Explorer 1

Explorer 1

On January 31, 1958, the United States launched its first satellite, known as Explorer 1, into orbit atop a modified Jupiter-C rocket. In so doing, it demonstrated that it was competitive in space with the Soviet Union, which had launched Sputnik nearly four months earlier.Scientist and engineer Wernher von Braun, while working at the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency headquarters at Huntsville, Alabama, had headed the rocket project. The satellite itself was built by William Pickering and a team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. At Iowa State University, Dr. James Van Allen, head of the physics department, and graduate student Wei Ching Lin, had constructed the cosmic-ray Geiger counters that constituted the science instruments of the Explorer mission.Compared with the hefty 1,200 pound Sputnik 2, Explorer weighed a puny 18 pounds. Van Allen's instruments, from this and two later Explorer satellites, discovered a previously unknown radiation belt around the planet. Van Allen's honor, it was named the Van Allen Belt and was recognized as the greatest science contribution of the International Geophysical Year (1958).


Internet Explorer version history

Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.

The first version of Internet Explorer, (at that time named Microsoft Internet Explorer, later referred to as Internet Explorer 1) made its debut on August 17, 1995. It was a reworked version of Spyglass Mosaic, which Microsoft licensed from Spyglass Inc., like many other companies initiating browser development. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the OEM service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows.

Originally Microsoft Internet Explorer only ran on Windows using Intel 80386 (IA-32) processor. Current versions also run on x64, 32-bit ARMv7, PowerPC and IA-64. Versions on Windows have supported MIPS, Alpha AXP and 16-bit and 32-bit x86 but currently support only 32-bit or 64-bit. A version exists for Xbox 360 called Internet Explorer for Xbox using PowerPC and an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet Explorer, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile, which is currently based on Internet Explorer 9 and made for Windows Phone using ARMv7, Windows CE, and previously, based on Internet Explorer 7 for Windows Mobile. It remains in development alongside the desktop versions.

Internet Explorer has supported other operating systems with Internet Explorer for Mac (using Motorola 68020+, PowerPC) and Internet Explorer for UNIX (Solaris using SPARC and HP-UX using PA-RISC), which have been discontinued.

Since its first release, Microsoft has added features and technologies such as basic table display (in version 1.5) XMLHttpRequest (in version 5), which adds creation of dynamic web pages and Internationalized Domain Names (in version 7), which allow Web sites to have native-language addresses with non-Latin characters. The browser has also received scrutiny throughout its development for use of third-party technology (such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic, used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities, and both the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet Explorer with Windows has been to the detriment of other browsers.

The latest stable release has an interface allowing for use as both a desktop application, and as a Windows 8 application.


Spurred by the Soviets

Explorer 1's ride to space came through a complicated set of circumstances. The United States had at least three main rocket options for sending the satellite into space. The ones that are most remembered today are Vanguard — under development by the Navy — and Juno. The latter rocket was based on an Army rocket designed by German scientist Wernher Von Braun, who worked on the V-2 missile program that sent bombs to England during World War II.

The satellite was supposed to launch as the United States' contribution to science during International Geophysical Year (which ran from 1957-1958). Then history intervened. The Soviet Union rocketed Sputnik into space on Oct. 4, 1957. This was the first artificial satellite any nation sent out of the Earth. The launch — revealed only after it was a success — stunned most of the Western world. It was a coup for Soviet rocket technology, and led some to muse that bombs could be launched just as easily as a satellite.

This accelerated the United States' plans. Rocket and satellite engineers quickly got to work, trying to prove they were also capable of launching into space.


Rolex Explorer 14270 specifications

In 1989, the Rolex Explorer 14270 was released. This model came to replace the predeceasing Explorer model, ref 1019. Upon being discontinued in favor for the 14270, the 1019 had been in production for a whopping 26 years. Since the watch had been in production for so long, elements such as the plexiglass crystal and the matte dial made the watch outdated and not up-to-date to the time’s design standards.

The differences between the new 14270 and the 1019 weren’t huge. In fact, design-wise, it was very obvious where the 14270 design came from. But technically, the models differed more from each other. In fact, the newer 14270 had a bunch of new technical features.

