3 November 1939
"Cash and Carry" clause added to US Neutrality Acts, allowing Britain and France to buy weapons with cash and take them away in their own ships
Behind the Lines
From Socialist Appeal, Vol. III No.84, 3 November 1939, p.ف.<<br /> Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’Callaghan for ETOL.
The fuss being kicked up over the City of Flint whip up anti-Soviet sentiment in this country.
Roosevelt’s State Department is using the kind of language in this affair that is used only against an enemy, actual or potential. In the very midst of all the to-do over the City of Flint, shipping companies which have had at least five vessels detained for weeks by the British navy have been unable to get Franklin’s man Cordell to say even boo to the British. But when the City of Flint matter came up, the Roosevelt war deal gang went to work full blast and, naturally, the whole press is gleefully joining in ganging up on Russia.
There is a lot of palaver about “international law” being spilled over this affair. It so happens that in seizing the vessel the Germans were within their “rights”—as rights go under the anarchy cynically labelled “international law.” But this international law seems to consist mainly of the prerogatives of those strong enough to take what they want. Roosevelt has been doing a little one-man legislating in this field himself, as when he quite arbitrarily ruled a little while ago that American territorial waters extend not to the usual three-mile limit but 1,000 miles out to sea and farther if necessary.
So let no one get het up about who’s “right” and who’s “wrong.” There’s nothing right in the midst of imperialist war except the fiercest, most unrelenting struggle against it.
The main thing to get hold of is the fact that the Roosevelt administration is deliberately engaged in a drive, both public and private, to prepare the ground for American participation in the war against Russia that most of he Allied statesmen still count on as the ultimate outcome of the present conflict.
That is the meaning of the City of Flint hullabaloo. It is also the meaning of the diplomatic game going on across the other side of the world in Tokyo where Roosevelt, in collaboration with the British, is testing the ground for a deal with Japan that will assure the Japanese role in the projected anti-Soviet war. Chamberlain hoped to get Hitler to fight Russia instead of having to fight Hitler himself first. In the same way, the Wall Street-Roosevelt cabal hopes to fan a Soviet-Japanese conflict without first having to eliminate Japanese power itself.
As this drive gets underway, one thing has to be kept clearly and firmly in mind by every thinking worker who rightly hates Stalin and all his works. The war-mongering bosses are aiming straight at the restoration of private property in Russia. The collectivized economy created by the workers in their revolution remains, despite Stalin’s grotesque distortion of it, the main object of capitalist hatred.
Our job is not to help the capitalists restore private property in Russia but to prevent them from doing it. Our job is to help the Russian workers overthrow Stalin and reassert their own power and the way to do this best is to put an end to private property through workers’ revolution here and everywhere in this charnel house of a bosses’ world.
That is the road to future peace and plenty. All other ways lead to blind alleys of death and destruction and perpetuated poverty.
Sparks in the News
From Socialist Appeal, Vol. III No.84, 3 November 1939, p.ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).
Business Looks at the War
“Without steel modern war would be impossible – Airplanes, tanks, artillery, armor plate, battleships, shells, torpedoes, barbed wire are all principally made of steel.
“The machines of war are being continually destroyed and replacements use up tremendous additional quantities of steel.
“Steel companies, during the last war, were swamped with business which proved highly profitable to them and to their stockholders.
“Steel stocks have always been among the first to respond to the stimulus of war-buying.
“We believe that sound steel stocks, purchased around current levels, will prove very profitable – repeating, in many instances, the spectacular performance of the last war.
“We have prepared reports on three very attractive steel stocks . ” – Market Letter issued by Bonner & Bonner members of N.Y. Stock Exchange.
“A 100% loss of first-line combat planes in the first months of fighting is expected by the U.S. Air Corps if ever its new armada flies to war.” – Time, Sept. 25, 1939.
“We conceive it to be necessary, without sounding any note of alarm, to bring vital information to fathers of sons approaching young manhood .. . We do not suggest acquiring life insurance through unreasonable fear. We do recommend weighing its present purchase in the light of complete knowledge and past experience. No advice can foretell whether a youngster motivated by a spirit of adventure and patriotism, will develop an uncontrollable leaning towards aviation.” – Sales Letter sent out by the John G. McNamara Organization, life insurance brokers, 17 John Street, New York City.
“The most important fact about the probable effects of the war on American business is that they are likely to be meager unless and until the nature of the warfare changes. Stalemated trench fighting would produce large orders, and so would open field operations, but economic blockades are quite unlikely to do it.” – Cleveland Trust Company Business Bulletin, October 15, 1939.
“Future of Business: Prevailing opinion seems to be that the first quarter of 1940 will be down from the current quarter. Drop of 10 points, or more, is believed to be likely.
“War-ifs make qualifications, of course.
“If early full peace, then six to nine months of recession.
“If continued war – a dragging war, conserving war materials – then probably further pick-up here after the first quarter of 1940.
“If fast & furious war, full tilt, then a boom year in 1940.” – The Kiplinger Washington Letter, Washington, D.C.
“WE ARE NOT NEUTRAL . The present so-called neutrality law will not of itself keep us out of direct involvement in war. Revision of the law, as asked by the President and favored by majority public opinion, will not of itself draw us into war. In the final analysis we will go to war if and when our vital interests are threatened. Otherwise not. Whether our vital interests will or will not be threatened at some later stage of this war is entirely unpredictable and will not be determined by the kind of law that Senator Borah wants or the kind that Mr. Roosevelt wants. What are our vital interests? To cite two of the most obvious, the survival of the British navy is a vital interest to us and even more so is maintenance of the status quo in our entire hemisphere, including islands as far distant as Bermuda.
“Meanwhile we engage in bitter debate on ‘neutrality’ although, in the strict sense of the term, we a.e not neutral. We are not neutral in sentiment, for we favor victory for the Allies. We are not neutral in fact, for present law permits the British and French to buy from us most of the types of materials essential to prosecution of war, while circumstances prevent such materials going to Germany.” – The Trend of Events section, Magazine of Wall Street.
“If America becomes involved, as some observers prematurely are predicting, Congress would not hesitate to make any President virtually a dictator.
“But it is well realized that, after seven years of expanding powers, the central government is now so strong that its further growth into a war machine would end our democratic system and it would be well-nigh impossible to return to it.” – Article by Kendall K. Hoyt in a recent issue of The Annalist.
U.S.S.R. attacks Finland
On November 30, 1939, the Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.
The overwhelming forces arrayed against Finland convinced most Western nations, as well as the Soviets themselves, that the invasion of Finland would be a cakewalk. The Soviet soldiers even wore summer uniforms, despite the onset of the Scandinavian winter it was simply assumed that no outdoor activity, such as fighting, would be taking place. But the Helsinki raid had produced many casualties-and many photographs, including those of mothers holding dead babies, and preteen girls crippled by the bombing. Those photos were hung up everywhere to spur on Finn resistance. Although that resistance consisted of only small numbers of trained soldiers fighting it out in the forests, and partisans throwing Molotov cocktails into the turrets of Soviet tanks, the refusal to submit made headlines around the world.
