Political cartoons and pamphlets (1830-1835)

Political cartoons and pamphlets (1830-1835)

  • "Follow your leader well ...",

  • "You see my friend, the Republic could not suit us ..."

  • Stubborn cancans. Pamphlet by Bérard.

  • Letter from a republican on the misery of the workers and the means to put an end to it, or Republican France

To close

Title: "Follow your leader well ...",

Author :

Creation date : 1834

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 24.2 - Width 30.5

Technique and other indications: cartoon showing a polytechnician giving Charles X and Louis-Philippe exercise.

Storage location: Historic Center of the National Archives website

Contact copyright: © Historic Center of the National Archives - Photo workshop website

"Follow your leader well ...",

© Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

To close

Title: "You see my friend, the Republic could not suit us ..."

Author :

Creation date : 1834

Date shown: 1834

Dimensions: Height 23.5 - Width 31.4

Technique and other indications: caricature showing Louis-Philippe and a republican in rags.

Storage location: Historic Center of the National Archives website

Contact copyright: © Historic Center of the National Archives - Photo workshop website

"You see my friend, the Republic could not suit us ..."

© Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

To close

Title: Stubborn cancans. Pamphlet by Bérard.

Author :

Creation date : 1834

Date shown: 1834

Dimensions: Height 21 - Width 31.6

Technique and other indications: Printed brochure, paper, 8 pages

Storage location: Historic Center of the National Archives website

Contact copyright: © Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

Stubborn cancans. Pamphlet by Bérard.

© Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

To close

Title: Letter from a republican on the misery of the workers and the means to put an end to it, or Republican France

Author :

Creation date : 1834

Date shown: 1834

Dimensions: Height 42 - Width 52

Technique and other indications: printed placard, Paris paper, impr. De Mie, n.d

Storage location: Historic Center of the National Archives website

Contact copyright: © Historic Center of the National Archives - Photo workshop website

Letter from a republican on the misery of the workers and the means to put an end to it, or Republican France

© Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

Publication date: November 2003

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Political cartoons and pamphlets (1830-1835)

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Historical context

The "campaign of disrespect"

From 1830 to 1835, the July Monarchy fought for its existence by trying to control street movements and radical political protests. The newspapers take advantage of the new freedom granted by the Charter of 1830: "The right of the French to publish and have their opinions printed while conforming to the laws" is now proclaimed without restriction.

In public opinion, the unexpected arrival of Louis-Philippe at the end of the days of 1830 does not create a consensus: the supporters of a republican political and social revolution feel great frustration at the premature end of the Three Glorious Years, and those of monarchical legitimacy challenge the son of Louis XVI's regicidal cousin who picked up his crown on the pavement! All the newspapers throw themselves into the "campaign of disrespect", and, with them, numerous sheets of irregular publication which attack the king and his family, by text and by image, with a violence that one does not had never known. Political caricature then becomes (with the symbolic pear and the royal umbrella) a formidable weapon against power, which lithography now makes it possible to ensure a very wide distribution.

To put an end to this outburst, the authorities are increasing the number of lawsuits against newspapers and satirical papers, but the juries of assizes, which the revised charter has made competent in matters of press offenses, are often lenient. In addition, convictions or lawsuits draw attention to these excesses, even increasing the circulation!

From 1834, the liberal provisions of the law were restricted on two politically important points. There is a step backwards, in April, with the law on the control of associations (such as the Society of Human Rights) and the press organs which spread their ideas and doctrines and, in September 1835, with that on the press. These two laws provide a powerful repressive apparatus which will durably prevent the publication of newspapers, libels or prints opposed to the regime.

Image Analysis

Political cartoons

A young polytechnician indicates with his sword the direction to follow to the two kings in uniform, marching in step: Louis-Philippe, belly and wearing a "police cap", headdress of the military outfit of rest which gives him the air particularly silly, follows in the footsteps of Charles X, under the sarcastic and authoritarian injunction "Follow your leader…" towards the exit, one might suppose! The polytechnician, hero of the barricades, embodies the power of the street which decided the fall of Charles X and enabled the advent of Louis-Philippe in 1830; the print (unique) vividly suggests that the reign of this new king can be quickly brought to an end, a puppet as ridiculous as the previous one.