First off, the Explorer I 14270 was equipped with a new movement, the Rolex Caliber 3000. The movement was COSC certified, and it was the same movement also used in the Submariner 14060.

As the name reveals, the Explorer model is a watch in Rolex’s range that is made for the adventurer. The watch’s idea is that it is supposed to withstand great temperatures – both low and high, and extreme climates which the adventurer is in. As such, this movement was a very robust movement, built to withstand shocks and extreme temperatures. The movement of the 14270 features 27 jewels, has a 28,800 bph and is the last of Rolex’s movements to use a balance cock, as opposed to a balance bridge.

Another new feature to the Explorer 14270 was that it now featured a sapphire crystal instead of a plexiglass crystal, which meant that the watch would be more robust and durable.

A more noticeable design feature was that the Explorer 14270 no longer had painted indexes, but rather applied indexes. The most iconic design feature would still remain, though, which was the Arabic numeral hour markers. The Explorer 14270 initially featured tritium for its luminous indexes, which could be seen at the bottom of the dial at 6 o’clock, where it says “T SWISS – T < 25” but Rolex came to change this mid-production of the Explorer 14270 in the years of 1997/1998, changing from tritium to Super Luminova as the luminous material. This means that there are Explorer 14270 which feature tritium, and there are those that feature Superluminova.

The new Explorer 14270 kept its 36mm sized case, but the new design featured a case that was thicker and beefier, and thus more up-to-date to the standards at the time. The Oyster bracelet was made more rugged and durable, yet was still very similar in terms of design, with the same end links as on the 1016.

One might say that the Explorer I 14270 is a watch that has a simple elegance to it. It’s built on the Oyster Perpetual case, and has a very simple design, with the iconic Mercedes hour hand, a simple, polished bezel, and the symmetrical applied Arabic numerals. It’s not huge either and sits very discretely on the wrist. At the time that the watch was released, 36mm was the size that men’s watches were in, and so it made sense for Rolex to keep the 36mm case size.

Despite being a watch for explorers, the simple, classy, and minimalistic design of the Explorer 14270 makes a very universal watch which looks just as good with a suit as it does with regular everyday clothes. The Explorer 14270 truly is a watch that you can rely on, and that will continue to tick year after year, as it is built to last, and to operate as a workhorse. Since the Explorer 14270 is a very discreet watch, it’s popular among people who don’t want to draw attention to their wrist.

If you want to buy a Rolex Explorer 14270, you’ll have no problem finding one. The demand for them isn’t huge and has essentially never been, but for the vintage 1016 Explorer, vintage Rolex collectors have started to get their eyes opened, which means the prices has slowly started to increase. As for the 14270, you can still get them at quite good prices, under retail price of what you have to pay for a modern Explorer I, but who knows what will happen in the future?

The Explorer I is an underestimated classic, and getting one means that you’re buying a watch that offers great value for money.

As for the predecessors, these have started to increase in price, and today, it is getting increasingly difficult to find the earlier Explorers in good condition.


Reminiscences of Explorer 1

Satellites had been orbiting in von Braun's mind ever since he read, as a young teenager, Professor Oberth's book on the rocket to interplanetary space. At age 15, he knew how to calculate the velocity a rocket had to reach in order to place a satellite into an orbit at a given altitude. He wrote articles on rockets, orbiting space stations, and travel to the Moon for his high school journal, and he decided at that time that during the rest of his life, he wanted to help open the road for man's travel to his celestial neighbors.

While von Braun developed long-range precision rockets under the Army's auspices in Peenemunde, he was not allowed to mention the use of such rockets for space exploration. After the war, when he and a number of his associates had settled in Fort Bliss in Texas, he enjoyed the freedom to think and even to talk and write about rockets for space flight, and he did so whenever he had an opportunity. In 1952, while he developed the Redstone rocket in Huntsville, he once mentioned to me: "With Redstone, we could do it!" - "Do what?" was my puzzled reply, "Launch a satellite, of course!" he said, and he described how a cluster of three stages of small solid propellant rockets instead of Redstone's warhead could place a satellite of a few kilograms into an Earth-circling orbit.