President Roosevelt quickly extended $10 million in credit to Finland, while also noting that the Finns were the only people to pay back their World War I war debt to the United States in full. But by the time the Soviets had a chance to regroup, and send in massive reinforcements, the Finnish resistance was spent. By March 1940, negotiations with the Soviets began, and Finland soon lost the Karelian Isthmus, the land bridge that gave access to Leningrad, which the Soviets wanted to control.
What was the Winter War?
Less than two years before the Soviet Union faced off against Nazi Germany during World War II, it waged a bloody war with another adversary: the tiny nation of Finland. Russia’s feud with its Nordic neighbor began in 1939, when Soviet leader Joseph Stalin looked to expand his influence over Eastern Europe. Citing concerns about a potential attack by the Germans, Stalin demanded that Finland’s border with Russia be moved back 16 miles along the Karelian Isthmus to create a buffer zone around the city of Leningrad. He also wanted the Finns to hand over several islands in the Gulf of Finland and lease the Soviets territory on the Hanko Peninsula for construction of a naval base. The Soviets offered a large swath of Russian territory as part of the deal, but the Finns were suspicious of their motives and turned them down. On November 30, 1939, following a series of ultimatums and failed negotiations, the Soviet Red Army launched an invasion of Finland with half a million troops.
Though vastly outnumbered and outgunned in what became known as the “Winter War,” the Finns had the advantage of fighting on home turf. Led by Marshal Carl Gustaf Mannerheim, they hunkered down behind a network of trenches, concrete bunkers and field fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus and beat back repeated Soviet tank assaults. Elsewhere on the frontier, Finnish ski troops used the rugged landscape to conduct hit-and-run attacks on isolated Soviet units. Their guerilla tactics were only aided by the freezing Finnish winter, which bogged the Soviets down and made their soldiers easy to spot against snowy terrain. One Finnish sniper, a farmer named Simo Häyhä, was eventually credited with over 500 kills.
3 November 1939 - History
The history of School District No. 28 (Little River) was sketched by Hale Stephenson and George Root in a two-column article in theLittle River Monitor, January 20, 1938. A. G. Wolfe taught the first school which was started November 17, 1879.
Early-day experiences on the Kansas plains of Decatur Stout (Dick) Rees, trapper, Indian scout and pioneer settler of Ottawa county, were published in the MinneapolisBetter Way, February 10 and 17, 1938.
"Winchester as She Was," a story of early events by Mrs. Althea Curry, was printed in the WinchesterStar, February 18, 1938. The Leavenworth Times also included a historical sketch of the town by George Remsburg in its issue of June 8, 1939.
The founding of Harper in 1877 and several historical events of the years following were mentioned by Louis Walton in the HarperAdvocate, February 24 and March 3, 1938.
Historical notes and reminiscences, under the title "History of Kincaid," were published in the KincaidDispatch each week from March 3 to April 14, 1938. Similar material was also recorded in the Dispatch in its issue of June 30, which marked the paper's fifty-first anniversary.
Peter Robidoux, pioneer storekeeper, rancher and land baron of Wallace, was the subject of an illustrated article appearing in the SalinaJournal, March 7, 1938. It was reprinted in the JunctionCity Union, Sharon Springs, March 14 andThe Western Times, March 17.The Western Times on August 25 issued a special illustrated historical edition featuring articles on Robidoux, Sharon Springs, Wallace, Fort Wallace and the Smoky basin cave-in.
Early efforts at irrigation in western Kansas were discussed in a two-column article inThe Sherman County Herald, Goodland, in March 10, 1938.
Reminiscences of life in Junction City since 1879, by Mrs. L. N. Carr, appeared m the Junction CityUnion, March 28, 1938.
The history of the Republic county courthouse was briefly outlined in the ScandiaJournal, April 7, 1938.
A scrapbook of articles contributed to the Pittsburgh Gazette by Josiah Copley in 1867 is owned by the Saline County Historical So
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ciety. The articles, bearing the title "Kansas and the Country Beyond," were written by Copley while he was a guest on the Kansas Pacific railroad's special excursion 'train from the East. Mr. Copley's articles were discussed by the SalinaJournal in its issue of April 21, 1938.
Mrs. Mable Mahin recalled early events in Kensington in the KensingtonMirror, April 21, 1938. A brief biography of one of the first settlers, Dr. A. E. Lapham, was contributed to the same issue by a granddaughter, Mrs. Carl Molzahn.
The history of the Marion post office since 1860 was reviewed by Mrs. William Burkholder in the MarionReview, April 27 and May 4, 1938.
Alfred E. Gledhill, of Gaylord, outlined some early newspaper history of Portis in the PortisIndependent, May 26, 1938. McPherson celebrated its sixty-sixth birthday on May 28, 1938. The McPhersonDaily Republican of May 27 printed a story of the organization of the McPherson Town Company and the coming of the first settlers.
Recollections of New Chicago, now a part of Chanute, and its rival settlement, Tioga, were published in the ChanuteTribune, June 16, 1938. The late Mrs. Charles T. Beatty, who came to New Chicago in 1870 soon after its settlement, was interviewed by Fletcher Maclary for theTribune, which had also recorded an interview with her on May 27.
Pioneer days in Bern, Nemaha county, as described by Mrs. F. W. Lehman and first printed in the BernGazette, June 4, 1931, were republished in the Sabetha Herald on June 1, 1938.
The HumboldtUnion of June 2, 1938, announced the publication of a historical booklet in connection with the seventy-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Humboldt Lutheran church.
Personal recollections and historical notes of Kiowa county, written by J. L. Coates forThe Kiowa County Signal, of Greensburg, appeared during July, August and September, 1938.
The RobinsonIndex in its issues of August 11 to September 1, 1938, published historical material relating to the town as taken from its files, and particularly from its Kansas day edition of 1900.
Al J. Smith, of Halstead, possesses an unusually fine collection of old firearms and early Kansas relics, the HalsteadIndependent, of August 12, 1938, reported.
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The history of Wolcott (Wyandotte county), formerly called Conner, was outlined in the LeavenworthTimes, August 15, 1938. A history of Bison was prepared for the town's fiftieth anniversary celebration by William Crotinger and appeared in the OtisReporter and the La CrosseChieftain on August 18, 25 and September 1, and in the La CrosseRepublican on August 25 and September 1, 1938. The seventy-fifth anniversary of Quantrill's raid on Lawrence was the occasion for a historical review of the incident in the LawrenceDaily Journal-World, August 20, 1938.
The Spring Hill New Era on August 25, 1938, announced that the Ohio Society of Spring Hill was sponsoring a movement to preserve the city's historic hotel. September 25, 1938, marked the fiftieth anniversary of the formation of the Kansas district of the Lutheran church. The White CityRegister of September 8 reported that the district was organized in Leavenworth with 30 pastors and 27 congregations, and now numbers 132 pastors and 30,000 members. Historical notes and recollections of Cherokee county and the city of Columbus by Ed C. Williams, a former resident, were printed in the ColumbusDaily Advocate, September 24, 30 and October 3, 1938.
