(AP-76: dp. 8555 (lim.); 1. 261'; b. 43'6"; dr. 15'9"
lim.) s. 8.5 k.; cpl. 365; trp 265; a. 2 3"; cl. Geminii)
Gemini ( AP-76) a lake-type freighter, was built as Coperas by Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co.,Manitowoc, Wis. Subsequently renamed Aetna and then Saginaw around 1937 while in merchant service, she was acquired by the Navy 27 September 1941. Originally designated Matinicus (AG 38), she was reclassified AK-U2 7 January 1942 while undergoing conversion at Bethlehem Steel Company, Boston, Mass. Commissioned as Matinicus (AK-52) 4 August 1942, Lt. Comdr. NV. L. Cain in command, she was redesignated and renamed Gemini (AP-75) 15 August 1942.
Gemini sailed 16 August for New York to load troops and sortied 24 October Ninth convoy SC-107 bound for Ireland and United Kingdom ports. This, her first voyage, was also the most difficult, for the convoy ran into German submarine wolfpacks in mid-Atlantic and from 1 to 4 November no less than 15 ships, nearly half the convoy, were torpedoed and sunk in a running battle. Gemini arrived safely at Reykjavik, Iceland, and spent the next 10 months as a transport for troops and cargo between Icelandic ports.
The ship put in at Boston 3 September 1943 for overhaul, and then embarked troops at New York, departing 9 October bound for the west coast via Panama. After touching at San Pedro, Calif., for repairs, she reached Honolulu 11 December and commenced duty as an interisland transport in Hawaiian waters.
In July 1944 Gemini shifted her operations to the Marshalls and Gilberts, carrying men and cargo to and from Kwajalein, Apamama, Tarawa, Makin, Majuro, Roi, and Eniwetok. She continued these essential transport duties in support of the allied advance until 1 June 1945 when she got underway for San Francisco via Pearl Harbor. Gemini remained in drydock at San Francisco until the end of the war.
Gemini sailed 28 August 1945 for the Pacific Ocean again, resuming her earlier transport runs in the Marshalls-Gilberts area and continuing the assignments until her return to San Francisco. She decommissioned at Oakland, Calif., S April 1946 and was turned over to the Maritime Commission 10 September 1946. Subsequently sold to Oly Fenno S.S. Co. Ld., she operated under Finnish papers as Ramsdal out of Abo, Finland.
By all accounts, the twins represented in Gemini mythology are Castor and Pollux of Greek mythology. They share the same mother, Leda (Greek mythology), but have different fathers. Castor's father is Tyndarus, the King of Sparta, and Leda's husband. Pollux's father is the god Zeus (Greek mythology). As such, Pollux is an immortal while his twin brother Castor is mortal.
The twins were young, handsome, and adventurous. They took part in many adventures together and were well known for their livelihood and curiosity. Castor was a renowned horseman, while Pollux was known for his great strength.
Their sister is the beautiful Helen of Troy, whom the great Trojan War is fought over. The twins not only took part in that war together, but were also Argonauts on the quest for the Golden Fleece.
Where Gemini mythology comes into play is when Castor, being mortal, finally dies. Having spent their whole lives together, Pollux is distraught. He doesn't want to live without his twin brother, but since he is immortal, there is nothing he can do. He begs his father, Zeus, for help.
Zeus decides that rather than killing Pollux so he can be with Castor, he makes Castor immortal also, and the two of them get to live together forever as the constellation Gemini.
Perhaps the reason that this story is rarely contested is because two of the actual stars in the constellation of Gemini are named "Castor" and "Pollux". This is a rare case where astronomy and mythology actually agree, and thus, Gemini mythology is born.
The myth of Gemini
The myth of Gemini is a myth of Castor and Pollux, sons of Zeus and Leda. Leda was the wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta. One of the versions of this myth states that Leda got seduced or raped by Zeus disguised as a swan, on the same night when she shared a bed with her husband. As a result, she hatched two eggs from which four children were born, mortal and immortal for they have different fathers, and among them – Castor and Pollux.
Castor was the mortal twin brother, and Pollux was immortal. They never fought and loved each other greatly. Pollux was known for his boxing skills and Castor as a horse tamer. Brothers aspired to marry two women who were already betrothed to two of their cousins. This lead to a family feud and Castor was fatally wounded by one of the cousins as a consequence. Zeus gave a choice to Pollux – to spend every day as an immortal at Mount Olympus among the gods, or give half of his immortality to his brother Castor. He opted for the latter, and the twins shared life and death, by spending a day at Olympus together followed by a day at Hades – the underworld.