Two years later, in 1952, von Braun thought that the time had come to suggest a satellite project to the Army, based on existing and flight-proven rocket components. Actually, the composite multistage Redstone rocket that he suggested for a satellite launch was also needed for another purpose: At that time, his team developed the 1600-mile Jupiter missile which needed a thermal protection for its nuclear warhead while it reentered the atmosphere at high speed. Von Braun suggested a protective coating of the warhead that would ablate under the intense heating during reentry, but this novel technique had to be tried out under realistic conditions before it could be used on Jupiter missiles. A multistage Redstone rocket would be almost ideal as a testbed for ablation warheads. Two upper stages of solid propellant rockets would be adequate for reentry tests with three such stages, a satellite could be launched.

Von Braun's proposal for a Redstone satellite, worked out jointly by von Braun's team at Redstone Arsenal and members of the Office of Naval Research who later were joined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was not accepted. Instead, the government opted for a satellite proposal submitted by another Navy team, based on a new rocket named Vanguard.

Around that time, Soviet Russia announced plans to develop a satellite and to launch it in 1957 both the American and the Russian satellites should be part of the research program of the International Geophysical Year.

Von Braun's reentry test program began with a first launch on September 20, 1956 when a multistage Redstone rocket reached an altitude of 1097 km and a distance of 5470 km. The reentry test program for Jupiter warheads met with full success. Meanwhile, the Vanguard project encountered difficulties. General Medaris, at that time commander of Redstone Arsenal, and von Braun offered the Army's help, even to the extent that the Navy's satellite would be launched with a multistage Redstone under the name Vanguard, but the Navy declined any help from the Army, and von Braun was not allowed to build and launch his Redstone satellite.

In the meantime, public statements by Soviet scientists about a Russian satellite became more frequent, but most Americans, up to the highest ranks in the government, would not believe that Soviet Russia would be able to build, let alone launch a satellite. Then, on October 4, 1957 Sputnik began circling the Earth, proving to the World that America was not first in space. The shock throughout the country was immense, but it took another heartbreaking failure of Vanguard, another Sputnik with the dog Laika aboard, and another four weeks of desperate waiting before the von Braun-JPL team received permission to put together a Redstone rocket with three upper stages and a satellite, equipped with Dr. Van Allen's cosmic ray counters, and to launch it. After less than three months, the composite Redstone launched its satellite into orbit it was named Explorer I, the first satellite of the free world. "We have now established our foothold in space, we will never give it up again", von Braun said.

This was the first of several thousand satellites and space probes launched by engineers and scientists all over the Earth. They have brought such marvelous things as worldwide instant communications, a continuous look at all parts of our planet, education from orbit, a wealth of scientific knowledge about the Moon, the planets, the stars, and the universe, and, perhaps most important, an intense awareness of the fragility and vulnerability of the thin layer on our Earth in which we live, its air, its water, its green cover of plants, its animal life- in short, of all those features of planet Earth which make it possible to live and stay alive in our earthly home. This awareness alone, I believe, is sufficient to justify the effort and the expenditures to build, launch, and operate satellites and probes into the vast spaces that surround our planet Earth.


Into the Modern Era: Reference 14270 and Reference 114270

In 1989, Rolex finally discontinued Ref. 1016, modernizing the classic Explorer with the release of Reference 14270. The new reference updated the late 1016's matte dial with a glossy dial and white gold surrounds on the applied indices. The 14270 did stay true to the original Explorer's 36mm diameter, albeit with a new Caliber 3000 movement inside. The case was also bigger and beefier, bringing it into the modern era. Additionally, the acrylic crystal of the 1016 was also replaced with sapphire glass, another thoroughly modern feature.

While the 14270 isn’t sought after by collectors the way a 1016 might be, there is one exception: the Explorer Blackout. Produced for a short amount of time in the early 1990s, the Rolex Explorer Blackout had black Arabic numerals instead of white. If you’re searching for one, look for a serial number in the E (or perhaps early X) range. And good luck finding one. In the more common version with white indices, the indices were filled with tritium, until 1997-1998, when Rolex began using Super Luminova as luminous material. You can tell the difference by looking at the dial: if tritium was used, the dial will say “T Swiss - T < 25” below the 6 o’clock marker. To many, the Ref. 14270 is the perfect blend of form and function: it hadn’t yet fully evolved into a completely modern fashion piece and stayed true to the classic Explorer look, while still adding details that elevated the Ref. 1016: white gold surrounding the indices and a new modern movement among them.