A historical sketch of Nemaha county, including the establishment of towns and townships, appeared in the SabethaHerald, October 19, 1938. The facts were obtained from a progress report issued by the Nemaha County Planning Board. The history of the Hanston Baptist church, organized on February 8, 1911, was reviewed in the Jetmore Republican, October 20, 1938.
A four-column article entitled "A Sketch of Early Days and Settlers of the White City Vicinity," by Nellie Wallace, was published in the White CityRegister, October 20, 1938. The Register reported that Miss Wallace has for several years been collecting material for a history of White City and the surrounding region.
The reminiscences of Mrs. E. Rasmussen, of Stafford, a pioneer school teacher of Turon, were printed in the TuronPress, October 20, 1938.
A historical sketch of the military post of Fort Scott by H. T. Wilson, a sutler, which appeared in the Fort ScottPioneer for July 5, 1877, was quoted in the daily Fort Scott Tribune of October 29, 1938, and in the weekly Tribune of November 3.
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"Earliest Beginnings in Pawnee County," an article by Isabel Worrell Ball, was printed in the LarnedChronoscope, November 3, 1938. In the same and the succeeding issue, Jessie Bright Grove, secretary of the Pawnee County Historical Society, reviewed the early settlement and organization of the county.
Life in Kinsley in the latter 1870's was described in the KinsleyMercury, November 3, 1938, by Mrs. Walter Robley, a former resident.
Historical articles of interest to Kansans featured in recent issues of the Kansas City (Mo.)Times include: "Rich Material for Moviemakers in the Story of Old Dodge City," by Paul I. Wellman, January 3, 1939 "The Beginning of a Famous Novel in Edna Ferber's Visit to Kansas," January 24 "Notable Generation in G. 0. P. Arrived With Kansas Day Club" in 1892 (the founders quickly rose to places of power after their historic protest against party rule of "The Bills"), January 27 "New Markers Prepared For Chain of Historical Sites in Kansas," by Cecil Howes, March 30 "Forgotten Pathfinder [Jedediah Strong Smith] of the West Started Last Adventure at Westport," by J. P. G., March 31 "Border Trouble and Indian Wars Could Not Stop This Cattle Drive [of Nelson Story, an adventurer, who in 1866 drove a herd of longhorns from Texas north into Kansas, then northwest through Nebraska and Wyoming to the Gallatin valley of Montana]," by Paul I. Wellman, April 13 "Spring Comes Again to Shawnee Mission," (a poem) by Dorothy Brown Thompson, and "Methodists Introduced New Crafts to Shawnee Indians [at Shawnee mission] a Century Ago," April 27 "Last Indian Massacre in Kansas [Sappy creek neighborhood] Recalled Vividly by [Mrs. Emmett Martin, of Eagleville, Mo.] a Witness," by Paul I. Wellman, May 8 "Leader's [Col. H. L. Moore] Diary of Heroic March of the Kansas 19th in 18681869 [organized to rescue whites kidnaped by Cheyenne Indians]," May 31 "Catholic Church Here [Kansas City, Mo.] Was Founded by French More Than Century Ago," June 5 "Old Cattlemen Still Laugh About the Range's Great `Legal Rustle"' in which John Chisum (owner of the famous Long Rail and Jingle Bob brand in New Mexico, the man who started the Lincoln county cattle war in which "Billy the Kid" rode to fame) sold a herd of 20,000 to Robert D. Hunter of the Hunter and Evans Commission Co. of Kansas City, Mo., and was paid in some of his own unredeemed and all but forgotten notes, June 9, and "Fights and Disasters Attended Arrival of Barbed Wire in West," by Paul I. Wellman, June 16.
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Among the articles of historical interest written by Victor Murdock and published in the Wichita(Evening) Eagle in recent months were: "Fashioning State's Fabric By Trekkers Who Came Here in the Covered Wagons," January 3, 1939 "Wagon Trains From Kansas That Carried Homeseekers Into the State of Texas," January 9 "Case of Over-production in the Supply of Meat Here With Steak at Record Low," in 1872-1873, when the destruction of the buffalo for the profit from its hide left no market for the flesh, January 11 "Evidence Is Authentic That Lumber Was Rafted Down the Arkansas Here," January 13 "Favorite Stomping Ground of the Big Game of the Prairies Was Located Down in Barber County, Kansas," February 8 "What Whisky in Earliest Day Cost First Settlers Here by Drink, Quart and Gallon," February 10 "Of Frederic Remington And of the Halt He Made on Prairies of Kansas," February 16 "Equipment of a Tavern That Was Built of Logs in the Earliest Wichita," February 20 "Of Albert Lewellen, Five, First White Child Here to be Buried on the Hill," February 23 "Kansan's Place of Birth Proved a Life Preserver in Bloody Quantrill Raid," February 25 "Figuring Out the Reasons Why Cattle Trail Terminals Shifted West From Wichita," February 27 "Luxury Came to Wichita for the First Time in 1870 With Flood of New Settlers," March 3 "When the Reverend Mr. Dotson Was Spreading the Gospel to People of Prairie Town," March 4 "Of Trails Without Terminals Stretching Before Vision of the Prairie Pioneers," March 7 "That Indian Legend of Gold in the Wichita Mountains Not as Good as Memories," March 13 "Barter Born in Wichita With the Early 1870 Flood of Settlers to Reach Here," March 17 "Growth in Use of Metal Which Is Making Wichita the Prairie Steel Center," March 30 "Replacing the Trees on the Kansas Prairies Killed by the 1935 Drought," April 6 "Enmity Motor-Cars Met in Some Quarters Here When They First Came," April 11 "First Legal Sensation to Excite Wichitans Failed in Prosecution," April 14 "What, in Twinkling of Eye, Horace Prescott, Wichita, Saw Happen to Oklahoma," April 19 "Fifty Years of Oklahoma, the Vision of Dave Payne, and Some Early Wichitans," April 21 "He [L. R. Delaney] Discharged a Duty and Performed a Service in Hour of Great Need" in Guthrie, Okla., April 22 "Adventures of Wichitan, Ed. Moore, in Early Days as an Oklahoma Pioneer," April 24 "Early Prairie Physician and What His Charge Was for Day and for Night Visits," April 28 "Early Glimpse of [Wilbur Lee] O'Daniel Lone Star State Chief on the Streets of Kingman," May 10 "Youthful
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Mine Experience of Vic Tanner of Wichita in the Coal Corner of Kansas," May 11 "When Rosalyn Lowe, Now Mrs. C. M. Sawtelle of Peabody, Came to Kansas Overland From Wisconsin Sixty-Five Years Ago," May 13 "When Southwest of Wichita  the Men at Camp Starvation [expedition of the Nineteenth Kansas cavalry sent to rescue women kidnaped by Indians] Were Unable to Go Farther," May 16 "One Old Chest of Walnut in Wichita Came to Kansas [unloaded at Westport landing in 1857] Some Eighty-Two Years Ago," May 19 "Of Frederick H. Beecher [who went down fighting in the dramatic set-to with the Indians on the island in the Arickaree] Whose Name Was Once Given to This Point on the Map," May 26 "'Loose Him' Cried Capt. [David L.] Payne With His Eyes Flashing Fire and His Order Was Obeyed," May 30 "Bride [Mrs. Dow Wemple] at Pioneer Wedding in Sedgwick County Who Made Her Own Cake," May 31 "How Six Hard Biscuits Bought for a Pioneer the Bible He Had Missed," June 2 "Saved Cattle Movement From Texas Up This Way by Building a Railroad," June 3 "Firms Which Did Business in the Rival Metropolis [Park City] Wichita Wiped Off the Map," June 7 "When Food Finally Came to Starving on Prairies Self-Denial Was Mandatory," June 9 "One Plant Wichita Lost Introduced Steel Posts to World Thirty Years Ago," June 13 "When Two Ragged Women [Sarah White and Anna Belle Morgan] Rescued From Captivity Returned to Civilization," June 16.