The second story is connected to the birth of the twins, in which they weren’t really Leda’s sons. By this version of the myth, Zeus fell in love with Nemesis, who was the spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris (arrogance before gods). She represented inevitability of fate to those who were godless and evil. Zeus started chasing her, acting on strong attraction he felt, and she started changing shapes to escape him. When she transformed into a goose, Zeus found her, became a swan himself, and mated with her passionately. As a result, two eggs hatched, found by Leda in the swamp and she claimed them as her own.
The Gemini Story
As Gemini G.E.L. approaches its momentous fiftieth anniversary, when a celebratory exhibition honoring the workshop&rsquos many years of achievements will take place at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the future is bright with forthcoming projects and new innovations. Today, it is hard to remember that when Gemini was founded in 1966, fine art printmaking was on the verge of both a technical renaissance and a soaring popularity, as the torch of new art passed from France to America. The initial focus of the print revival was devoted to lithography, primarily as a result of the training master printers received at the Tamarind Lithography Workshop, founded in Los Angeles in 1960. One of those newly trained master printers, Kenneth Tyler, had a small shop in the city when, almost a half century ago, a pair of University of Southern California friends and fraternity brothers, Sidney B. Felsen and Stanley Grinstein (1927-2014) discovered Tyler&rsquos shop and saw that it had the potential to become a unique fine art workshop and publishing house.
Felsen and Grinstein saw a future that would allow them to work not only with renowned artists but also, after Tyler&rsquos departure in 1974, to explore, beyond lithography and silkscreen, the entire breadth of the graphic arts, as well as continue to seek technical milestones in three-dimensional multiples and limited edition sculpture. They understood that, to rise to the top tier of workshops worldwide, the facilities could be open only to invited artists and that the artists would work directly with the process alongside the printers. Each art work would be conceived exclusively for the publishing and editions would be strictly limited, with each image signed and numbered by the artist and identified by the Gemini chop, signifying the authenticity of each original print or multiple produced. In other words, the shop would publish multiple originals, never works that replicate or reproduce art in other media.
When the sixties/seventies art world began expanding at a ferocious pace, a growing number of artists became interested in investigating the creative opportunities offered by prints and multiples and, within a year or two of its founding, Gemini became the West Coast destination for innovative printmaking &ndash the place where the artist was never told &ldquono, it&rsquos not possible,&rdquo and invitations to work in the shop were eagerly sought after.
As both the fabricator and publisher of groundbreaking editions, the earliest example of Gemini invention was no doubt the shop&rsquos first (1967) collaboration with Robert Rauschenberg, realizing the (then) largest art print ever made: Booster, a 72-inch-tall lithograph/silkscreen self-portrait that permanently altered the boundaries of printmaking in the 20th century. Gemini&rsquos first three-dimensional edition was Claes Oldenburg&rsquos 1968 iconic Profile Airflow, and both technical and artistic milestones continue to present-day, with works such as Ellsworth Kelly&rsquos nearly 19-foot lithograph, Purple/Red/Gray/Orange, Richard Serra&rsquos monumental and heavily impastoed Paintstick Double Rift V, and Julie Mehretu&rsquos majestic, multi-paneled Auguries.
During the early years, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein and Robert Rauschenberg, among many, made Gemini and Los Angeles an important part of their working and social lives. They formed friendships with Gemini locals, including Jonathan Borofsky, Vija Celmins, Sam Francis, Bruce Nauman, Ken Price, Ed Ruscha, and British transplant David Hockney. Throughout, the adventuresome shop and tight ship that Felsen and Grinstein ran became not simply an American destination but the worldwide headquarters of graphic experimentation. Gemini now hosts &ndash at the iconic Frank Gehry facility on Melrose Avenue &ndash a geographically diverse roster of artists, including Daniel Buren and Sophie Calle of France, Ann Hamilton of Ohio, Mehretu of Ethiopia via Detroit and New York, and Gehry and John Baldessari of Los Angeles.
A Brief History of Gemini Sign
The Gemini sign is the third sign of zodiac year in astrology, it affects people born between May 21st and June 21st. Gemini is considered the child of the zodiacal year in the astrological world of the zodiac because being a sign with two personalities, Gemini people are considered a bit playful, quickly alternating from one course to the next without too much thoughts about it.