The Rolex Explorer Reference 14270 “Blackout”. | HQ Milton

In 2001, Rolex updated the Ref. 14270 with the Reference 114270, which housed a new calibre 3130 movement. This made the 114270 0.5mm thicker than the 14270 (12mm v. 11.5mm), but other than that, the two watches are the same. The next big change for the Explorer came at Baselworld in 2010.


Release versions of Internet Explorer for Windows

Internet Explorer version numbers for Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, and Windows 8 use the following format:

major version. minor version. build number. subbuild number

This table shows possible Internet Explorer version numbers.

Version Product
9.0.8112.16421 Internet Explorer 9 RTM
11.0.9600.***** Internet Explorer 11 for Windows 7 and Windows 8.1
11.0.9600.***** Internet Explorer 11 for Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, and Windows Server 2012 R2
11.*****.10240.0 Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 (initial version released July 2015)
11.*****.14393.0 Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 version 1607 and Windows Server 2016
11.*****.17134.0 Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 version 1803
11.*****.17763.0 Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 version 1809 and Windows Server 2019
11.*****.18362.0 Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 version 1903 and Windows 10 version 1909

Internet Explorer 11 will have a version number that starts with 11.0.9600.***** on:

  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8.1
  • Windows Server 2008 R2
  • Windows Server 2012
  • Windows Server 2012 R2

The version number for the last ***** will change based on the updates that have been installed for Internet Explorer.

To see the version number and the most recent update installed, go to the Help menu, and select About Internet Explorer.

Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 10 has a slight different versioning. Internet Explorer 11 changes its version with each update in the second part with the according OS-Build information. For example, if you have Windows 10 version 1607 with the KB4580346 from October 13, 2020, the Operating System shows an OS Build-number of 14393.3986 (as per winver.exe). Internet Explorer 11 will show as version 11.3986.14393.0.

The minor version number, build number, and sub-build number may be displayed without trailing zeros. For example, version 7.00.5730.1100 may be displayed as 7.0.5730.11.

All versions of Internet Explorer 9.0 and later versions that are customized with Microsoft Internet Explorer Administration Kit (IEAK) include one of the following strings after the version number. To view this information, click About on the Help menu:

  • IC = Internet content provider
  • IS = Internet service provider
  • CO = Corporate administrator

Internet Explorer version 9.0 and Internet Explorer version 11.0 on products through Windows 10 version 1803 include an Update Versions line that lists all installed updates or hotfixes to the current version of Internet Explorer.

The version numbers of Internet Explorer in the list are based on the versions of Windows. The list numbers might be changed by the latest update. The build number of Internet Explorer in the release version of Windows Vista is the same as in other versions.


Explorer 1 - History

Source: Data Sheet, Department of Astronautics, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

Explorer-I and Jupiter-C

The First United States Satellite and Space Launch Vehicle

Click on image to see enlarged version.

Explorer-I, officially known as Satellite 1958 Alpha, was the first United States earth satellite and was sent aloft as part of the United States program for the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. It was designed and built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Dr. William H. Pickering. The satellite instrumentation of Explorer-I was designed and built by Dr. James Van Allen of the State University of Iowa.

The satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral (now Cape Kennedy) in Florida at 10:48 P.M. EST on 31 January 1958 by the Jupiter-C vehicle--a special modification of the Redstone ballistic missile--that was designed, built, and launched by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) under the direction of Dr. Wernher Von Braun. Jupiter-C, a direct descendant of the German A-4 (V-2) rocket, was originally developed in 1955-1956 as a high-performance rocket for testing purposes.

The Jupiter-C has its origins in the United States Army's Project Orbiter in 1954. The project was canceled in 1955, however when the decision was made to proceed with Project Vanguard.

Following the launch of the Soviet Sputnik I on 4 October 1957, ABMA was directed to proceed with the launching of a satellite using the Jupiter-C, which had already been flight-tested in nose-cone re-entry tests for the Jupiter intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM). Working closely together, ABMA and JPL completed the job of modifying the Jupiter-C and building the Explorer-I in 84 days.