Included among the historical feature articles printed in the Kansas City (Mo.)Star, were: "Keeping Up With Kansas Farming a 50-Year Job for Jake Mohler," by Cecil Howes, January 11, 1939 "John Brown's Hideout in Iowa," a drawing, February 5 "Trails Offered Action and Wealth Before the Old West Was Fenced In," by Paul I. Wellman, February 9 "East and West Hear More About Versatile Kirke Mechem of Kansas," by Paul I. Wellman, February 17 "Rich Benefits to Farmers of Kansas in a Half Century of Experiments," by Cecil Howes, February 20 "Doc Barton Revisits Dodge City, Recalls Heyday of Cow Capital," by C. C. Isely, March 29 "Another Great `Red Necktie Day' for Dr. [W. L.] Burdick and Mt. Oread," by Cecil Howes, April 17 "The Blue Grass Turns Green Again in the Kansas of John J. Ingalls," by Cecil Howes, April 19 "Walter Huxman Justifies Pride of the Pretty Prairie People," by Cecil Howes, May 18 "Challenge of the New Frontier Is Read by William Allen White," in addressing the graduating class of Indiana University, June 6 "Nebraska and Kansas
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Staged a Hilarious Show for the Gay Grand Duke Alexis of Russia Sixty-seven Years Ago," by H. V. B., June 8.
During February and March, 1939, the NatomaIndependent published several articles dealing with the community's history. Stories of Natoma by Twila Hoskins and Ruth Pfortmiller, high school students, appeared in the issues of February 2 and 16. An article on a journey of the Hammonds from Wisconsin to Kansas in 1878 was printed in theIndependent, February 23. It was a reprint from the issue of July 17, 1930. Pioneer reminiscences of M. C. Brown originally published in theIndependent, March 5, 1911, was reprinted in the issue of March 2, 1939, and also in the ParadiseFarmer, March 6.
Articles of historical interest relating to Kansas appearing in recent months in the Magazine Section of the WichitaSunday Eagle were: "Horse and Buggy Doctor' Creates Stir in Medical World," by Harold Streeter, February 5, 1939 "Kansas Woman Recalls Tragedy of Lincoln's Assassination," by Harry Peebles, February 12 "Wichitan Recalls Lucas' Famous Ride Warning of Indian Raid," by Arch O'Bryant, March 19 "Dodge City to Again Become Cow Town for Movie Premiere," by Francis Heacock, March 26 "Harper County Tour Shows Farmers Turning to Livestock," by Bruce Behymer, March 26.
Fred Redmond and Herbert Leiker, workers on the Works Progress Administration's Historical Records Survey, compiled a brief history of Gove county which was printed in the GrinnellRecord-Leader, February 16, 1939.
Featuring the "World Premiere" of the motion picture "Dodge City" April 1, the Dodge CityDaily Globe issued a special thirty page edition March 29, 1939. Included among the articles of historical interest published in this issue were: "Stage Routes Raided Early" "Soule Ditch Caused Stir" "An Art to Hit Buffalo" "Caches Lure Gold Hunters" "No Myth in Dodge Claims," by F. A. Etrick "[Dodge City's] Four Eras of History" "Round Up to 20,000" "Politics Not a Pink Tea" "Kinsley Woman [Mrs. M. J. C. Rhoads] Saw Sacking of Lawrence" "Dodge City History Linked to the Santa Fe Trail," by Jay B. Baugh "'Doe Barton,' the Last of the Cattle Kings," by C. C. Isely "This Baton [a revolver] Got Results" and "Cowboy Preacher Found Junction City Tough."
Reminiscences of A. J. Bieber, of Bazine, who went to Rush county in 1879, were recorded under the heading "Pioneer Days in
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Kansas," in the La CrosseChieftain and the OtisReporter in their issues of March 30, 1939.
The KingmanJournal celebrated its fiftieth birthday anniversary by issuing a twenty-four page historical edition March 31, 1939. Of special interest is the front-page article, "The KingmanJournal Has 50th Birthday Anniversary," in which the writer traces the history of the Journal through its hardships and vicissitudes. Special articles were devoted to the development of Kingman's industries, and histories of the county and the city's business institutions were featured.
A special edition entitled, "Wichita's 68th Anniversary Dedicated to Industry and Commerce," was issued by the WichitaSunday Eagle, April 16, 1939. A historical sketch of Great Bend, one of a series of articles featuring the ten towns and cities in the United States with the word "Bend" in their titles, was printed in the Great Bend Tribune, May 3, 1939.
Early experiences in northwest Kansas were recalled by Mr. and Mrs. Henry M. Anthony in the SeldenAdvocate in issues from May 4 to June 3, 1939.
The Junction CityRepublic for May 11, 1939, includes a souvenir section describing the early years of the Union Pacific railroad in Kansas.
A brief history of the Kansas Avenue Methodist church was featured in the TopekaState Journal, May 20, 1939. The church was chartered May 25, 1869. "Progress Marks Lindley's Term," was the caption of the seventyfifth anniversary edition of theUniversity Daily Kansan, of Lawrence, issued May 28, 1939. The "Anniversary Index" of the thirty-four page edition lists four sections. "Section A," in addition to the regular campus news, contains special articles by William A. White, Raymond Clapper, Harry H. Woodring, Theodore C. Alford and Alfred M. Landon. "Section B" is devoted to the history of the schools and departments."Section C" presents the social life at the university as seen through its many activities and organizations. "Section D" features athletics, rating James Aloysius Bausch, "Jarring Jim," as the greatest athlete graduated from the University of Kansas, Glenn Cunningham trailing him as a close second. James A. Naismith and F. C. Allen were rated as "Two Doctors Famous in Kansas Sports." The picture section showed, among
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other things, pictures of seven of the eight men who served as chancellor of the university.
The early history of Ellis, from 1873 to 1883, was recalled by Mrs. Jessie Bell Ormerod, a pioneer settler, in the EllisReview, June 1 to 22, and July 6 and 13, 1939.
"Pioneer Rural Route Days," relating the experiences of Warren Zimmerman as a rural mail carrier at Portis, was the title of an article in the PortisIndependent, June 8, 15 and 22, 1939.
The story of Silkville, a town organized on a communal plan in the 1870's by Ernest Valeton de Boissiere, a French philanthropist, was told by Jennie Small Owen in the TopekaState Journal, June 19, 1939. The land on which the town was located is now a Franklin county farm.