The signs of the zodiac are relatively new in recent history having their origins in Ancient Greek times, although many historians have proved that the key signs of the zodiac are actually much older which can be traced back to the very beginnings of human writing. In those times, much of what was written were historical accounts so we can be certain that the signs of the zodiac probably predate writing to the time when oral records of humanity’s history were passed from generation to generation which remained unchanged for thousands of years.
Some historians speculated that cave drawings of people may also be an early representation of gods and signs. So while the zodiac signs like Gemini seem to be quite a recent discovery, they have in fact been with us for much longer time and have proven in the eyes of astrology believers that the traits and destinies inherent in zodiac signs have a long history of being known and believed, they were not just made up in recent history as is often alleged by people who see astrology as nonsense. Recent findings suggest that astrology as a religion and method of divining the future is much older than most established religions.
Gemini is special among the Greek zodiac signs and can be traced to the story of two twin brothers, Castor and Polydeuces also known as Pollux, one was mortal and the other was immortal, they were born to Queen Leda of Sparta. Castor was mortal and his father was King Tyndareus while Polydeuces was fathered by Zeus who was the King of the Gods. Inseparable in life, they also remained inseparable in death and were depicted by the constellation that bears the name Gemini with the stars Castor and Pollux forming the heads.
The story of Castor and Polydeuces being in the heavens is a classic worthy of the times. Castor was an expert on horseback with a bow while Polydeuces could use his fists to box. The twins were also with Jason on his quest to bring back the Golden Fleece but it was long after when the two were tired of their adventures and ready to marry and have children that their story really became their own. The twins fell in love with the daughters of Leucippus, Phoebe and Hilaeira, who were unfortunately promised to the sons of Aphareus, Lynceus and Idas. Castor and Polydeuces kidnapped the sisters and brought them to Sparta where they were quickly married and within a short time expecting children of their own. The sons of Lynceus were determined to steal back their promised brides and they ambushed Castor and Polydeuces and when Castor was lying dead, Polydeuces pleaded to Zeus to give him back his life. Zeus agreed but only on the condition that they would share Polydeuces immortality, thus the twins spend half of their day in Hades and half of their day in Olympus. Mortals only see them when they rise from Hades to Olympus early in dawn morning.
Regardless of our knowledge about Gemini representing the brothers Castor and Polydeuces or Castor and Pollux as Roman people knew them, in fact the story isn’t directly about two heroes. The true meaning of the story relates the stars known by the same name as the boys, they are the first to rise at dawn and a little before the sun obscures them, more importantly the two stars only rise in spring. Thus the Gemini sign is particularly special because of its connection with rebirth and spring.
The Gemini sign is however restricted to the northern hemisphere with almost all ancient civilizations from Asia, Europe, North Africa and North America giving special significance to the rising of the twin stars during spring. Even people who migrated over the equator in Africa and Asia still have myths that relate to twins that fight to be immortal, yet in Australia where the oldest and most isolated branch of humanity exists, the Aboriginal people have no knowledge of immortal twins and suggest that the myths shared by so many cultures were formed in the north after humanity spread from Africa about 50-75,000 years ago.
Before the story of Castor and Polydeuces were told by the Greeks and Romans, other civilizations around them were already very familiar with the twin stars. Ancient Egyptians saw the twin stars as two goats that return to their goat herd at dawn and included the two stars in their Ramissede Hour Tables which was a scientifically useful measurement of time during the day.
No one is sure when the ancient Egyptians first started studying astronomy and created myths around stars. However we do know that at the same time the ancient Babylonians referred to the twin stars as Gilgamesh and Enkidu, together known as Mastabba Galgal. They were two heroic twin brothers who fought a series of epic battles against the gods as they sought to attain immortality. Curiously, they were worshipped for the same reasons like the Greeks leading to the theory which they borrowed the story of Gemini twins Babylon and then changing them to suit their own history.
Earlier still in ancient Vedic books from India the twin stars appear as Nakula and Sahadeva who were two Ashvin horseman of Indian folklore. The Mithuna, an Indian constellation in which the two horsemen appear was an almost exact match with the Greek constellation of Gemini could hardly be coincidental. On seeing this, the Greek zodiac signs must have their origins in the ancient oral history of humanity a long time before writing was invented.
The History of The Gemini Coven Story
The Gemini Coven were a coven of witches from the Pacific Northwestern United States, specifically Portland, Oregon. They are known for their penchant for cloaking spells and their unique means of selecting a leader from a set of twins. The coven has died out as a result of the death of their leader, Malachai Parker. Its only surviving members are Jo’s daughters, Josie and Lizzie Saltzman.