Once in orbit, the cosmic ray equipment of Explorer-I indicated a much lower cosmic ray count than had been anticipated. Dr. Van Allen theorized that the equipment may have been saturated by very strong caused by the existence of a belt of charged particles trapped in space by the earth's magnetic field. The existence of these Van Allen Belts, discovered by Explorer-I, was confirmed by Explorer-III, which was launched by a Jupiter-C on 26 March 1958.

The discovery of the Van Allen Belts by the Explorer satellites was considered to be one of the outstanding discoveries of the International Geophysical Year.

EXPLORER-I

Explorer-I was placed in an orbit with a perigee of 224 miles and an apogee of 1,575 miles having a period of 114.9 minutes. Its total weight was 30.66 pounds, of which 18.35 pounds were instrumentation. The instrument section at the front end of the satellite and the empty scaled-down Sergeant fourth-stage rocket casing orbited as a single unit, spinning around its long axis at 750 revolutions per minute.

Instrumentation consisted of a cosmic-ray detection package, an internal temperature sensor, three external temperature sensors, a nose-cone temperature sensor, a micrometeorite impact microphone, and a ring of micrometeorite erosion guages. Data from these instruments were transmitted to the ground by a 60-milliwatt transmitter operating on 108.03 megacycles and a 10-milliwatt transmitter operating on 108.00 megacycles.

Transmitting antennas consisted of two fibre-glass slot antennas in the body of the satellite itself and four flexible whips forming a turnstile antenna. The rotation of the satellite about its long axis kept the flexible whips extended.

The external skin of the instrument section was painted in alternate strips of white and dark green to provide passive temperature control of the satellite. The proportions of the light and dark strips were determined by studies of shadow-sun-light intervals based on firing time, trajectory, orbit, and inclination.

Electrical power was provided by nickel-cadmium chemical batteries [sic]* that made up approximately 40 percent of the payload weight. These provided power that operated the high power transmitter for 31 days and the low-power transmitter for 105 days.

Because of the limited space available and the requirements for low weight, the Explorer-I instrumentation was designed and built with simplicity and high reliability in mind. It was completely successful.

Jupiter-C

The Jupiter-C rocket was originally developed to test the ablative re-entry nose cone of the Jupiter IRBM, although its satellite-launching capabilities were recognized at the time it was designed.

The vehicle consists of a modified Redstone ballistic missile topped by three solid-propellant upper stages. The tankage of the Redstone was lengthened by eight feet to provide additional propellant. The instrument compartment is also smaller and lighter than the Redstone's. The second and third stages are clustered in a "tub" atop the vehicle, while the fourth stage is atop the tub itself. The second stage is an outer ring of eleven scaled-down Sergeant rocket engines the third stage is a cluster of three scaled down Sergeant rockets grouped within. These are held in position by bulkheads and rings and are surrounded by a cylindrical outer shell. The webbed base plate of the shell rests on a ball-bearing shaft mounted on the first-stage instrument section. Two electric motors spin in the tub at a rate varying from 450 to 750 rpm to compensate for thrust imbalance when the clustered motors fire. The rate of spin is varied by a programmer so that it does not couple with the changing resonant frequency of the first stage during flight.

The upper-stage tub was spun-up before launch. During first-stage flight, the vehicle was guided by a gyro-controleld autopilot controlling both air-vanes and jet vanes on the first stage by means of servos. Following a vertical launch from a simple steel table, the vehicle was programmed so that it was travelling at an angle of 40 degrees from the horizontal at burnout of the first stage, which occurred 157 seconds after launch. At first-stage burnout, explosive bolts fired and springs separated the instrument section from the first-stage tankage. The instrument section and the spinning tub were slowly tipped to a horizontal position by means of four air jets located at the base of the instrument section. When the apex of the vertical flight occurred after a coasting flight of about 247 seconds, a radio signal from the ground ignited the eleven-rocket cluster of the second stage, separating the tub from the instrument section. The third and fourth stages were fired in turn to boost the satellite and fourth stage to an orbital velocity of 18,000 miles per hour.

When used as a satellite launching vehicle, the Jupiter-C is sometimes referred to as the Juno-I.

Click on image to see enlarged version.