Celebrating its sixtieth birthday the OberlinHerald published a fifty-six page anniversary edition June 29, 1939. Included in the seven sections of the paper were historical sketches of Decatur county by Glenn Rogers and Mrs. Sarah J. Harvie, histories of its schools, churches and industries, sketches of the towns of Jennings and Norcatur, and stories of Oberlin's civic organizations, fraternal and social groups, and other phases of community activity. A his- tory of the newspaper was outlined. TheHerald also printed a list of county officers from the organization of the county, and the minutes of the first meeting of the board of county commissioners. More than 500 pictures were featured.
The Clark County Clipper of Ashland, June 29, 1939, printed an article by Mrs. Dorothy Berryman Shrewder, historian for the Clark county Council of Women's Clubs, on the establishment of the Benedictine monastery "Bueffel Au" on Mount Cassino, north of present Ashland, in 1876. The article was prepared from papers of the Rev. Gerard Heinz, O. S. B., who was told the story by one of the founding party, Brother Andrew Allermann. A drawing made from memory by Father Boniface Verheyen, 0. S. B., which shows the group of buildings that comprised the monastery, accompanied the article. Both story and cut were republished in the WichitaEvening Eagle, July 7.
Early Santa Fe trail history was discussed in theNew Mexico Historical Review, of Santa Fe, in the July, 1939, issue. The "Report of the Commissioners on the Road From Missouri to New Mexico, October, 1827," edited by Buford Rowland, described topographical features of the region, relations with Indians, and the work
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of surveying the route. This report, which was for many years forgotten in the files of the secretary of the senate of the United States, is now in the National Archives. The field notes of Joseph C. Brown, the surveyor who accompanied the expedition, were printed in the Eighteenth Biennial Report of the Kansas State Historical Society (1913), pp. 117-125.
An article by Allan E. Paris in the LeavenworthTimes of July 2, 1939, related the story of Mrs. Lizzie Allen, a 100-year-old ex-slave, who has lived in Leavenworth since 1859.
Raiding of a Mound City saloon in 1861, in the manner made famous many years later by Carrie Nation, was described by Theodore W. Morse in the Mound CityRepublic, July 6, 1939.
A two-column story of an early negro settlement near Burlington, by Dan M. Hatch, was published in the GridleyLight, July 13,1939. The TopekaDaily Capital issued a 172-page sixtieth anniversary edition July 16, 1939. Page one of "Section A" presents an artistic arrangement of cover pictures of the Capper family's ten publications with their 4,263,292 subscribers. Leading articles of this section included such titles as: "Senator Capper's Personal Career," "Capital's Genealogy Started With First Free-State Paper," "Capital Carries on Through 60 Years," "General Manager [H. S. Blake] the Hub," "Glimpse Behind the Scenes in Capital's Editorial Room Where All News Is Handled," "Big Circulation Department Keeps Capper Publications Going to Millions of Readers," "Through Sixty Years Capital's Advertising Dept. Plays Big Roll in Kansas `Way of Life,'" "Copper Advertising Agency Among Best in United States Branches in All Big Cities," "WIBW Grew With Big Radio Industry." Other articles related to the nine other Capper publications.Capper's Weekly, Kansas CityKansan,Household Magazine,Missouri Ruralist,Ohio Farmer,Capper's Farmer,Kansas Farmer,Pennsylvania Farmer, andMichigan Farmer. "Section B" featured banking, building and loan and insurance companies. Among the leading articles of this section were: "Banks Flourished Along With State," "Kansas Insurance Companies Contribute Materially to Industry and Agriculture," "Building and Loan Is Firm," "Kansas Bank Laws Have Kept Pace With Progress of State, Today's Institutions Strong." "Section C" told of the history and growth of Topeka's industries and public utilities. Some of its leading articles were: "Industrial Development Law to Promote Economic Growth Launches New Era for Kansas," "Topeka's Industrial Growth Ful-
332 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
filled Dreams of Founders . . .," "Mother Nature Very Liberal in Distribution of Resources . . .," and "Phones to Kansas in 1879." "Section D" presented the automotive industry and high ways. Included among its outstanding articles were: "Automobile Industry Changes American Way of Life in Brief Span of Forty Years," "Kansas Highway Department Organized to Keep 10,000 Miles of Roads in Shipshape," "Transportation in Process of Evolution Since Advent of Motorcar, Better Highways," and "Railroads Help Tame Great American Desert." "Section E" dealt with the farm, college and church. Its leading articles included: "Kansas a Leading Farm State Since Pioneers Broke Plains and Tamed the Wilderness," "Civilizations Rise or Fall Upon Condition of Nearby Soil, Say Conservationists," "Washburn College Has Long Served People of Kansas," "University of Kansas 75 Years Old," "A Brief History of Organized Religion in Topeka." "Section F," devoted to retail and wholesale, contained such articles as: "From an Humble Beginning, Topeka Forged Ahead Until It Now Has 75,000 Population," "Businessmen Founded Topeka Made It Into One of Best Cities of Its Size in Country," "Topeka C. of C. Dates Back Sixty Years," "Old Santa Fe Trail Paved Way for a Great Railroad." "Section G," a "Retail - Historical" feature, presented articles on, "Topeka's Fine Park System Best in Whole Middle West, Constantly Growing Better," "State Historical Society's Collection of Kansas Annals Dates Back to Pioneer Times," "Shawnee County Has Cared for Needy, Aged and Blind During the Long Depression." Important historical articles were interspersed here and there with such titles as: "Congress Opened Kansas," "Bogus Legislature Chose Lecompton for Capital," "Youngsters Wrote Kansas Constitution," "Southerners Felt Kansas Worth Taking," "Horse Thieves Were Hanged in Early Days," "Jayhawkers Were Rough on Missourians," "Heavily-Armed Southerners a Menace," "First Governor Was Impeached," "Kansas Negro Citizens Keep Pace With State and Nation," "Mennonites Brought Winter Wheat," "Populists Had Short, Merry Existence," "Y. M. C. A. Celebrates Sixtieth Anniversary With Capital . . . ," "Topeka Y. W. C. A. 52 Years Old . . . ," "Droughts, Storms, Locusts, Good Crops, Failures, Panics, Made Kansans Courageous," "War Claims Used to Erect Memorial Hall," and "Third Kansas Generation Treks Back on Trail Over Which Their Pioneer Ancestors Came." Other articles dealt with Sheriff S. J. Jones, John Brown, Republican party in 1856, Horace Greeley, John C. Fremont, Marais des Cygnes mas-
KANSAS HISTORY IN THE PRESS 333
sacre, Topeka vigilantes, buffalo herds, goldfields of west Kansas, Kansas colleges, Kansas pioneer towns, cooperatives marketing, WPA and PWA projects, 4-H club, girls' and boys' scout work.
An account of some pioneer Caldwell history by Grant Harris, an early-day printer on the CaldwellPost, appeared in the CaldwellDaily Messenger, July 24, 1939. Originally printed in the Wagoner (Okla.)Tribune, the story told how the "toughest town on the border had been tamed."