The Geminis were also notorious for their ability to create Prison Worlds, and were known to have found a way to contact their dead ancestors before the Other Side collapsed. The coven has died out as a result of the death of their leader, Malachai Parker. Its only surviving members are Jo’s daughters, Josie and Lizzie Saltzman. Valerie Tulle is the only remaining former member of this and a coven of witch-vampire hybrids known as the Heretics, whose link to the Gemini broke when they were turned into vampires.
History in The Vampire Diaries Series
The Gemini Coven’s tradition is rooted in a ritual called The Merge. This is how they select their leader when a pair of twins are born into the coven, they undergo the Merge ceremony once they reach the age of twenty-two. During this ceremony, the stronger of the two would claim their twin’s power and emerge with double the strength they previously held. Their weaker twin dies as a result, leaving the survivor to become the new leader of the Coven. The various members of the Gemini Coven apparently all bind their magic and life to the success of the Merge ritual, as it has been said that, should the leader of the Gemini Coven die before a new leader can replace them, then the rest of the coven will die as well. Additionally, the major spells cast by the coven, such as the one that created the Prison Worlds, are also bound to the leader’s life, if the leader dies, the spells are no longer bound and cease to exist.
For 2,000 years the Gemini Coven kept track of The Travelers so that they would be unable to break the curse put on them as punishment for Silas and Qetsiyah creating The Immortality Spell. Their mission was to keep them from getting their hands on Silas and Amara’s doppelgängers to break the curse.
In 1903, the Geminis became aware of a violent Ripper vampire named Lily Salvatore, who slaughtered as many as 3,000 people in Europe on a blood-crazed bender. They made it their task to stop her, and, when she returned to the United States (presumably to see her sons, Damon and Stefan), the Geminis were waiting for her when she docked in Manhattan. They then trapped her in a prison world, and afterward, they were forced to burn down the ship in which she came to the country when they found she had drained the entire crew of their blood. As a result of her crimes, Lily became the first person to be imprisoned in a Gemini prison world.
At some point, Joshua Parker survived the Merge ceremony and became the Coven’s leader. Joshua’s first born children were twins Josette and Malachai Parker. As such, they were meant to undergo the Merge, after which the strongest would succeed Joshua as leader. However, Malachai was born with a rare affliction he could not generate his own magic. Instead, he could only practice magic when he siphoned it from another witch through tactile contact, and this power was typically used up quickly. Seeing this as an abomination of nature, Joshua and the rest of the coven decreed that Malachai could not become the Coven’s leader. Joshua and his wife then continued to have more children until they finally had another set of twins, Lucas and Olivia Parker.
However, when Malachai realized his parents’ plans, he was furious that he was being robbed of his place as future leader of the Coven. Desperate to be able to possess his own magic and to no longer have to rely on others to give it to him, Malachai slaughtered three of his siblings in an effort to find and kill Lucas and Olivia. He also seriously wounded his sister, Jo, by removing her spleen with a large hunting knife.
However, Jo was able to use a cloaking spell to save her brother and sister from Malachai. Afterwards, she hid her magic by sealing it in the same blade her brother used to butcher her body and told Malachai that she was willing to perform the Merge so long as he didn’t harm any more of their siblings. Later, as they attempted the ceremony, Malachai realized his sister had tricked him when he could not feel her magic as he held her hands. Joshua and the rest of the Coven then used the passing of a solar eclipse on the 10th of May, 1994, to imprison Malachai in a prison world, which trapped him in a temporal time loop where he was forced to relive the same day over and over again and be forever alone, as he was incapable of killing himself to escape his punishment. As a price for locking her brother away, Jo was allowed to leave the Coven and she became a doctor, leaving her magic sealed in the kitchen knife at the Parker house in Portland.
Throughout the history of Europe, there is evidence of the celebration of Mardi Gras. The New Orleans version descended most directly from France. On Mardi Gras, 1699, the French explorer, Iberville, camped near the mouth of the Mississippi River and named the site &ldquoPoint Mardi Gras.&rdquo Some adaptation of the Parisian festival was probably introduced to North America shortly after New Orleans was settled in 1718. Under French rule, masked balls and private parties flourished but were later prohibited by the Spanish governors. The ban continued when Creole populace prevailed upon the American governors, and by 1823, balls were again permitted and street masking was legalized in 1827.
