GUNNER, A.I.F.
W.A.H. BUTTERIS, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
L.T.W. CARLSON, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
J. DAYMOND
T.J. DOUGLAS, WRITER, R.A.N.
T. EBERY
W.F.B. FLORANCE, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
A.E. FRANCIS, SIGNALLER, R.A.N.
P.D. GOOD
G.C. HARRIS, CAPTAIN, A.I.F.
C.C. JERVIS
LEONARD KENTISH
G.T. KNIGHT, YEOMAN OF SIGNALS, R.A.N.
A.F. KYLE, LIEUTENANT, D.S.C., R.A.N.V.R.
S. LAMONT, CHIEF YEOMAN OF SIGS., R.A.N.
D.A. LAWS, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
C.J.T. MASON, FLYING OFFICER, R.A.A.F.
N.B. MARTIN, SERGEANT, A.I.F.
E.F.H. MITCHELL, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
A. OBST, WARRANT OFFICER II, A.I.F.
A.R. OLANDER, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
C.L. PAGE, SUB-LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
L. PURSEHOUSE, CAPTAIN, A.I.F.
G. SHORTIS, TROOPER, A.I.F.
G. STEVENSON, LIEUTENANT, A.I.F.
J. TALMAGE
G.H.C. TRAIN, LIEUTENANT, R.A.N.V.R.
W. TUPLING, PETTY OFFICER, R.A.N.
L.G. VIAL, FLIGHT-LIEUTENANT, R.A.A.F.
J.L. WOODROFFE, LEADING TELEGRAPHIST, R.A.N.

“They waited and warned and died that we might live”.


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