"The Life of Ann Lynch McPhillips," by Kathleen Grennan, was published in the JamestownOptimist, July 27, 1939. Mrs. McPhillips came to Kansas in 1870, and in 1871 settled with her husband and children near Jamestown.
Experiences as a member of a freighting crew working between Palermo, Kan., and Fort Kearney, Neb., in 1865 were recalled by A. A. Campbell inThe Kiowa County Signal, Greensburg, August 3, 1939.
Nov. 3, 1939: Too old to work at GE, 23-year-old local man denied old age help
A 23-year-old local youth, told he was too old to obtain employment in the local General Electric Company plant, applied yesterday afternoon for Old Age Assistance at the Welfare Department.
“Of course I told him he was too young for Old Age Assistance,” Welfare Commissioner Charles H. Hodecker stated when he was asked about the unusual request of Richard P. Connors of 21 Stoddard Avenue. “I told him I was sorry he was too old to work, and though I knew the Old Age Assistance request must be a joke, I suggested that he might apply for CCC appointment or temporary aid, or enlist in the Army or Navy. It’s too bad that a young fellow of his age and training cannot get a job these days. There are many others in the same position.”
Connors stated today that he was told by Wendell S. Fielding, assistant personnel manager of the GE, that being over 21, he did not “have a . . . chance to get a job there.” He added he was sorry to discourage him, Connors stated.
The company policy on hiring, according to a company representative, is to rehire those with prior service as much as possible, while new employees are limited to youths between 18 and 21, who are given “boys’ work.”
Connors showed the reporter a letter from a local General Electric employee, in which the applicant was “highly” recommended for a position. The youth emphasized that he had asked for any employment at all, not specifying any particular type of work or department.
Connors facetiously stated that having been turned down for Old Age Assistance, he would have to form an “Over 21” club, “so that members can while away the years between 21 and 65, when we can receive our benefits.” He added:
“While waiting for my Old Age pension, however, I would prefer to find perhaps a few days of gainful employment out of the 44-year apprentice period, so that my pension day won’t prove to be a day of resurrection.”
This Story in History is selected from the archives by Jeannie Maschino, The Berkshire Eagle.
In September of 1939, Franklin Delano Roosevelt issued a presidential proclamation to move Thanksgiving one week earlier, to November 23, the fourth Thursday of the month, rather than the traditional last Thursday of the month, where it had been observed since the Civil War.
That year, the last Thursday of November fell on the 30th, the fifth week and final day of the month, and late for the start of the shopping season. The Retail Dry Goods Association, a group that represented merchants who were already reeling from the Great Depression, went to Commerce Secretary Harry Hopkins who went to Roosevelt.
Help the retailers, Hopkins pleaded.
Roosevelt listened. He was trying to fix the economy not break it.
Thanksgiving would be celebrated one week earlier, he announced.
Apparently, the move was within his presidential powers since no precedent on the date was set. Thanksgiving, the day, was not federally mandated and the actual date had been moved before. Many states, however, balked at Roosevelt’s plan. Schools were scheduled off on the original Thanksgiving date and a host of other events like football games, both at the local and college level, would have to be cancelled or moved.
One irate coach threatened to vote “Republican” if Roosevelt interfered with his team’s game. Others at the government level were similarly upset. “Merchants or no merchants, I see no reason for changing it,” chirped an official from the opposing state of Massachusetts.
In contrast, Illinois Governor Henry Horner echoed the sentiments of those who may not have agreed with the president’s switch, but dutifully followed orders.
“I shall issue a formal proclamation fixing the date of Thanksgiving hoping there will be uniformity in the observance of that important day,” he declared, steadfastly in the president’s corner.
Illinois Governor Henry Horner
Horner was a Democrat and across the country opinions about the change were similarly split down party line: 22 states were for it 23 against and 3 went with both dates.
In jest, Atlantic City Mayor Thomas Taggart, a Republican, dubbed the early date, “Franksgiving.” Others called it “Roosevelt’s Thanksgiving” or “Roosevelt”s hangover Thanksgiving Day.” More politically, some dubbed it “Democratic Thanksgiving Day” and the following Thursday as “Republican Day.” One observer noted, “This country is so divided it can’t even agree on a day of Thanksgiving.”
In some Midwestern states, especially among farmers, the controversy was irrelevant thanks to a bountiful harvest. “This year the crops certainly justified Thanksgiving, even justified two,” reported the Omaha-World Herald.
Roosevelt made the change official for the succeeding two years & , since Thursday would fall late in the calendar both times. Then in 1941 The Wall Street Journal released data that showed no change in holiday retail sales when Thanksgiving fell earlier in the month. Roosevelt acknowledged the apparent miscalculation.
However, due to the uproar, later that year, Congress approved a joint resolution making Thanksgiving a federal holiday to be held on the fourth Thursday of the month, regardless of how many weeks were in November.
War memorials in Salla
There are five memorials at a memorial site in Paikanselkä, near Salla church village, about 4 km toward Kemijärvi.
Memorial of the battles of Salla and the ending of the Winter War is by the Salla-Kemijärvi road (82), on the north side, about 4 km from Salla. There's a parking area nearby. The area has information boards about the battles in many languages, and a text that reads: ”At the end of the Winter War on 13 March 1940 at 11:00 the front line ran here in Salla”.
Memorial stone for Swedish volunteers
On the other side of the road at the same location, there's a memorial stone for the Swedish volunteers.
In the final stages of the war, Paikanselkä was mainly manned by the Swedish volunteers.
The stone reads in Swedish: ”For the memory of our friends, who lost their lives for the freedom and honour of the North in 1940”. The stone was erected in 1952 by the first group of Swedish volunteers. The stone has the names of the six fallen persons of the group. The first one is lieutenant colonel Magnus Dyrssen, perished on 1 March 1940, who was one of the key persons in establishing the group of volunteers. He was the leader of the 1st group or volunteers.
Memorial of Magnus Dyrssen
From the memorial of Swedish volunteers, a marked path leads to the spot where Dyrssen died, where there's a memorial stone. The distance is about 200 metres. The stone was erected in 1949. The text says: ”Here fell Magnus Dyrssen on 1 March 1940 for freedom of the North and for the honour of Sweden”. In the vicinity, there are derelict dugouts and battle stations of the Winter War.
The new memorial stone for the Swedes
A new memorial for the Swedish volunteers was unveiled near the original on 9 June 1990. It has the names of the 32 Swedes who fell in the Winter War. The association of Swedish volunteer groups donated a Bofors 37mm anti-tank gun to Paikanselkä in 1995. The same kind of gun was used for destroying a Soviet tank in Paikanselkä.
Memorial of the Knights of the Mannerheim Cross
A memorial for the Knights of the Mannerheim Cross was unveiled in Paikanselkä in 1992. One of them had been living in Salla captain Olli Remes.
Other memorials in Salla
Memorial for fallen Soviet soldiers
In Salla church village, Tapulintie road in Karhumäki, there's a memorial for fallen Soviet soldiers, designed by Osmo Rautiainen. It reads: ”Soldiers of the Red Army. They fell for better future of the mankind”. The memorial was erected in 1946. It is in a residential area by the road to Kuusamo. Driving directions: Drive up the hill at the Library.