JUPITER-C/JUNO-I
Explorer-1 Launch
Weight (in pounds)
Loaded Empty
Overall (takeoff) 64,000 10,260
Stage 1 62,700 9,600
Stage 2 1,020 490
Stage 3 280 140
Stage 1 80 31.5

Stage 1: Rocketdyne A-7 engine.--
Thrust , 83,000 lb burning time, 155 seconds specific impulse, 235 seconds propellants, liquid oxygen, as oxidizer, and "Hydyne" (60% unsymmetrical, dimethylhydrazine and 40% diethylenetriamine), as fuel propellant feed, turbopump type turbopump drive, 90% hydrogen peroxide decomposed by catalyst bed to produce steam.

Stage 2: Eleven JPL scaled-down Sergeant rockets.--
Thrust, 16,500 lb burning time, 6.5 seconds specific impulse, 220 lb-sec/lb propellant, polysulfide-aluminum and ammonium perchlorate (solid propellant).

Stage 3: Three JPL scaled-down Sergeant rockets.--
Thrust, 5,400 lb burning time, 6.5 seconds specific impulse, 235 lb-sec/lb propellant, same as for Stage 2.

Stage 4: One JPL scaled-down Sergeant rocket.--
Thrust, 5,400 lb burning time, 6.5 seconds specific impulse, 235 lb-sec/lb propellant, same as for Stage 2.

JUPITER-C (three-stage configuration):

20 September 1956: Lofted an 86.5-pound payload to an altitude of 680 miles and a range of 3,300 miles from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

15 May 1957: Lofted an 300-pound scale Jupiter ablative nose cone to an altitude of 350 miles and a range of 710 miles.

8 August 1957: Lofted a 1/3-scale Jupiter nose cone to an altitude of 285 miles and a range of 1,330 miles. JUNO-I (four-stage configuration).

31 January 1958: Orbited Explorer-I satellite weighing 30.66 pounds with 18.35 pounds of payload, perigee 224 miles, apogee 1,575 miles. Still in orbit (1965).

5 March 1958: Attempted orbit of Explorer-II (31.36 pounds with 18.83 pounds of payload) failed because fourth stage did nt ignite.

26 March 1958: Orbited Explorer-III satellite weighing 31.0 pounds with 18.53 pounds of payload, perigee 119 miles, apogee 1,740 miles. Down 28 June 1958.

26 July 1958: Orbited Explorer-IV satellite weighing 37.16 pounds with 25.76 pounds of payload, perigee 163 miles, apogee 1,373 miles. Down 23 October 1959.

24 August 1958: Attempted orbit of Explorer-V satellite (37.16 pounds with 25.76 pounds of payload) failed because booster collided with second stage after separation, causing upper stage firing angle to be off.

23 October 1958: Attempted orbit of 12-foot inflatable Beacon satellite (31.5 pounds with 18.3 pounds of payload) failed when second stage separated prematurely from booster.


Explorer 1 - History

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASA History Division

Explorer Series of Spacecraft

The lack of consistency stems in part from the fact that the first explorer missions predated the formation of NASA. As a consequence, Explorers 2 and 5 got counted in the sequence even though they failed to achieve orbit. Following the creation of NASA on October 1, 1958, the agency established the practice of no longer counting such launches, but the problem of definition remained a real one.

This was so because even the early Explorers performed a large variety of scientific missions ranging from energy particle exploration through atmospheric and ionospheric studies to investigations of micrometeroids, air density, radio astronomy, geodesy, and gamma ray astronomy--not to mention interplanetary and solar monitoring. While Langley Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center designed and built many of the early "Explorer" satellites, contractors and universities provided some experiments, components, and even entire spacecraft. The one constant amidst this diversity was that the early "Explorers" were smaller, simpler, and less costly than the orbiting observatories also used in scientific exploration of physical and astronomical phenomena.

Unfortunately for even this single piece of consistency in the midst of diversity, it did not apply solely to what may be called the "Explorer" series of spacecraft proper there were numerous other explorer-class satellites that did not bear the name "Explorer." These included Vanguard 1-3, Pioneer 5, Ariel 1-2, Alouette 1, and a San Marco series of spacecraft launched from the site of that name off the coast of Kenya, Africa. All of these smaller, simpler satellites carried out missions analogous to those of the "Explorers," but they bore different names and were not counted in the explorer series.