Louis-Philippe from behind, seated in front of a pantagruelic dinner, seated on a ridiculous throne decorated with fleur-de-lis - an emblem he had reluctantly abandoned in February 1831 for the charter - a trunk filled with bags of or next to him, answers a barefoot, thin and in rags, probably a republican who inquires about the freedoms acquired in 1830. The formulas attributed to the king, "The monarchy is much more in our mores" and "Report it to those who are better able to judge than you", ironically his insatiable selfishness and any illusion of equality.

These two caricatures are openly signed by Charles Anne (1812-1842), a young painter who then feels protected by law but will devote himself only to a production of genre scenes and religious engravings after 1834. He is the subject of a warrant to bring, on April 11, 1834, as head of section of the Society for Human Rights but disappeared before being arrested. (As the police search of his home did not reveal any compromising documents, the proceedings were dismissed.)

Political satire also exploded in the form of pamphlets, songs and placards, seized in large numbers from 1834, which did no little to raise popular opinion against the regime.

Obstinate cancans

Over seventy Gossip of the legitimist pamphleteer Bérard pursued Louis-Philippe for their sharp criticisms and enjoyed enormous success between 1831 and 1834, adopting ever-changing epithets to avoid censorship: Accusing Cancans, Incorrigible Cancans, Furious Cancans, Correctional Cancans, Indignant Cancans... All bitterly set their sights on Louis-Philippe and denounce the mediocrities of the time.

Letter from a Republican

Anonymous placards like this one, signed "R." and embellished with a Republican-inspired vignette, expose the structural causes of the injustices and woes of the time and the foundations of the Republican regime. After more than forty years of political upheaval, it is not easy to assume the label of "revolutionary"!

Interpretation

A few years of freedom of expression

The character of king-citizen affected by Louis-Philippe, who feigns good-naturedness, walks around Paris, shakes hands and leads a life without ceremony, convinces neither Republicans nor Legitimists. On the contrary, it is directly to him that the satirical press attacks him, constantly presenting him as miserly, disloyal, cowardly and contemptible. Each libel, each lithograph, cynically denounces its meanness, its profiteering egoism, its indifference to the suffering of the people, its sufficiency as a prince. Day after day, week after week, he is accused of a crime, shouted at and often slandered. This relentless smear campaign which, for the first time in history, has come to light is lastingly tarnishing the image of the king.
Critics are often outrageous, but cartoons and pamphlets constantly confront the realities of the regime with its own principles. This permanent reminder encourages political awareness, the repercussions of which appear fruitful for the awakening of democracy. The revolution of 1830 created both a regime and the conditions for criticism of this regime.

The years from July 1830 to April 1834 or September 1835 were years of freedom of expression. By exalting the worker and the student, combatants and victors, they restored 1789 and examples of emancipation to honor. This boom in freedom launched by the July days, despite the censorship that followed them, partly explains the revolution of 1848. Carried by the wave of 1830, the King of the French was carried away by the stronger wave of 1848.

  • caricature
  • censorship
  • Louis Philippe
  • July Monarchy
  • hurry
  • republicans
  • propaganda
  • poster
  • satirical press
  • polytechnician
  • legitimist
  • freedom of press
  • freedoms

Bibliography

Maurice AGULHON "1830 in the history of the French nineteenth century", in Romanticism, n ° 28-29, p.15-27.Guy ANTONETTILouis PhilippeParis, Fayard, 1994 Louis-Philippe, the man and the king, 1773-1850Paris, National Archives, 1974.

To cite this article

Luce-Marie ALBIGÈS, "Political cartoons and pamphlets (1830-1835)"


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