Heikki Sotkajärvi moved his family to ”Sotka” from Märkäjärvi village (the current Salla church village) in 1910. He founded a crown croft for a staging post between Hautajärvi and Märkäjärvi. The small cellar is the only building in Sotka that survived the Winter War. It was restored in 1996. You can find the spot on Via Karelia, about 12km from Salla to Hautajärvi.
During the Winter War, four Finnish soldiers were using the cellar for keeping warm, when they were surprised by a Russian patrol. The Finns locked themselves in, while the Russians used hand grenades to destroy them. The Finns blocked the air shaft with their back packs, and the grenades couldn't get in to harm them, exploding on the roof.
The Greatest Event in History
From Socialist Appeal, Vol. III No.㻗, 14 November 1939, p.ك.
Transcribed by Christian Høgsbjerg.
Marked upby Einde O’Callaghan for the Marxists’ Internet Archive.
The Greatest Event in History
A revolution is the greatest event in the history of any society, and the Russian Revolution is the greatest of all revolutions. By this uprising, the workers and peasants of Russia shattered the capitalist system on one-sixth of the world’s surface and took the road to socialism. On November 8, 1917, the night after the seizure of power, Lenin rose to address the Soviet congress. Gripping the rails before him he spoke the memorable words, “We shall now begin the construction of the socialist order”. On that same night and from that same platform, was sounded the call for the world revolution, uttered many times before, but now, because it came from the leaders of the first workers’ state in history, reverberating across the oceans and mountains from continent to continent. It was heard in Central Europe and in Central Asia, by millions of Indians and Chinese, heard too by the most oppressed people in the world, the Negroes in Africa, in the West Indies, and in the United States of America.
A few days ago the revolution achieved its twenty-second anniversary. Broken and besmirched, attacked from without and betrayed from within, yet it lives. From the great peaks scaled in its early years, it has fallen far. But it remains a basis and a banner, a banner torn and bedraggled, stained with crimes and blood, carried by treacherous hands, but still a symbol of the greatest effort yet made by downtrodden humanity to rid the world of economic exploitation and political tyranny. To rid the world, not only Russia. Today Negroes, weighed down by still heavier burdens than those they carried on November 7, 1917, must celebrate that never-to-be forgotten anniversary, must reflect on what the Russian Revolution has meant, and still means, to them and to all mankind.
It Shook the Foundations of Imperialism
Twenty-two years ago the great majority of Negroes in Africa and their brothers and sisters in America were little more than slaves, nourishing that hope of freedom which is unquenchable in the hearts of men, but feeding it on the illusions and misconceptions and impotence bred of white domination and the steel walls of imperialist slavery. But the Russian Revolution in 1917 razed to the ground one great fortress of world imperialism, and so shook the whole structure that today, twenty-two years after, it still rocks on its foundations. In the years that followed 1917, the Communist International carried the great message of the world revolution and the example of Russia to the millions of Negroes throughout the world. Negroes for the first time understood that for them, as for all the exploited and oppressed, there was a road out and upward, understood that they were not alone, that in France and in Britain, in Belgium and America, all over the world, there were millions of workers and peasants whose enemy was their enemy, whose aim was their aim, whose destiny was their destiny, not only to destroy tyrants and oppressors, but to destroy the system which gave them birth, not only to overthrow imperialism but to create the socialist society.
The Russian Revolution, the Communist International that grew out of it, by precept of brilliant propaganda and fearless agitation, by example of heroic struggle and self-sacrifice, taught the lessons of imperialist barbarism, of the necessity for proletarian revolutions in the imperialist nations, and national independence in the colonial countries preached and practiced the unity of all the oppressed, irrespective of religion and race, indefatigably pointed to the two roads that lay before all mankind – imperialist war and capitalist reaction, or victorious socialism in Europe and America and the independence of Asia and Africa.
A Blow at Colonial Exploitation
There are Negroes who have seen and still see little for their people in the propagation of revolutionary doctrines. They are either selfish or ignorant – selfish because they are anxious only to preserve and extend the mean profits and paltry prestige they have managed to scrape together for themselves or they are ignorant, not with the ignorance of the masses, which comes from lack of opportunity and which the great school of the class struggle can correct, but learnedly ignorant through too complete an acceptance of imperialist education which is designed to blind and not to open the eyes of the masses, to perpetuate and not to destroy the imperialist system. Let those Negroes who talk so superficially about “Reds” explain why the British government, when Anthony Eden visited Moscow in 1935, demanded as the first condition of British friendship with Russia the discontinuation of revolutionary propaganda in India, in the West Indies, and in Africa. These British imperialists, with the experience of three centuries, know the condition of the people they so mercilessly exploit. They felt and still feel the shock of the Russian Revolution, at home in Britain, and in every corner of their empire. They know that, in Africa for instance, there has arisen no threat to their power during the three hundred years it has lasted, so strong as that represented by a few thousand copies of a Bolshevik paper circulating among the Negroes, and a few men working devotedly to build a Bolshevik party. They can foresee the overwhelming power of the Negro masses when mobilised behind such a party. They know what this revolution will mean to their power and their profits and their privileges. They therefore curse the Russian Revolution and the day it was born.
No Southern capitalist or plantation owner celebrates the anniversary of the Russian Revolution. Should a Negro in the South walk down a public street carrying a banner marked “Long Live the Russian Revolution”, he might be lynched before he had gone fifty yards. And why? Because it stands for the destruction of the rotting capitalist system, with its unnecessary poverty and degradation, its imperialist war and its fascist dictatorships, its class domination and racial persecution. Every Negro with an ounce of political understanding or a spark of revolt against oppression will recognise the significance and celebrate the anniversary of the October revolution in Russia.
The Fourth International Carries On
True, we have seen the revolution outraged and degraded. We have seen, rising out of the ruins of Bolshevism in Russia, the monstrosity of Stalinism. We have seen the Communist International change from the valiant defender of the international working class into the mere tool of Stalin’s foreign policy. The development and decline of the Russian Revolution are described elsewhere in this issue, and in many of our books and pamphlets. But the principles of the world revolution, which first assumed flesh and blood in 1917, still remain. Today a new international, the Fourth, maintains the tradition and works for the goal. Though we condemn and ceaselessly expose Stalin and all his works, we celebrate the Russian anniversary and we call upon the Negroes and all workers to celebrate with us.
By a curious trick of fortune, Leon Trotsky, whose name is inseparably associated with Lenin’s as the leadership that guided the revolution to success, was born on November 7th, the anniversary of the revolution. This year he celebrates his sixtieth birthday. History is the struggle of economic and social forces expressing themselves in the words and actions of men. And sometimes the life of a single individual epitomizes the history of a movement. Second only to Lenin, Trotsky was at the head of the Russian Revolution during the great days of October, the war of intervention, the founding of the Soviet state, and the organisation of the Communist International. But with the decline of the revolution, he found himself leading the opposition to the bureaucracy of Stalin. He was driven out of Russia and exiled to Turkey. His children and family have been systematically exterminated. He has been slandered as no other man in history has been slandered. He has been driven from country to country and for years has been guarded day and night to save him from Stalin’s assassins. All for one reason only. Because he remains today as he has always been, the enemy of capitalist society, the organiser and theoretician of the world revolution, and the unsparing opponent of the bureaucracy which has betrayed the great revolution concerned not with personal revenge nor the lust for power but with the liberation of the workers and farmers in all countries from capitalist chains and slavery.