"Information provided by the Greater New Orleans Tourist & Convention Commission, Inc."
Early in 1989, Chamber of Commerce President Bob Taylor turned to Cary Petty, Vice President of Business Development, and said, &ldquoCary, Bossier needs a festival or event that it can get behind in a big way.&rdquo Needless to say, Bob did not realize how seriously Cary took him. At about the same time, Lt. Governor Paul Hardy had released his plans for a statewide promotion called &ldquoOpen House 1990.&rdquo Freda Urban suggested that, &ldquoMardi Gras would be successful in our area.&rdquo Well, as they say, &ldquothe rest is history.&rdquo With the formation of the Krewe of Gemini, committees were formed , logos were designed, throws were ordered, floats were designed, a media party was set, a Mardi Gras Bal was planned for February 17, 1990, and a huge parade featuring twelve Mardi Gras floats took to the streets of Shreveport -Bossier City on February 24, 1990. From an idea to reality, Shreveport-Bossier can now claim one of the biggest and, we believe, one of the most successful celebrations in our area. Our thanks to Cary Petty, Freda Urban, and all those many volunteers from both sides of the river who are working so hard to make Mardi Gras in the Ark-La-Tex successful.
Mardi Gras (Fat Tuesday) is always the day before Ash Wednesday, which marks the beginning of Lent. It&rsquos a time for parties, parades, bals and celebrations of all kind before Lenten religious observations begin. Officially, the Carnival Season begins on the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6, the Twelfth Night after Christmas. Epiphany celebrates the day the Three Kings visited the Christ Child and recognized Him as the Messiah. A popular Mardi Gras pastry also arrives on the Twelfth Night. Called &ldquoKing Cakes,&rdquo these coffeecake type pastries are decorated in Mardi Gras colors and only appear from this day until Mardi Gras Day (although some bakeries now make them available for shipping year round). A tiny plastic doll is baked into the cake, and by tradition, the person who receives the piece of cake with the doll inside must host the next party or bring the next King Cake to the home or office.
Gemini location and objects
Gemini is fairly easy to spot in the sky, even for amateur stargazers. It is located northeast of the constellation Orion and between the Taurus and Cancer constellations. Best viewing is during February. By April and May, the constellation can be seen soon after sunset in the west.
- Right ascension: 7 hours
- Declination: 20 degrees
- Visible between latitudes 90 degrees and minus 60 degrees
The two brightest stars in the constellation, also named after Greek mythology's Castor and Pollux, represent the heads of the twins, while fainter stars outline the pair's bodies. Pollux, a red giant star, is 33 light-years from Earth, according to NASA, while Castor is about 51 light-years away from us. (A light-year is the distance that light travels in a year, which is about 6 trillion miles, or 9.6 trillion kilometers.) Pollux has at least one massive planet orbiting it, while Castor has two companion stars.
Other notable objects in the constellation include the Eskimo Nebula, Medusa Nebula and Geminga, a neutron star. Gemini also includes a star object known as Messier 35 or M35. The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects first cataloged in 1771 by French astronomer Charles Messier. M35 is just barely visible to the naked eye under a dark sky free from light pollution, and in low-power binoculars, this object looks like a cloud with bright stars in it, according to Space.com skywatching columnist Joe Rao.
Gemini is the radiant point for a meteor shower known as the Geminids, which happen every year around mid-December. Astronomy experts say the Geminid display is one of the best annual meteor showers because the individual meteors (space rocks burning up in Earth's atmosphere) are bright and move quickly. These meteors are especially visible in years when there is no full moon in the sky to wash out the starlight.
The Geminids are associated with a weird near-Earth asteroid called 3200 Phaethon, which is shedding particles likely because of a collision in its ancient past. As Earth runs into these particles in its yearly orbit around the sun, some of the rock bits fall into our atmosphere and produce spectacular meteor trails.
Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss announced Gemini in June 2013  and the company went live on October 25, 2015. Gemini began adding to the financial services it offers thereafter, some of which include FIX and API support. On May 5, 2016 Governor Andrew Cuomo of New York State announced the approval of Gemini as the first licensed Ethereum exchange based in the United States.  Additionally, in 2016, Gemini announced it would allow users to withdraw Ethereum Classic (ETC) from the exchange, following a hard fork in Ethereum's code. 