To confuse the issue further, other similar missions involving explorer-class satellites, launched jointly with international partners, sometimes bore the "Explorer" name but not a mission number in the "Explorer" series. These included the International Sun-Earth Explorer missions (ISEE 1-3) as well as other missions with names like Aeros, Ariel, and Boreas. There have also been a few larger spacecraft of the observatory class that have borne the name "Explorer" (for example, the Cosmic Background Explorer launched in 1989), further underlining the complexity of the issue regarding which spacecraft fit into what category. The listing at the end of this narrative shows the satellites that clearly belong in the "Explorer" series because they were relatively small and uncomplicated, performed a scientific mission, and -- until quite recently -- appeared in satellite situation reports and post-launch reports under the name "Explorer," accompanied by a mission number. (This last practice ended with Explorer 55, however.)


Internet Explorer 11 history is a Temporary Internet Files which cannot be saved automatically. By default it will be saved on %userprofile%AppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsHistory.

You can go to the history folder and copy all of them to another folder and filter it by File Type.

Filter the Folder by File Type, "HTML Document".

Hope the information helps. Let us know if you need further assistance with Windows related issues, we’ll be glad to assist you.

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the content of %userprofile%AppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsHistory

And in AppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsINetCache (subfolders) there is not a single html file.

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Please go through the following steps to find HTML file on Temporary Internet Files folder.

2. Press Alt + X to open Tools.

3. Choose Internet Options.

4. Under General tab click on "Settings" which is under third column, "Browsing history".

5. "Website Data Settings" command box would appear. Click on "view files" tab.

6. File Explorer named "INetCache" will open.

7. Click on change your view option and select "Details" view.

Then refer to the image uploaded in my previous post.

If issue still persists, reply with the screenshot of INetCache File Explorer.

Please do let us know if you need further assistance with Windows, we’ll be glad to assist you.

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Thanks for your patience Shivam

subfolders are full of everything, java, ico, css, mp4, pdf, ecc. but i can't see any single HTML Document.

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Saving Internet Explorer history is not an option on Windows. I have suggested the workaround for saving Internet Explorer history. If it's not showing HTML files then please check your Internet Explorer history and confirm if it is saving Internet Explorer history and it is not deleting history after closing Internet Explorer.

L et us know if you need further assistance with Windows related issues, we’ll be glad to assist you.


Rolex Explorer 214270 (MK I: 2010 – 2016 MK II: 2016 – Present)

In 2010, Rolex made a big change to the collection when it phased out the Explorer 114270, and presented a brand-new Explorer, which (for the first time in the model’s history) featured a larger 39mm Oyster case. Internally, Rolex also updated the new ref. 214270 Explorer with the updated Caliber 3132 movement, which features Rolex’s new Paraflex shock absorbers.

On the dial side, Rolex moved the Explorer name to the bottom half and fashioned its signature trio of Arabic numerals entirely from 18k white gold without any paint filling them. What’s more, similar to other Rolex watches of the era, the rehaut received the ROLEX ROLEX ROLEX engraving (along with its serial number) as an anti-counterfeit measure.

The biggest criticism the 2010 Rolex Explorer 214270 received was in regards to its hands. Many observed that the hands were simply too short for its larger case, and assumed that Rolex had used the same hands as the 36mm version without giving any regard to the fact that the minute hand does not reach the minute track.

Consequently in 2016, Rolex conceded and gave us the Rolex Explorer 214270 “Mark II” – an unofficial label Rolex collectors like to use to differentiate between variations within the same reference family. (Hint: Rolex mistake + short production run = future collectible). The current Rolex Explorer 214270 “Mark II” not only has better-proportioned hands, but also features a dial that has all of its hour markers finished with luminescent material – including the 3, 6, and 9 Arabic numerals.

While there are those that lament the increased size of the Explorer, many actually prefer the larger case, and feel that it offers more choice for the consumer if they look beyond the current catalog and investigate what’s available in the secondary market. Whether you prefer the original 36mm version or the larger 39mm size, the Rolex Explorer is the perfect expression of when less is more.