He has written little specifically on the Negro question, as he has written little, for instance, on the Indian question. The circumstances of his life and the necessities of the struggle have compelled him to devote most of his attention to the great centers of proletarian revolution in Europe. But he has always seen and taught that the struggle in the last analysis is one, that the blows he gave and directed at world imperialism in any country, weakened the whole system and thereby facilitated the victory of Indians in India and Negroes in Africa and America. If today the Socialist Workers Party has placed work among the American Negroes as one of the most important tasks before it, and has a clear program and policy on the problems of the Negro, it owes much to the insistence of the importance of the Negro in the American revolution, his sympathy with their oppression, his boundless faith in their power to struggle, their will to conquer, their capacity to aid in the creation of the socialist society. Negroes will join with us in celebrating his anniversary to wish him and his wife Natalia, his devoted helper, many years of life and health to continue their work, of such importance to us today and to the generations yet to come.
This joint anniversary bears for all Negroes a special significance at this time. It comes at a moment when the imperialist barbarians are engaged once more in their periodical orgies of destruction and slaughter, when the masters of Russia have allied themselves with the imperialist criminals, when hopes of liberation seem faint and distant. But in the early days of 1917 just such a pall seemed to rest on the poor and oppressed in all countries everywhere. Yet that gloom was the prelude to such an uprising of the masses as had never been seen before. Negroes were unprepared then. Today, thanks to the Russian Revolution, they and all others who suffer with them can see more clearly. Knowledge is power. Let us celebrate these anniversaries, not only in memory of the great deeds that have been done but of the still greater tasks that face us in the days that are ahead. Negroes more than all the others have nothing to lose but their chains. They more than all others will play their part in the destruction of capitalist society for they have most to win.
Winter War - WW2 Timeline (November 30th, 1939 - March 13th, 1940)
The Winter War of 1939-40 took place along a strip of region known as the Karelian Isthmus, flanked in the Northeast by Ladoga Lake and in the Southwest by the Gulf of Finland. Forests, swamps and lakes made for treacherous going with the advantage handed to the defenders (Finland). A portion of the defenses was made up by the Mannerheim Line. The Northern Finnish frontier was naturally protected by natural barriers and Arctic weather, forcing the Soviet offensive to originate from the south.
While Adolf Hitler took his prize in what was Poland, Josef Stalin eyed the Baltic republics and Finland for his own as a buffer to the eventual reborn German Empire in the West. Political and military pressures soon netted the Soviets the republics of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia though it was the Finns that were less than accepting of Stalin's proposal. With their overtures rebuffed, the Soviet Army invaded Finland on November 30th, 1939 to begin the "Winter War".
Initial results for the Finns proved excellent as Soviet advances were beaten back. The Finns were trained for winter warfare while Soviet infantry lacked the needed equipment and training themselves. Finnish sharpshooters excelled at range and close-in work was handled through accurate submachine gun fire. Masses of Soviet infantry were mauled by well-positioned and defended Finnish machine gun posts which cut the enemy where they stood. Fire bombs dealt with the Soviet light tanks as they arrived, turning the armored beasts into death traps for their crews. The Mannerheim Line held for the interim and prospects for the Finns looked good IF they were to received promised support from Britain, France, the United States and even neighboring Sweden. The Soviet Army suffered humiliating defeats with some forces being surrounded and utterly decimated.
With the war continuing into January of 1940, Stalin's patience wore thin with his commanders. He installed General Timoshenko and heavy weaponry was delivered up to break the Finnish lines. Once the Mannerheim Line had been pierced and exploited, the rest of the Finnish defenses fell in turn. The line now fell as far north as Tali. A Red Army force moved up through the iced-over section of Viipuri Bay and landed at Vilajoki, forcing the Finnish defenders to consider their rear now.
With the defensive line all but broken and the Finnish Army fighting an evermore defensive battle on-the-move, the situation grew dim. On March13th, 1940, Finnish Prime Minister Ryti signaled defeat and begrudgingly signed the Treaty of Moscow. The treaty gave most of Karelia to the Soviets forcing some 12% of the Finnish population northwards. A portion of Salla and the Rybachi Peninsula also fell to the Soviets as did Hanko and the Gulf of Finland Islands.
There are a total of (20) Winter War - WW2 Timeline (November 30th, 1939 - March 13th, 1940) events in the Second World War timeline database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events may also be included for perspective.
Thursday, November 30th, 1939
Five Soviet armies cross into Finland, beginning the Winter War.
The Soviet Union installs a Finnish-Soviet puppet government in Terijoki to be led by Otto Kuusinen.
Tuesday, December 5th, 1939
After some initial advances, the Soviet Army if forced to stop by the Finnish defenses at the Mannerheim Line.
Saturday, December 9th, 1939
As the Finnish winter worsens, Soviet attacks on Helsinki stall.
Saturday, December 9th, 1939
The Soviet 44th and 163rd Divisions take the Finnish town of Soumussalmi.
Friday, December 15th, 1939
The deteriorating conditions of a Finnish winter protect Helsinki from additional Soviet attacks.
Friday, December 15th, 1939
The Mannerheim Line holds as Soviet Army elements are kept at bay.
Friday, December 15th, 1939
Valliant Finnish forces repel the Soviet Army out of Soumussalmi, retaking the town.
Friday, December 15th, 1939
The Soviet 14th Army takes Petsamo.
Friday, December 15th, 1939
Finnish defenders keep the town of Nautsi from falling under Soviet control.
Sunday, December 17th - December 31st, 1939
Finnish Army elements cross into Soviet Karelia, unleashing hell on the Russian 44th and 163rd Divisions. Some 27,000 Russian soldiers are killed.
A new Soviet offensive on the Karelian isthmus fails.
Stalin appoints a new commander to oversee the Winter War - General Semyon Timoshenko.
Finnish ground forces recover territory from the Soviet 54th Division at Kuhmo.
Thursday, February 1st, 1940
The Soviets enact a new offensive against Finnish positions along the Mannerheim Line, beginning with artillery attack accounting for some 300,000 shells.
Sunday, February 11th - February 17th, 1940
The Soviet Army breaks through the defenses at the Mannerheim Line at Summa. Finnish Army units retreat.
Friday, February 23rd, 1940
The Soviet government delivers terms of surrender to the Finnish government, claiming the Karelian isthmus and Lake Lagoda as their own. The Finns are required to defend the Soviet Union from the north if the empire is attacked.
Finland responds to the Soviet surrender overture with negotiations.
The Finns agree to the Treaty of Moscow with the Soviets. 10 percent of Finnish territory is ceded to the invaders at the cost of 25,000 Finns to 200,000 Soviets.
After months of fighting and countless lives lost on both sides, the Finnish government officially accepts the surrender terms of the Russian proposal in an internal vote numbering 145 to 3.