In October 2017, Gemini announced that it was allowing registered users to withdraw Bitcoin Cash from the exchange provided they had a balance available on the exchange prior to the Bitcoin hard fork in August 2017. 
Fortune reported that Cboe uses Gemini to settle its Bitcoin futures contracts, "XBT", in December 2017.  Cboe partnered with Gemini so as to use Gemini's dollar denominated auction price for these contracts.
According to Bloomberg News, Gemini began offering "Block Trading" in April 2018. Block Trading enables Gemini users to buy and sell large quantities of digital assets outside of Gemini's continuous order books, creating an additional liquidity mechanism when trading in greater size. 
The Winklevoss twins said that their main goal in 2018 was to add Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin. 
In March 2018, Gemini added a number of partnerships and products to its portfolio and network. It announced a partnership with Caspian, the full-stack cryptocurrency trading and risk management platform for institutional and complex investors. 
In April 2018, it was reported by Reuters that Gemini would be utilizing NASDAQ's SMARTS technology to monitor trades and combat fraudulent activity and price manipulation on its exchange. 
On May 14, 2018, the New York Department of Financial Services announced it had approved Gemini to offer Zcash (ZEC) on their platform. The NYDFS commented that its decision was a "continuation of New York's longstanding commitment to innovation and leadership in the marketplace." Gemini's CEO, Tyler Winklevoss, was quoted in the same press-release saying that Gemini "is proud to be the first licensed exchange in the world to offer Zcash trading and custody services." 
On September 10, 2018, Bloomberg News reported that Gemini had received regulatory approval for a new product, the Gemini dollar (GUSD) from the NYDFS and would launch trading of the coin that same day. Gemini described the product as a stablecoin which maintains a 1-to-1 peg with the American dollar.  
On October 3, 2018 it was announced that Gemini had obtained digital asset insurance covering tokens and coins held on its exchange. Bloomberg Markets reported that the insurance had been brokered by Aon, a London based public risk consulting company, and underwritten by a consortium of global underwriters. 
In May 2020, a partnership was announced with Samsung whereby Samsung smartphone users could link their Samsung Blockchain Wallets to their Gemini accounts to view balances and transfer crypto. 
Gemini launched an out-of-home ad campaign around Manhattan in January 2019. The Wall Street Journal reported that the ad campaign was directed at providing wary investors with a "Shelter in a storm" that is fully regulated and compliant with existing American cryptocurrency regulation. 
In November 2019, the Gemini Trust Co. bought Nifty Gateway for an undisclosed sum. Nifty Gateway is a marketplace for NFTs.   The goal of the NFT marketplace is to be a custodian for various assets, including property deeds, passports, commodities, collectibles, videogame characters, movies, music and event tickets. 
The site's primary challenge has been remaining online at times of excessively high volumes, a relatively common occurrence for any website receiving an unusual amount of traffic.   On November 28, 2017, for example, both Gemini and Coinbase crashed for several hours. Gemini was showing a "504 gateway time-out" message, and the status page showed "Systems are currently experiencing degraded performance."  Subsequently, the Gemini Blog offered this comment. "This is not the first scaling challenge we’ve encountered, and it won’t be the last. We’re continuing to improve our performance and infrastructure monitoring so we can anticipate potential problems more quickly in the future." 
What’s the difference between astrology and astronomy?
For centuries, astrology (looking for signs based on the movement of the celestial bodies) was considered basically the same thing as astronomy (the scientific study of those objects). For example, revolutionary 17th-century astronomer Johannes Kepler, who studied the motion of the planets, was at the time considered an astrologer. That changed around the beginning of the Enlightenment in the late 17th century.
Once Sir Isaac Newton basically turned the sky into a calculator, mathematizing the motion of the planets and realizing that gravity controlled everything, Odenwald says, “that started a whole new scientific approach to looking at the sky and the motion of planets and the earth.”
That’s the point at which astronomy came to be known as a science and astrology was acknowledged as not a science. But its popularity relies on factors that numbers can’t compute, and the appeal of looking to the stars for answers has not waned &mdash in fact, in recent years, it seems to have expanded. After all, a 2014 National Science Foundation poll found more than half of millennials think astrology is a science.
And Odenwald argues that, even if astrology’s answers aren’t based on scientific study, the reason people keep turning to the sky does come down to something very real &mdash a psychological phenomenon he calls the human tendency for “self-selection,” the search for interpretations that match what we already hope to be true.
“People magnify the positives, they forget the negatives,” he says, “and that&rsquos just how we&rsquore designed.”